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Full text of "Transactions of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society"

TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS 
HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



FOR THE YEAR 1 905 



PART 1 




PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY 

• BOSTON 
NINETEEN HUNDRED AND FIVE 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



flfemtjraseiis Ji0rtoIiraI jijaodj 



FOR THE YEAR 1905 



PART I 




BOSTON 
PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY 

NINETEEN IIUNItHED AND FIVE 



CONTENTS. 



The Inaugural Meeting. ..... 7 

Horticultural Papers and Discussions. 

Some Recently Introduced Weeds. By Merritt L. 

Fernald, Cambridge, Mass. . . . . 11 



Forest Planting for Profit in Massachusetts. By 
Theodore F. Borst, Boston . . . . 

General Discussion on Fruit. Opened by E. W. 
Wood, West JVeioton, Mass. . 

An Orchard Survey and What it Means. By Prof. 
John Craig, Ithaca, N. Y. 



23 
29 
37 



Dwarf Fruit Trees. By Prof. F. A. Waugh, 

Amherst, Mass. ...... 47 

Bacteria as Fertilizers. By Br. George 7\ Moore, 

Washington, DC.. . . . . . 57 

General Discussion on Flowers. Opened by J. Wood- 
ward Manning, Beading, Mass. ... 65 

Some Aspects of Hardy Flower Culture. By A. 

Ilerrington, Madison, N. J. . . . . 77 

The Return to Nature. By Miss Maud Summers, 

Cambridge, Mass. ...... 91 

General Discussion on Vegetables. Opened by 

Warren W. llawson, Arlington, M(tss. . . 101 



THE INAUGURAL MEETING, JANUARY 7, 1905. 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



WwrnlinMit* Mntitnlttxul f orictg* 



1905, Part I. 



INAUGURAL MEETING. 

The Inaugural Meeting of the Society for the year 1905 was 
held at Horticultural Hall, Boston, on Saturday, January 7, 
at twelve o'clock, noon. 

The retiring President, Henry P. Walcott, called the meeting 
to order and spoke briefly of the present condition of the Society 
and of the work accomplished during the past year. 

Some improvements in the building had been made at small 
expense and other changes were contemplated ; and the library 
had been given proper protection. 

They had lived one year under the new Constitution, safely, 
happily, and profitably, and he knew no reason why they should 
not go on to a prosperous future. 

He stated that the President-elect, Arthur F. Estabrook, had 
been obliged to seek a milder climate at this season of the year, 
and he introduced as the presiding officer, Vice-President Walter 
Hunnewell. 

Annual reports for the year 1904 were then presented as 
folio ws : 

Report of the Board of Trustees. 

Report of the Committee on Prizes and Exhibitions, John K. 
M. L. Farquhar, Chairman. 



8 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Report of the Committee on Plants and Flowers, Arthur H. 
Fewkes. Chairman. 

Report of the Committee on Fruits. E. W. Wood, Chairman. 

Report of the Committee on Vegetables, Michael Sullivan, 
Chairman. 

Report of the Committee on Gardens, Charles W. Parker, 
Chairman. 

Report of the Committee on School Gardens and Native 
Plants. Henry S. Adams, Chairman. 

Report of the Delegate to the State Board of Agriculture, 
William H. Spooner. 

Report of the Inspector to the State Board of Agriculture, 
Francis H. Appleton. 

Report of the Committee on Lectures and Publication, Aaron 
Low, Chairman. 

Report of the Secretary and Librarian. 

Report of the Treasurer. 

Report of the Finance Committee, Walter Hunnewell, Chair- 
man. 

It was voted that the several reports be accepted and referred 
to the Committee on Publication. 

On motion of William H. Spooner it was voted that the thanks 
of the Society be presented to E. W. Wood for his long and 
honorable service as chairman of the Committee on Fruits. 

Adjourned. 

William P. Rich, 

Secretary. 



HORTICULTURAL PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS. 



SOME RECENTLY INTRODUCED WEEDS. 

BY MERRITT L. FERXALD, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 



Delivered before the Society, January 14, 1905. 



The clearing of the forest lands and the letting in of the 
direct sunlight is the inevitable forerunner of the farm and the 
village, but it is as inevitably the death warrant of hundreds of 
native plants. As is now well understood, a majority of our 
woodland species have a root structure which allows them to 
grow only in the moist, spongy humus of the forest or the 
swamp, conditions, as many of us know from practical experi- 
ence, almost impossible of artificial attainment. Try as we will 
most if not all of us have failed to imitate with sufficient skill 
permanently to satisfy the plant the exact conditions which 
please the stemless lady's slipper (Oyjyripedium acaule), the 
trailing arbutus (Epigaea), the various species of Pyrola, the 
yellow wild foxgloves (Gerardia), the painted cups (Castilleja), 
or the fringed gentian ; though in their undisturbed haunts these 
plants bloom regularly and reproduce freely. 

In their own wild homes, likewise, these and scores of other 
species are almost as sensitive to change as when forced by man 
into an unappreciated state of culture. The simple cutting of 
the forest is to most of these plants disastrous, though such of 
them as are very hardy will often linger until fire has swept the 
cleared land and burned out the tinder-like, humus. After the 
fire comes a complete change of vegetation, and, during the 
interval before the stumps are finally removed and the land 
turned by the plow, the clearing too often becomes a tangle of 
fire cherry (JPrunus pennsylvanica), aspens (Populus tremu- 
loides and grandidentatd), and other quick-growing trees and 
shrubs with a liberal mixture of blackberry and raspberry bushes, 
tireweeds [EpUobium and Erechtites), rattlesnake- weeds ( / 
wuithes), and other coarse plants which love the open and the 
direct sunshine. When the final planting of the farm crop 



12 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

cornes, however, these sturdy plants of the burned land are 
quickly disposed of and rarely if ever do they make themselves 
troublesome in the cultivated field. 

Were this routine from the primeval forest, through the clear- 
ing stage to the cultivated crop, still as simple as when Champlain 
observed the cultivation by the Indians of corn and beans and 
squashes, we should have few weeds and I should have no occa- 
sion to talk to vou today. But the progress of civilization is 
accompanied by many drawbacks, among them the introduced 
weeds. 

The original white settlers of Xew England brought with 
them many garden seeds, and not unnaturally they introduced 
with the good seeds many that were bad. So we find, according 
to John Josselyn in 1672, that no less than 40 species of Eu- 
ropean weeds had "sprung up since the English planted and 
kept cattle in Xew England." The naturalization of these 
European plants led Josselyn with unconcealed seventeenth- 
century credulity to ask : " What became of the influence of 
those planets that produce and govern these plants before this 
time? '" Without awaiting any unusual planetary changes, how- 
ever, the introduced plants mentioned by Josselyn made them- 
selves entirely at home, and to this day these first emigrants 
from the European roadsides — shepherd's purse, dandelion, sow- 
thistle, stinging nettle, mallow, plantain, chickweed. clotbur (bur- 
dock), mullein, sorrel, smartweed, St. John's-wort, yarrow, 
toad-flax (butter-and-eggs , purslane, etc. — are among the most 
persistent followers of American civilization. 

The next reliable records of weeds introduced into Xew Eng- 
land are those of-Manasseb Cutler, who. in 1783, reported 66 
species, among them the buttercup. " common in moist pastures 
and fields,"' white-weed or daisy, "very injurious to grass lands," 
and chicory, " fields in Cambridge." Since then the buttercup and 
the daisy have followed the white man across the Rocky Moun- 
tains and are already common on the Pacific slope, and chicory 
has spread over the Eastern States, with forerunners appearing 
throughout the West. In Bigelow's Florula Bostoniensis (1814;, 
83 introduced species are enumerated, and in the edition of 1840, 
140 species. Gradually this list has increased until we are now 



SOME RECENTLY INTRODUCED WEEDS. 13 

forced to number among the wild plants of New England more 
than 600 species which have been introduced through human 
agency since the first cutting of the forests. 

A review of the history and spread of this vagrant class of 
plants presents many aspects which are well worth considera- 
tion. John Josselyn in 1672 stated that several species of Eu- 
ropean weeds had " sprung up since the English planted and 
kept cattle in New England," thus implying that these plants 
had come unbidden or at least were not purposely brought to 
this country. According to a time-honored tradition, based per- 
haps on fact, the first weed to spring up in the track of the 
pioneer is plantain, and on this account it has been called by 
some primitive races "White-man's Foot," a name of more than 
fanciful application ; for without question the plantain and many 
other roadside species are spread directly by the foot of man. 
For some years strange and outlandish weeds have been appear- 
ing along the river below Waterbury, Connecticut. These 
plants, upon careful study, prove to be vagrant species from geo- 
graphically remote portions of the world, and their presence 
along the Naugatuck River has been a mystery. Eventually, 
however, the whole matter was cleared when the source of these 
plants was traced to a factory which utilized old rubber shoes. 
These shoes were collected from every available source, and, 
before being melted for their rubber, were stripped of the cloth 
linings which were thrown upon a rubbish heap. These linings 
naturally contained seeds of innumerable plants from the road- 
sides of every land, and the rains and spring freshets of the 
Naugatuck valley gave them every opportunity to scatter and to 
start life anew in Connecticut soil. In this or similar ways many 
of the plants mentioned by John Josselyn, Manasseh Cutler, and 
Jacob Bigelow undoubtedly reached our shores; and these emi- 
grants are being reinforced by almost every person who comes to 
us from foreign lands. 

Another source of weeds which in Josselyn's time was prob- 
ably as great a cause of trouble as now was impure seed. Kven 
with the utmost exercise of caution it is apparently difficult to 
put up a bag of grass or of clover seed without including in it 
the seed of some other and undesirable plant Newly seeded 



14 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

fields have long been known to the enthusiastic botanical col- 
lector as one of the most prolific sources of strange weeds. Such 
is certainly the case today, and there is little reason to suppose 
that the field seed of colonial days was much purer. Every 
year brings to New England many dangerous pests through this 
source alone. Some of them die out after one or two seasons 
and cause little trouble, but others, like the king-devil weed 
{Hieracium praealtum) and its less notorious but none the less 
mischievous relatives have within a decade become sources of 
peril in many parts of New England. The king devil itself has 
had its full share of notoriety, particularly in the Kennebec val- 
ley, where its ravages have been so great as to stimulate a local 
movement (I believe unsuccessful) to secure state protection for 
the farmers ; but some other members of the genus Hieracium 
or hawk weeds have had their vices less exposed to censure. In 
1900 there appeared in a hayfield at Cutler (near Machias), 
Maine, a small patch — a few feet across — of the closely related 
Hieracium floribundum. The plant was looked upon merely as a 
curiosity, but in July, 1902, when I first saw the plant, it had 
spread by means of its strong and very numerous runners and in 
two years had utterly ruined more than an acre of grass land. 
The plants were then in full bloom, and the owner of the farm, 
lamenting the destruction of his hay crop, assured me that he 
would allow none of the hawkweed to mature seed, and that he 
would immediately have the field plowed and salted. In late 
August, however, I was again in Cutler and was dismayed to see 
that the entire acre had not only seeded freely, but that all the 
light feathery fruits were then scattered. Since 1902, this hawk- 
weed has been found at several other places in New England 
and New Brunswick — even as far south as central Connecticut. 
Whether the seed which originated these new colonies started 
from the ruined and neglected farm at Cutler is of course impos- 
sible to say, but it is now a hard fact that Hieracium floribundum 
has a foothold in New England which will make it as dangerous 
an enemy to the hayfield as the king devil or the orange hawk- 
weed {Hieracium aurantiacum) . Other hawkweeds, Hiera- 
cium pratense and H. Pilosella, closely related to the three more 
troublesome species, have also made a start in New England 



SOME RECENTLY INTRODUCED WEEDS. 15 

fields, and unfortunately there are still others of the genus in 
Europe which may be expected to arrive at any time. 

The common and most natural practice of throwing out gar- 
den refuse has occasionally been responsible for the establishment 
in a community of pernicious weeds. The orange hawkweed 
(Hieracium aurantiacwii) was popular in some old gardens of 
central Maine during the 70 's under the name tassel-flower or 
Venus's paint-brush. It propagates very freely by runners as well 
as by feathery fruits, and about 1880 it began to spread slightly 
from gardens to adjoining fields. Once in the field it made the 
most of its unrestrained liberty and soon spread so generally over 
large areas of Maine and other New England states as to under- 
go a change of its colloquial name from Venus's paint-brush to 
the Devil's paint-brush. The live-forever (Sedum TelephiwnC) 
perhaps better known as Jacob's ladder, was long cultivated in 
old-fashioned borders. It is extremely tenacious to life, and 
every portion of it thrown out from the garden started a new 
colony, and now the damp fields in many parts of New England 
and Canada are given over to this almost indestructible weed. 

Two other sources of weeds are sufficiently important to 
receive our special consideration — ballast grounds and woolen 
mills. It has long been the custom for ships sailing from one 
port to another with a light cargo to make up the deficiency by 
loading the hold with rocks, gravel, or earth as ballast. When a 
port is reached from which a full cargo is to be taken this ballast 
is discharged and the boat is ready for its new load. The soil 
dumped upon ballast grounds of our principal ports contains the 
seeds of many species which abounded at the home port from 
which the ballast was obtained, and after this soil is scattered 
upon the fiats or used as filling for a dock many Btrange plants 
make their appearance. The possible number of species to be 
found by the diligent searcher on the ballast lands of Boston or 
New York is of course very great ; but most of the plants of 
such places, shut in by city walls and with little opportunity to 
spread into the open country, soon perish or are covered by a 
new load of ballast perhaps from a second port. To such ballast 
lands, however, there often come plants which, once given an 
opportunity, will become troublesome weeds. A coarse Kuro- 



16 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

pean plant, Hypochaeris radicata, in many ways resembling the 
fall dandelion (Leontodori) , has appeared for several years on 
ballast lands of the Atlantic coast, where it has usually died or 
been killed out after a year or two in each place. In 1899, how- 
ever, it appeared in lawns on Penzance and at Wareham, and 
now it is an abundant weed in parts of New Bedford and Dart- 
mouth. This is an unfortunate fact, for on our Pacific coast 
Hypochaeris radicata has become a most troublesome lawn 
weed, and there is no reason to suppose it will be less aggressive 
with us. 

The waste from woolen mills is always the source of foreign 
weeds. The habit at many of our mills has been to establish a 
waste heap upon which are piled all the tangles which are cut 
from the wool. This waste is allowed to decay and after it has 
accumulated it is mixed with other matter and used as a manure. 
Now, the worst tangles in the wool are generally caused by burs 
and other rough seeds which have clung to the fleece of the 
browsing sheep. Consequently, wool waste is in many ways an 
undesirable fertilizer, for when spread over a field an opportunity 
is afforded for the seeds which it contains to germinate, and soon 
there appears a strange and unwelcome crop. Such a field in 
Tewksbury, in 1900, produced a crop almost exclusively of two 
species of storksbill (Er odium), plants which are always fond of 
traveling in wool. As with ballast plants, a long list could be 
made of species which appear about wool waste, but the storks- 
bills will serve as very typical illustrations of this group. 

Since the clearing away of the forests in much of eastern 
America an opportunity to spread has been afforded for certain 
plants which originally grew only in the prairie belt or on the 
bottom lands of the Mississippi and other large water courses. 
These plants, fond of the open country and direct sunlight, are 
now showing a strong tendency to work eastward into areas 
which were formerly wooded. The yellow daisy or cone-flower 
(Rudbeckia hirta) was one of the first of this group to take up 
the eastward march across New York and New England, but 
now it has covered this area and extended its pioneer colonies 
quite to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The purple cone-flower 
(Echinacea pallida) is beginning to appear in our fields, and 



SOME RECENTLY INTRODUCED WEEDS. 17 

other species from the prairies or beyond — such as the buffalo 
bur (Solatium rostratutn) and its near relative the horse nettle 
(/Solarium carolinense) are creeping more and more into New 
England ; but compared with the Old World species these 
American plants are usually unimportant weeds. 

Many plants at the time of their first introduction into 
America seem harmless and unlikely to cause trouble ; but after 
a period of acclimatization on the dumping grounds or in the 
undisturbed fence corners they suddenly reach a period of active 
reproduction, and in their offspring the aggressive qualities which 
class them as weeds are suddenly developed. Thus in 1863 a 
few plants of rape (Brassica campestris) were known to occur at 
Buffalo, but as late as 1882 the species though persisting was 
barely established. In 1887, however, it began to be troublesome 
in fields of central and western New York, and in 1888 it was 
common on dumps and rubbish heaps in eastern Massachusetts. 
Then it suddenly appeared as a weed of grain fields and other 
cultivated grounds throughout New England and eastern Canada 
where it is still a common nuisance. The blueweed or viper's 
bugloss (Echium mdgare) was known as an occasional waif on 
dumps or by neglected roadsides for nearly fifty years before it 
began, within the last quarter-century, to take a strong foothold 
in dry fields and cultivated land through eastern New York and 
New England. 

On the other hand, some plants, which, in the past, have borne 
hard reputations, seem to have run their course and to have set- 
tled to a less aggressive mode of life. The henbane (Hyoscyam us 
ni</er), a disagreeably sticky and ill-smelling weed, which early 
Massachusetts botanists considered common, has now practically 
vanished from the New England flora, though it is abundant in 
eastern Quebec. Indeed, there seems good reason to assert that 
even the prickly lettuce (Lactwca «-<iri<>!,^ car. integrate), 
which for years has been the biU u<>ir of the western fanners, i- 
now on the wane. But even though we may hope that all the 
weeds which are brought to us from foreign lands will eventually 
become as innocuous as the once common henbane, the prospecl 
of waiting for 600 species and their successors to run their full 
course is not a pleasing one; ami some energetic methods must 
be employed to check the progress of new weed-. 



18 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The question is often asked, why it is that so many of our 
noxious weeds are of European origin while our own native spe- 
cies are comparatively innocent of offense. This question is of 
very great interest. Originally the forested areas of northern 
and central Europe were not unlike our own wooded country, 
and the herbaceous plants of the leaf mold were similar to and 
often identical with our own woodland species. For centuries, 
however, the cutting and recutting of the forests and the tre- 
mendous growth of towns and of closely cultivated land has left 
most of these species practical outcasts, hiding here and there 
in cold mountain regions and swamps. This virtual deforesting 
of large tracts of Europe and the consequent destruction of the 
fastidious woodland species has very naturally increased the 
opportunity for development of genera and species which thrive 
best in the open ; and so we now find spread widely over civi- 
lized Europe the numberless species of such characteristic genera 
as the hawkweeds (Hieraciwri), the thistles (Cirsium, Carduus, 
etc.), the poppies (Papaver) , mustards (Prassica, Sisymbrium, 
etc.), vetches (Vicia, etc.), bedstraws (Galium'), and star thistles 
(Centaur ed). Life for hundreds of generations along the roads 
and fence rows, on the outskirts of civilization, has developed in 
these plants a vigor and hardiness and an indifference to sur- 
roundings strikingly in contrast with the sensitive constitutions of 
the woodland species they have now so thoroughly supplanted. 
These hardy races, then, developed as the result of long compe- 
tition in fence corners and hedgerows of Europe are able to cope 
with conditions which are practically impossible to the less sturdy 
types developed along our New England rivers. This point is 
well illustrated by the common plantain of our roadsides. In all 
its characteristics this plant is exactly the Plantago major of 
Europe, and throughout America it is this typical thick-leaved 
European plant which abounds by roadsides. A thinner-leaved 
variety of Plantago major is common in the alluvium and along 
the river beaches of northern New England and Canada, but, so 
far as our observations show, this thin-leaved native plant never 
deserts the river bank, while its less fastidious European repre- 
sentative is quite at home in the precarious surroundings of busy 
roadsides and beaten paths. Similarly the yarrow, self-heal, 



SOME RECENTLY INTRODUCED WEEDS. 19 

tansy, tufted vetch, and many other European plants have in 
America indigenous representatives ; but these American plants, 
adapted through long centuries to their habitats along woodland 
rivers, never show an inclination to take to the fields or the road- 
sides, although plants imported from Europe and to all appear- 
ances identical delight in the cultivated fields and the haunts of 
man. In other words, as already stated, while the American 
plant, unaccustomed to the ways of civilization until the recent 
and still unfinished clearing of the forest, is unable readily to cope 
with changed conditions, the European plant, through a long life 
of competition with man, has developed a hardy stock which is 
undaunted by the hardships of the roadside and the inhospitable 
farm. 

This point is further emphasized by a comparison of our Xew 
England flora with that of Great Britain. Of the species grow- 
ing in the British Isles only above an altitude of 3,000 feet, i. e., 
in the mountain country where the primitive vegetation is but 
little disturbed, 64 per cent are also native in the cold forests or 
on the mountains of northern Xew England. But of the species 
which occur everywhere at low altitudes and in the thickly-settled 
and closely-farmed districts of England only 23 per cent are native 
to New England as well, while more than 50 per cent have 
become established in New England as weeds. Opposed to this 
we have the striking fact that in temperate Europe barely 1 
percent of the wild plants have been introduced from the United 
States. 

Besides the hardy character of the plants which come to us as 
weeds from Europe there is another factor which must be borne 
in mind. Any organism transplanted from its original surround- 
ings to a new but favorable region is inclined to increase in vigor 
and powers of reproduction. The case of the rabbits in Australia 
is now classic. Our own experiences with the English Bparrow, 

the brown-tail and the gypsy moth are examples nearer home. 
The same principle holds with weeds. In Europe the marguerite 
or daisy is rarely seen except in the gardens, but. onoe started in 
America, it has overrun the Eastern States and is rapidly taking 
as strong a hold in the West, A famous case — one of the few 

in which we have squared accounts with our European cousins — 



20 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

is that of Elodea canadensis, known in Europe as "water-pest." 
At home, in America, this is an insignificant water-plant ordi- 
narily overlooked except as it occurs in reservoirs. But a few 
plants, spreading from an aquarium to the River Cam in England, 
soon clogged the stream, and from this and perhaps other similar 
sources it has spread over England and much of continental 
Europe, everywhere developing so vigorously as scarcely to 
resemble the slender unassuming American plant from which it 
sprung. In return, however, the European water-cress intro- 
duced into Xew England brooks behaves with as little reserve, 
and often the brooks of which it has taken possession become so 
clogged by it as to cause serious damage. Another aquatic, the 
water chestnut (Trapa natans), introduced some years ago as a 
curiosity from Asia, was placed in the Concord River, where it 
has become such a nuisance that it is necessary to weed it out of 
the Sudbury River above its junction with the Assabet. 

Besides the methods of transportation from place to place 
which we have already discussed, there is another w^hich is at 
present particularly instrumental in the rapid spread of weeds. 
I refer to the railroad. Besides carrying freight and passengers, 
the ordinary train transports uninvited the line seeds of many 
plants from one part of the country to another. No better 
botanizing ground can be asked by the person interested in novel 
weeds than the freight yards of a trunk railroad, especially if the 
employees of the road have been negligent or thoughtless about 
keeping down weeds. As in case of the plants of ballast lands 
and of recently seeded ground many of the newly introduced 
plants quickly perish; but others, with the slightest encourage- 
ment, become permanent elements of the flora and take every 
advantage of the railroad as a means of travel. The progress of 
many bad weeds is readily traced to the railroads, and at the 
present time roads entering New England from different direc- 
tions are bringing to us as many different vagrants. In the late 
70's a coarse yellow-flowered plant, Senecio Jacobaea, familiarly 
known by the suggestive name " Stinking Willie," appeared as a 
waif on ballast at some points along Northumberland Strait in 
eastern New Brunswick and adjacent Nova Scotia. By 1884 
it had begun to spread along the local railroads ; and now it has 



SOME RECENTLY INTRODUCED WEEDS. 21 

followed the Intercolonial and the Canadian Pacific across New 
Brunswick and Nova Scotia, and has even reached the Boston 
and Maine system near Portland. This plant is charged in the 
Maritime Provinces not only with being an enemy to the farmer, 
but with causing asthma and hay fever, so that, in spite of its 
showy display of yellow, it is an unwelcome traveler along the 
railroads. Other railroads entering New England from Quebec, 
New York, and other large centers are bringing with them their 
full share of vegetable vagabonds, for it is an interesting fact 
that the different large ports — Boston, New York, Philadelphia, 
Halifax, Quebec, etc. — have become centers for the establish- 
ment of very different Old World plants. 

It is true that many of the foreign plants which are rapidly 
establishing themselves in New England are of certain economic 
value, and much has been done to raise the self-respect of these 
plants by the recent publication by the United States Department 
of Agriculture of a bulletin (Farmers' Bulletin No. 188) on the 
medicinal uses of some of them. But at best they are not a sat- 
isfactory crop, and as weeds they occupy space which should be 
put to better service. 

Briefly summarized, the points I have attempted to make clear 
are, that the cutting away of forests produces conditions which 
are fatal to many woodland species, but which give an increased 
opportunity for development to plants which thrive best in the 
open. In the occupancy of this newly opened land the coarse 
and vigorous plants of Europe bred through long contact with 
civilization have a tremendous advantage over the less aggressive 
American species or varieties. These European weeds reach us 
in various manners, the seed often clinging to the clothes or the 
shoes of the traveler, or finding their way into field or garden 
crops. Others have originated from garden plants carelessly 
allowed to spread to adjacent fields, while many come to us in 
ship ballast or in the wool sent for manufacture at our mills. 

The problem presented by these plants ia a serious one. There 
is no need for me to emphasize its importance to the practical 
agriculturist, but I may be permitted to call attention particularly 
to a point which appeals immediately to the botanist ami the 
Lover oi nature. Thai is the danger which this rapid encroach- 



22 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ment of aggressive and for the most part unattractive plants 
forces upon our own more sensitive and more attractive natives. 
The latter, as already sufficiently emphasized, are often fastidious 
as to the soil and conditions in which they grow ; the former 
ready to thrive in almost any surroundings. On some of our 
northern rivers which were early followed by the Jesuit explorers, 
aggressive European weeds — the bladder campion and the mug- 
wort, for instance — which were probably introduced in the 
blankets of the voyageurs, have now covered large areas and 
choked out the native vegetation. In central Maine, the present 
stronghold of the orange hawkweed or devil's paint-brush, that 
showy and energetic plant has already entered mossy cedar 
swamps and is beginning to crowd from their native knolls the 
mitre- wort, Mo?ieses, and other delicate species. 

The remedy for this weed evil lies primarily with such an 
organization as the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. Like 
the problem of the gypsy moth and the brown-tail moth its solu- 
tion must depend upon cooperation. Isolated endeavors to keep 
out aggressive and uninvited occupants of our land are only of 
minor value ; but if the problem can be taken up and its solution 
pushed by a wide-reaching organization such as yours much may 
yet be accomplished in checking what has become a menace to 
every landowner. 



FOREST PLANTING FOR PROFIT IN MASSA- 
CHUSETTS. 

BY THEODORE F. BORST, BOSTOX. 



Abstract of an illustrated lecture delivered before the Society, 

January 21, 1905. 



After briefly referring to the importance of forests and how 
the indiscriminate cutting of the past has made it impossible for 
nature to much longer supply our needs, Mr. Borst took up the 
problem of showing where forests should be planted, how seed- 
ling trees are raised in a nursery, how a young forest is properly 
planted, and how a plantation should be tended for profitable 
returns. Good profits from forest culture were shown. 

He said that it is a matter of common knowledge that prices 
of all forest products, especially wood of the better kinds, have 
been very rapidly rising, and as these advanced prices are occa- 
sioned by a scarcity of desirable timber there is no reason to 
believe that prices will ever be lower; in fact, everything points 
toward much higher prices in the future. Just two weeks ago 
the President of the United States, through an address before the 
American Forest Congress held at Washington, called the atten- 
tion of the American people to the grave problems now con- 
fronting us by the rapid destruction of our forests. Th« 
forests were once thought inexhaustible, but at this congress, as 
never before, the leading interests depending upon foresl pro- 
ducts, namely: the lumbermen, the railroads, the mining inter- 
ests, paper manufacturers, the DOI and cooperage manufacturer-. 
the furniture manufacturers, and all woodworker- and users in 
general, did through able representatives of their various interests 
cry aloud their needs for wood materials. The area formerly 
covered with valuable timber has been much reduced, and the 
regrowth now taking place on other lands is upon culls left 
standing in the lumbering oi the past. Afl nature no longer will 



24 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

supply our demands we must by artificial means stimulate and 
direct nature's forces in timber production. 

There are many thousands of acres of land in Massachusetts 
that are absolutely waste. Much of this land is either unfit or 
unnecessary for agricultural purposes. Everywhere we note 
abandoned, brushy, worn out pastures, impoverished ploughland, 
deforested tops of ridges, steep, rocky hillsides, poor, loose, sandy 
soil, odd corners too expensive to plough and cultivate ; yet many 
of these waste lands could at small expense be made to yield val- 
uable timber crops. Mr. Borst showed a series of views of such 
deforested lands, burned over areas, etc., both from the surface 
and sectional cuts. These pictures made clear what poor lands 
white pine and other valuable trees can thrive on. In discus- 
sing how many trees to plant, the size of plants to use, and the 
spacing between the trees, it was shown how very dependent the 
answer to these questions is on the nature of the land to be for- 
ested. It was shown that upon areas where more or less volun- 
tary tree growth exists the supplementary planting necessary to 
fill the open places was very quickly and cheaply done, some- 
times costing as low as four or five dollars per acre, using white 
pine trees for this purpose. Where the entire area must be 
planted the trees are set about five by five feet apart, requiring 
1743 trees per acre, and may cost from seven to fifteen dollars 
per acre. The size of plants needed determines much the cost of 
the plantation. The size needed is very dependent upon soil 
conditions and the nature of growth covering the land. Brushy, 
blueberry, and sweet-fern lands require, for instance, the use of 
three-year old transplanted stock, while open, exhausted pasture 
lands can frequently be planted with two-year-old seedlings. 
Where conditions permit the use of chestnuts, acorns, or hickory 
nuts, the cost of planting per acre may be only two or three dol- 
lars. Some 18,000 acres of waste land have already been artifi- 
cially forested in this State. A few of such areas have recently 
been lumbered at a net profit of over six per cent on the entire 
investment. If the planting which was done forty, fifty, and 
sixty years ago has proved profitable certainly the planting we 
would do today, which would come into the market forty, fifty, 
and sixty years hence must prove even more profitable ; especi- 



FOREST PLANTING FOR PROFIT. 25 

ally when there is every indication that timber prices will double 
or perhaps treble themselves before that time. 

It was illustrated at length how tree seeds are collected, how 
a sandy loam soil is selected for a nursery, and how the same is 
laid out, ploughed, harrowed, etc., for raising young trees. The 
seeds are soaked in warm water, poisoned for preventing mice 
from eating them, and then are carefully sown in drills in a 
nursery bed. Careful tending is necessary until the seeds ger- 
minate and are one year old. The seedlings remain in seed beds 
two years. They are then about six inches high and may be set 
directly into the field, or if larger, more stocky plants are needed, 
the seedlings are transplanted into nursery rows where they may 
remain one or two years longer. Views were shown illustrating 
how the seedlings are taken up, transported to the land to be 
planted, and how the men plant the same. Each two men of a 
crew work together, one man making the holes while the second 
man sets the trees. The details of how to properly and quickly 
set these trees were shown. Mr. Borst states that by his method 
each man employed in the planting will set more than 700 trees 
in nine hours. One crew of sixteen men and a foreman have set 
considerably more than 16,000 trees in nine hours. Under fair 
conditions, using two-year-old seedlings, two men working 
together will plant from three-quarters to one acre a day. Great 
care is necessary to obtain good stock, as frequently poor trees 
are delivered and the planting is correspondingly disappointing. 
One difficulty in the way of the general tree planting is that 
proper trees for forest planting are not readily obtainable at suffi- 
ciently low prices. For small plantings it may be advisable to 
transplant small seedlings, say from m\ to twelve inches high, 
from open pastures, but usually for plantations larger than five or 
six acres, the additional cost for labor, etc. necessary t«> collect 
and plant such stock is DOt compensated for. Also the sun 

of such planting is often not encouraging. Mr. Borsl carried 

his audience through the various Stage8 in the development of 

a planted grove and showed that there is no essentia] difference 

in the planted forest and one sown by nature. The foresters' 

artificial method of planting is necessary when the seed \\< 
have been destroyed or when the area has no1 been completely 



26 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

reclothed. It is often cheaper and more satisfactory to plant a 
forest than to depend on nature's sowing. White pine, chestnut, 
hickory, ash, oak, maple, and tamarack are among the best trees 
for planting in Massachusetts, but under some circumstances 
other trees might be preferable. Mr. Borst has during the past 
four years made plans for and supervised the planting of consid- 
erably over one million trees in Massachusetts, and many more 
trees are now being grown in nurseries for forest plantations. 
This year seedlings can be furnished cheaper than ever before. 
Data from actual experience was presented to show the cost of 
reforesting lands of different types, and several planting plans 
were discussed. If the planting is done on sufficiently large 
scale, say 25, 50, or 100 acres, the cost of planting including the 
young trees may be from five to fifteen dollars per acre. Ten 
dollars per acre has frequently been the cost for white pine plant- 
ing. The proper age and the manner in which to prune and thin 
a forest was shown. If a stand is thinned too early or thinned 
too severely much injury can be done, as the trees will thereby 
become low crowned and produce knotty timber; and over-thin- 
ning also endangers a crop to windfall. It was shown that a 
mature white pine stand can be lumbered, and at the same time 
the ground be naturally reset with young pines. Tables were 
shown giving the volume of timber produced by white pine per 
acre in this State and also data from European planted white 
pine forests. Uncared for white pine forest in Massachusetts 
may produce in sixty years about 30,000 feet of timber, B. M.. 
while under forestry treatment the European figures show that 
50,000 feet can readily be produced on one acre during the same 
period of time. White pine plantations have been figured to 
yield a net annual return of 81.15 per acre paid at the expiration 
of forty years in addition to four per cent compound interest on 
the money invested. Under a different calculation, using all 
costs, it is estimated a return of about 82.25 per acre per year for 
forty years from the time of planting to the time of cutting is 
obtainable. This estimate is corroborated by actual experience. 
These returns are certainly very satisfactory, considering the fact 
that it is secured from land which is almost useless for any other 
purpose and which, without a timber crop, would be a source of 



FOREST PLANTING FOR PROFIT. 27 

constant expense in taxes. A timber crop not only gives a return 
on the money invested, but it makes productive the capita] 
locked up in the land. These returns are figured on the yield 
obtainable without pruning, thinning, etc. If forestry treatment 

given the returns should be higher. Again, these profits are 
figured on prices of stompage prevailing today. The future 
profits will be higher in proportion to the advance in stumpage 
values. 

Timber culture for profit is strongly commended to landowners, 
especially where lands are being held that are producing no 
returns whatever. One s;reat advantage of tree culture is that 
the farmer and his regular labor can be readily taught to do the 
work and that very little attention save protection is needed after 
the crop is once started. 

Mr. Borst's address was well calculated to demonstrate the 
entire practicability of forest culture for profit. 



Discussion. 

Benjamin P. Ware said there was no question that the Bubjecl 
of forestry was of the greatest importance. The lecturer had 
treated it on a large scale and he had noticed in some of the 
illustrations that the ground was covered with men, as many as 
thirty in some instances. Now that method was t<>«> costly for 
the average farmer. 

He believed in following nature's method, that i^\ scattering 
the pine seeds broadcast, which required no labor, no artificial 
appliances, no seedlings, and no great cost. 

Pie knew of a bushy, rocky tract of land that had been well 
covered with a good growth of white pine by simply scattering 
Is over it. 

In Germany owners of land were obliged by law to cultivate a 
certain amount of forest trees and he urged the everyday farmer 
to go into f.»rest planting 

Mr. Borst replied that broadcast Beed sowing was wasteful and 
that the seeds were Liable to dry up or to be eaten by birds and 



28 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

was altogether too uncertain in its results. The methods he 
recommended were the most profitable in the end. 

Aaron Low said he recollected two pastures now completely 
overgrown with a thick growth of pine of nature's own sowing. 

Kenneth Finlayson inquired as to the most suitable time to 
plant pines. 

Mr. Borst said that the best time is in the spring just after the 
last frost is out of the ground. That is one of the advantages 
of forestry ; it can be done before the spring work comes on. 
He said, in answer to questions, that the cost of seedlings two 
years old was six dollars a thousand and that they should be 
planted five by five or six by six feet apart. The cost per acre 
would depend a good deal upon conditions but would be about 
nine to fifteen dollars. A planting plan was the first thing to 
arrange. He further stated that the chestnut would give returns 
in twenty years, and that unimproved lands planted to forest 
growth would pay interest on the amount of taxes paid out by 
the owners. 

A gentleman remarked that a discouraging feature of white 
pine growing was the damage done by the pine tree weevil which 
destroyed the leader in young trees, and asked if any remedy for 
this trouble was known. 

Mr. Borst said that he knew of no preventive of this evil, but 
suggested spraying and the destruction of badly infested trees. 

In reply to a question he said that the white pine will not do 
well near the sea. 



GENERAL DISCUSSION ON FRUIT. 

OPENED BY E. W. WOOD, WEST NEWTON, MASS. 



Saturday. January 28, 1905. 



A general discussion of the subject of the cultivation of fruit 
was held at Horticultural Hall today. James H. Bowditch, of 
the Committee on Lectures, presided and introduced as the first 
speaker E. W. Wood of West Newton, a member of the fruit 
committee of the Society for twenty-five years. Mr. Wood 
spoke in part as follows : 

The subject of today's discussion is one in which this Society 
has always taken an active interest and it has always been an 
important feature in it > work. The original organization of the 
Society was due to the fruit growers of Boston and its suburbs. 

The two leading fruits of New England are unquestionably the 
apple and the pear, and in no part of the world can the apple be 
grown more successfully than in New England. It is well 
known that the quality of this fruit improves in flavor and color 
as we go north, and Maine grown Baldwins bring a higher price 
than those grown in Massachusetts or further south. We arc 
not keeping up with the .Maine growers in the care ami improve- 
ment of our orchards and in packing for the market. 

Western grown apples <!«> not have the keeping property 

those grown in this Bection of the country. There they have no 
apples that will keep all through the winter as '1" <"ir> in New 

England where we may have them continually from August t«» 
June. 

There seems to be a tendency towards the evening up of the 

apple crop by a more uniform production which if continued 
will eliminate the off year and enable our orchards t<> produ< 

crop every year. 

In growing for the market it is important to know what to 



30 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

grow and what varieties to set out. Unquestionably the Bald- 
win is the best for our section. 

The late Mr. Hayes, a former president of this Society, had 
prepared land for six hundred apple trees but was in some doubt 
as to the kinds to plant. To aid him in deciding this important 
matter he consulted with Mr. Curtis, at that time a prominent 
produce merchant of Faneuil Hall Market, Boston. 

He stated the case to Mr. Curtis and desired his advice. Mr. 
Curtis asked him if he intended setting out his orchard for mar- 
ket purposes. " Certainly," replied Mr. Hayes. " And you are 
going to set out six hundred trees." " Yes." " Well, then," said 
Mr. Curtis, " if you are going to start an orchard of six hundred 
trees in this section of the country I would advise that you plant 
five hundred of them Baldwins." " And what shall I plant for 
the other hundred?" inquired Mr. Hayes. "You say that your 
orchard is intended wholly for commercial purposes," said Mr. 
Curtis. " Yes," replied Mr. Hayes. Mr. Curtis considered the 
question for a moment and then answered, " Set out the other 
hundred in Baldwins." This advice was the result of the experi- 
ence of many years in the apple market and is not less true at 
the present day. 

Next to the Baldwin can be recommended the Astrachan, 
Williams, Gravenstein (the queen of fall fruit), the Rhode Island 
Greening, and the Hubbardston. These varieties with the Bald- 
win will extend over the whole season and give us apples in per- 
fection from August to June. 

There are also many local varieties of apples which it is well 
to grow for a local market. Of these may be mentioned the 
Palmer Greening and the Sutton Beauty, favorites in Worcester 
County, and the Mcintosh Red for new cultivation. This latter 
variety originated in Canada and is of the Fameuse type. It is 
of white flesh, good flavor, and keeps from November to March, 
and he would add it to an orchard in preference to any other 
variety recently introduced into this section of the country. 

The influence of this Society and the value of its exhibitions 
are manifest in the changes brought about in the varieties of fruit 
grown. Here fruit growers meet to exhibit the products of their 
gardens and to discuss the good or bad points of the objects 



GENERAL DISCUSSION ON FRUIT. 31 

exhibited ; with the result that the best only survives the test to 
which it is subjected. It is amusing sometimes to notice how 
one's specimens of fruit, which seem so large and fair in the 
owner's home, shrink upon being placed upon the exhibition 
tables. 

Mr. Wood said that he knew of nothing today upon which a 
young man could enter w T ith more hope of success with the least 
outlay of money than the cultivation of apples. In all the aban- 
doned farms he had seen not one had a thrifty orchard upon it. 
Even if one should not live to see the results it will add to the 
value of the farm in the closing up of an estate, and there is 
nothing that will help the sale of a farm better than a prosperous 
orchard. How many orchards are seen everywhere showing 
neglect and want of care, and treated only as an incidental crop. 

At a farmers' meeting a few years ago in a town in the central 
part of the state one of the auditors arose and said that the 
farmers in that section had been advised to grow apples; now 
they would like to be told how to sell them. It was a year 
when the crop was large and the returns discouragingly poor. 

Dr. Fisher, who was at the meeting, was asked to reply. He 
said that he had grown apples for thirty-four years and had 
always received a satisfactory price. lie had always found that 
good quality »fruit brought a good price. lie grew only three 
varieties, Ilubbardston, Rhode Island Greening, and Baldwin. 
He thinned his fruit and had at the time two hundred barrels 
which he proposed to sell the first of February. The market 
pi-ice for ordinary apples was then seventy-live cents to one dol- 
lar and twenty- five cents a barrel. 

My. Wood met the Doctor the next year and asked him what 
he obtained for his apples. Dr. Fisher replied that he sold his 

K'ho«le Island Greenings in New Fork, where there was a better 
market, tor *:;.-!."> pen- barrel, and his Baldwins and Elubbardstons 
in Boston, for 18.00. 

There is no crop that can be grown with bo little fertilising 
and with so little expense in cultivation as the apple, and there is 

no reason why a farmer cannot ha\e a good crop and find a mar- 
ket at a good price. 

To get good fruit it must be thinned in early summer. It iniiv 



32 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

seem wasteful of fruit and time but it pays to do it for those left 
to ripen will be larger and therefore worth more money. There 
is no trouble in marketing good apples. Satisfactory locations 
for orchards can be found within twenty-five miles of Boston and 
even within ten miles, thereby bringing the grower into close 
touch with a market. In the earlier years of an orchard the 
ground between the trees can be used for the cultivation of veg- 
etables. 

A half-million barrels of apples were exported from Boston 
the past season. 

The next important fruit crop in New England is undoubtedly 
the pear. The pear is a more constant bearer than the apple and 
comes into bearing more quickly. 

It is of no use to set out dwarf pears in a light, dry soil. The 
quince stock upon which a dwarf is produced requires a strong, 
moist soil, and where it can be grown in a proper location the 
dwarf varieties produce better fruit. It is a custom in planting 
a pear orchard to set out every other tree a dwarf, twenty feet 
apart, and after the standards have attained the proper size to 
cut out the intermediate dwarfs. A dwarf, however, can be 
readily converted into a standard if found desirable. 

Unfortunately we have too many varieties of pears and, though 
Marshall P. Wilder forty years ago showed at one of our exhi- 
bitions 417 varieties and Charles M. Hovey 360, yet the desirable 
varieties could be counted on one's fingers. Fifty years ago the 
question was asked at one of these meetings, " What is the best 
variety of pear to grow if only one could be planted ? " Presi- 
dent Walker said, " the Vicar ? and Mr. Wilder agreed with 
him. Now no one thinks of growing it. 

At present the most desirable varieties are the Bartlett, Shel- 
don, Seckel, Bosc, Clairgeau, Dana's Hovey, and Anjou. 

The Anjou I would not recommend so strongly for in recent 
years it seems more liable to disease. The Dana's Hovey is un- 
doubtedly the finest pear, in my opinion. It is a remarkably 
good pear, a seedling from the Seckel, and comes at a season 
when there is less competition. It does not appear to be very 
generally cultivated, but no mistake would be made in growing 
this pear for home use. It brings the highest price of any pear 



GENERAL DISCUSSION ON FRUIT. 33 

in the market. It had been sold, in the speaker's remembrance, 
for seven dollars a bushel ; now the average price is from three 
to three and one-half dollars. 

The Clairgeau pear is a pear that looks well and has been a 
popular variety in the Boston market in years past, but it is a 
pear that no grower for home use should have in his orchard. 

The next fruit in importance is the peach, although it must be 
admitted that it is a rather uncertain crop. There appears to be 
no variety exempt from the attacks of disease, and no variety 
free from the danger of winter killing. However, the growers 
in Connecticut seem to succeed very well by frequent renewals of 
their orchards. 

James H. Bowditch remarked that no fruit was so satisfactory 
as good apples, and he could confirm Mr. Wood's opinion of the 
quality of the Mcintosh lied, and also that the Northern Spy 
was very good. 

Joshua C. Stone expressed the opinion that twenty-five miles 
from Boston was too near to start an apple orchard ; go a hun- 
dred, he said, or go to New Hampshire where land could be had 
for a dollar an acre. Anyone who sets out an orchard within 
ten miles of Boston will regret it, for in time the land would be 
more valuable for Other purposes than apple growing. He said 
that some of the finest apples in the market today came from 
Oregon. He disagreed with Mr. Wood in the manner of packing 
fruit, and said that it was in accordance with approved business 
methods that the best should be put on top in order to attract the 
attention of the buyer. The man who packed his apples with 
the big ones at the bottom was too good tor this world. 

Rev. ('harles L. Hutching said that he did not agree with the 
previous speaker in regard to planting an orchard BO far from the 
city, lie had already a good-sized orchard at Concord and in- 
tended to set out several hundred more trees, and came to the 
meeting today for the purpose of getting information on the 
subject. While he did not himself expect to make much com- 
mercially out of his orchard it would benefit his children, 

If we can't have large families, M President Roosevelt adi 

we can have beautiful trees which, he thought, was the next 



34 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

thing. He had come to the meeting with several questions to 
ask : 

First : Are we following the best method in packing fruit in 
barrels ? 

Second : in regard to the cultivation of an orchard on a hillside, 
What can be done to prevent the humus from being gradually 
washed down to the lower levels, if cultivation is practised ? 

Third : We are told in grafting to get the very best scions pos- 
sible, but how shall we obtain them? 

Fourth : I would like to ask if it would do to set out a new 
orchard on the site of one seventy-five years old. If so, is it 
better to plant at once or wait a year or two : to use the same 
holes or make new ones ? 

In partial answer to these queries Mr. W T ood said that at the 
Agricultural College at Amherst there was an orchard situated 
upon a rather steep hillside. It was cultivated crosswise and a 
cover crop of grass or cow peas sown which prevented washing 
in the spring, after which it was plowed in. 

Varnum Frost said that it was not well to grow new trees in 
an old orchard. 

Aaron Low said in regard to the question of planting new 
trees in an old orchard that it was the height of folly to do it. 
The old orchard had sapped the vitality of the land. Regarding 
the packing of fruit and vegetables he had found in his experi- 
ence that it paid to pack them correctly. He had made a prac- 
tice of packing a few apples of extra quality for which he readily 
obtained the price he asked for them. Their quality made them 
worth it. Last year he had lost the greater part of his crop of 
peaches and plums on account of the severity of the winter, and 
it will be necessary to spray our trees a number of times during 
the season to protect them from insects and fungi. 

Benjamin P. Ware gave an account of his method of keeping 
apples in his cellar until June without artificial refrigeration. He 
placed them in open barrels or large boxes and was careful to 
handle them as little as possible and to keep the cellar cool by 
closing the windows during the day and opening them at night 
until freezing weather approached. He had no difficulty in 
keeping apples for the June market by these means. He had 



GENERAL DISCUSSION ON FRUIT. 35 

experienced some trouble in growing Gravensteins ; he had 
grafted ten or twelve trees to this variety but could not get them 
to bear and he had not produced a barrel from the whole lot 
since grafting them over. He asked for the experience of others 
on this point. 

Mr. Stone replied that it is impossible to graft the Gravenstein 
with success. The only way is to grow it from young trees. 

Christopher C. Shaw stated, regarding the Gravenstein apple, 
that had he set out this variety it would have been many dollars 
in his pocket. He had grafted over many trees to Gravensteins 
and felt he had made no mistake and the grafted trees did well 
with him. Pie recommended also the Darners' Winter Sweet 
and he believed the Mcintosh Red to be the coming apple. It 
was a good grower, a good keeper, and of good flavor. It had 
one trouble, a tendency to scab, but he thought that could be 
controlled by spraying. He was sure that in a few years it was 
to be the money getter of Xew England apples. 

Wilfrid Wheeler said that the orchard of Samuel Hart well in 
Lincoln was grown in grass land, but the grass after cutting was 
left on the ground as a mulch. 

Mr. Wood remarked that nine-tenths of the orchards of Xew 
England are grown in sod. The orchard of Dr. Fisher at Fitch- 
burg was grown thus but the grass was cut three or four times a 
year and left on the land. He thought that the fruit gradually 
deteriorated under sod culture. 

William P. Rich said that there had been in recent years much 
discussion among fruit growers upon the question of orchard til- 
lage, and that the weight of opinion seemed to be in favor i^\ 
open cultivation and the sowing in the early summer of a cover 
crop to be plowed under the succeeding spring. 

Mr. Wood added thai frail growers should study the markets 
in which their fruit is to be sold. Varieties are uol equally popu- 
lar in all the cities. In Worcester the Sutton Beauty and the 

Palmer Greening will bring prices that make these varieties 
especially desirable to grow. The Mcintosh brought the highest 

price in Boston last year of any apple sold and it is bound t«- 
become popular in this market on account of its beauty and ex< 

lent quality. 



AN ORCHARD SURVEY AND WHAT IT MEANS. 

BY PROFESSOR JOHN CRAIG, CORNELL UNIVERSITY, ITHACA, N. Y 



Abstract of an illustrated lecture delivered before the Society. 
February, 4, 1905. 



The fiurposes. The purposes of an orchard survey are mani- 
fold : 

1. To correlate geologic and soil characters and conditions. 

2. To compare successes and failures and ascertain underlying 
causes. 

3. To investigate methods of orchard management and to 
determine the influence of each. 

4. Finally, and in short, to collect and tabulate such a mass of 
data upon practical apple growing as will place many moot ques- 
tions beyond the range of peradventure, and furnish indisputable 
evidence for the assistance of those who are horticultural leaders 
and teachers. 



A General View of the Apple Iniu stkv. 

"The * value of the orchard products on the farm has increased 
from 33 cents per capita in 1860 to $1.11 per capita in 1900. If 
all fruits are included the value would be about fifty per cent 
greater: the amount for 1900 being £1.74 per capita. Much 
more than these amounts must be spent by the consumer, for the 
transportation, commissions and profits increase the cost several 
times. A Larger proportion of the crop may now be exported, 

hut the great change lias been in the creation of a home demand 

for fresh fruit, such as does not exist in any other country. The 
great fruit market of the world is the American workman, and 
his staple fruit is the apple. 

* From Bulletin 226, Cornell University Experiment station. 



38 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Relative increase of population and of value of orchard products from 

the census reports. 







Per cent of gain 


Value of orchard 


Per cent of gain 




Population 




in 10 years 


products 


in 10 years 


1850 


23,191,876 






$7,723,186 




1860 


31,443,321 




35.6 


19,991,885 


159.0 


1870 


38,558,371 




21.3 


38,000,000 


90.0 


1880 


50,155,783 




32.4 


50,876,154 


33.9 


1890 




Gain 


in 20 years 




Gain in 20 years 


1900 


75,568,686 




52.1 


83,751,840 


64.6 



Relative rank in fruit production of the ten leading fruit-producing 
states, from the census of 1900. 



United States 

California 

New York 

Pennsylvania 

Ohio 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Indiana 

Missouri 

Virginia 

New Jersey 



Orchard Products. 



$83,751,840 
14,526,786 
10,542,272 
7,976,464 
6,141,118 
3,778,811 
3,675,845 
3,166,338 
2,944,175 
2,662,483 
2,594,981 



Per cent 
100.0 


Rank 


17.3 


1 


12.6 


2 


9.5 


3 


7.3 


4 


4.5 


5 


4.4 


6 


3.8 


7 


3.5 


8 


3.2 


9 


3.1 


10 



All Fruits. 



Total value 


Per cent 


$131,423,517 


100.0 


28,280,104 


21.5 


15,844,346 


12.1 


9,884,809 


7.5 


8,901,220 


6.8 


5,455,213 


4.1 


5,859.362 


4.5 


4,630,169 


3.5 


4,309,813 


3.3 


3,515,475 


2.7 


4,082,788 


3.1 



1 

2 
3 
4 
6 
5 
7 
8 

10 
9 



The magnitude of the apple crop. Of the total number of 
orchard trees reported in 1900, 55 per cent were apple and these 
produced 83 per cent of the total number of bushels of fruit 
reported. The average production of apples is about two to 
three bushels per capita. 

"Of the crop of 175,000,000 bushels in 1899, the States of 
New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio produced nearly 69,000,000 
bushels, or over 39 per cent of the total crop in the United States. 
New York justly claims first place in the quantity and quality of 
her apple crop. Apples are grown in nearly all parts of the 
state, but it is in the lake counties, Niagara, Orleans, Monroe, 
and Wayne that the industry has been most extensively devel- 
oped. In 1900 fifteen states outside of New York had a greater 
number of apple trees than the combined number in these four 



AN ORCHARD SURVEY. 



39 



counties ; but only nine of these states gave a larger crop in 1899. 
No other county in the United States produced as many apples 
as any one of these. Only four counties, one in Illinois, one in 
Missouri, and two in Arkansas had as many trees as any one of 
these." 

How the work was conducted. An inspector was sent into the 
field equipped with a note book, soil auger, and camera. Ili> 
note book contained blanks prepared for collecting information 
on age, fertilization, tillage, spraying, past and present troubles, 
yields, markets, and prices. The soil and site of the orchard 
were examined with a view of correlating present condition with 
aspect and topography. About five hundred orchards were criti- 
cally examined and the following results were secured. 

Some Important Findings. 

Influence of tillage. The following table shows the results 
from different methods of soil treatment, and emphasizes the 
benefits of cultivation over sod treatment: 



Yield in bushels of tilled and sod orchards. Average for the entire 
county of trees set before 1880. Orchards .all well cared for. 



liHH) 









Average 






Ave 


Treatment 


No. 


Acres 


j leld 


No. 


Acres 


yield 


Tilled 6 years or more 


25 


17. VI 


348 


22 


177' 


09 


Tilled most years 


22 


18] 


363 


21 


188 


38 


Sod mosi years 


24 


209 


260 


25 


244J 


72 


Sod •") years or more 


2fi 


20(5 


22 1 


31 


249 


[q 



1901 



1902 



Treatment 



No. Acres 



Tilled 5 years or moi 

Tilled mosi years 

Sod m08l years 16 

Sod 6 years or more it 



I01| 

261 



rage 
3 leld 

311 

236 
269 



■ 

28 846 

L6 99 

16 122 

22 1671 



1903 

\ i rage 
j leld 

886 
249 
267 



Four 
year 

•J 71 
2 » 5 



Mr. Warren, who had charge of the field investigations, asks, 
"Does tillage pay?" and continues: "This table does not show 

that every sod orchard should l>e tilled, ]>ut it does show thai it 



40 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

would pay to till the average one. If a sod orchard is giving 
good yields, and if the trees are making sufficient growth to keep 
up their vitality, it may be desirable to keep it in sod. By the 
liberal use of barnyard manure or straw mulch, an orchard may 
be kept in good condition without tillage. The trouble is that so 
many do not receive enough of either. The same results may be 
accomplished with much less manure if the orchard is tilled. If 
the orchard is in sod and is not yielding well, or if the trees are 
losing their vitality, even if the yield is still good, it will probably 
pay to till." 

Pasturing methods. The following table gives strong evi- 
dence in favor of hogs over sheep or cattle in an orchard. Cattle 
rub trees, break branches, and are generally injurious. 

Yields in bushels for 1902, with various methods of sod treatment. 
Trees set before 1880. 



Treatment 


No. orchards 


Acres 


Average yield 


Pastured with hogs 


22 


1054 


271 


Pastured with sheep 


15 


232 


216 


Pastured with cattle 


54 


392 


159 


Sod, not pastured 


47 


2564 


185 



The necessity of fertilizing orchards received unequivocal sup- 
port, for 292 orchards representing 1200 acres yielded 257 bushels 
per acre, while 111 orchards unfertilized yielded 202 bushels per 
acre. 

Pruning. This is often badly done. Long stubs promote 
decay and hollow trees. Heavy pruning brings about an 
unhealthy condition of tree. We can summarize as follows : 

" 1. Large limbs should not be removed unless it is absolutely 
necessary. 

" 2. When such limbs must be removed, the pruning should 
be so done as to favor rapid healing of the wounds. 

" 3. Large wounds should be protected by paint till the tree 
can seal them." 

Spraying. On this important practice our survey presents the 
following conclusions : 

" The average price per barrel of the sprayed apples was 
$2.02; of the unsprayed, $1.80. From the sprayed orchards 15 



AN ORCHARD SURVEY. 41 

per cent of the crop was barreled ; from the unspraved, 12 per 
cent. Without considering the apples that were evaporated by 
the grower, the average price of sprayed apples was 31.8 cents 
per bushel ; of unspraved, '21.1. 

"If we count the apples that were evaporated by the growers 
as worth 20.7 cents, the average price paid for apples by the 
evaporators, then the income per acre from sprayed orchards 
averaged $77.84; from the unsprayed, $63. 

"Most of the sprayed orchards were sprayed but once. Apples 
from many of these brought no higher prices than the unsprayed 
ones, but some of those that were well sprayed gave so much 
better yields and secured so much higher p rices that they were 
able to raise the average as shown above." 



How Far Apart Should we Plant oub Trees? 

Our field expert unhesitatingly says: "One of the greatest 
enemies of the apple orchard in Wayne County, as in most other 
apple-growing regions, is the apple tree. When the greater part 
of the orchards were planted, about forty years ago, there was a 
universal tendency to plant too closely. On 43 per cent of the 
area planted before L880 the trees are 30 x 80 feet or less; 82 
per cent are 35x35 feet or less. Only I s per cent are over 
35x85 feet; and a part of these were planted more closely, but 
have been thinned." 

Here are the yields tor the different distances, and these fig- 
ures speak more eloquently than any other form oi argument : 

" Four year average : 

Nol over 80 X 30 feet 186 bushels, 

31 x 31 to feet •-'•_'•_' 

86 x 86 to 40 x 40 feel •_'•_".> 

" The more trees per acre the less the yield ! The a\ erage yield 

for four years of orchards where the trees are not 0V6T 80> •"- ,l 

feet apart is 186 bushels; for those over 80 ■ ">" feel hut not 
over 86x85 feet, 222 bushels; for those over 85 x 85 feet, ' 

bushels." 



42 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Soils. The best soil in Wayne County for apple production is 
a brown gravelly loam, rather loose in character and underlain 
with heavier gravelly loam. It is fair to conclude, however, that 
"while the kind of soil is important in this locality, it is evi- 
dently not the most important factor in apple production and is 
not as important as the kind of treatment that the soil receives. 
The kind of care required varies with the soil. The Miami silt 
loam will doubtless produce a good crop with less manure than 
is required on any of the other types. The Miami stony loam is 
next strongest. The other types require larger applications of 
manure, but give good results when so treated. These latter are 
more open and are more in need of humus. The soil with the 
bed rock near the surface is entirely unsuited to apples. For the 
best production of apples there should be at least six feet of 
well-drained soil in every part of the orchard." 

Drainage. This is a subject of the greatest importance with a 
perennial crop like the apple. 

" Losses caused by lack of drainage. Of the 1,773 J acres of 
orchard land in Walworth, a township in Wayne Co., only 182 
acres have any kind of under drainage. Most of these have only 
a stone drain or two in a particularly wet place. A few have tile 
drains. Fifty-four orchards, aggregating 232 acres, are reported 
as in need of drainage. This means that, in the opinion of the 
inspector, some tile drainage would pay. The average yield of 
these 54 orchards in 1902 was 203 bushels, 42 bushels below the 
average of the other orchards in this town. Of the 1,987-J acres 
inspected in the remainder of the county, 317 acres have some 
underdrains, but 831 acres need drainage in whole or in part." 

Aspect. In Wayne County this seems to be a factor of some 
importance. " The easterly slopes in Walworth gave a larger 
yield each of the past four years than have the westerly slopes. 
The difference in 1902 was 23 bushels per acre in favor of 
the easterly slopes. In each of the other years the difference 
was greater. The north part of the county does not show this 
marked uniform difference. The differences are greater than one 
would expect. In each of the four years the northeast slopes 
have exceeded the northwest, the east have exceeded the west ; 
the only exceptions are that in two cases the southeast have failed 



AN ORCHARD SURVEY. 43 

to exceed the southwest. The four-year average in Walworth 
was 43 bushels in favor of easterly slopes." 

The renter. The yield of apples from rented farms is much 
below that of farms managed by the owners as shown by the 
fact that owned farms yielded a four-year average of 210 bushels 
per acre, while rented farms yielded only 174 bushels per acre. 

These are some of the leading features covered in this survey 
of an important apple-producing county in western New York. 
The moral of it all is that tillage, fertilization, pruning, and 
spraying, soil and aspect are important features in successful 
orcharding ; but unless they are coupled with intelligent business 
management, the enterprise will fail. Practice, principle, and 
business methods must go together. The orchardist should not 
only know how much his orchard is bringing him in, but he 
should know how each of his trees is yielding. They do not all 
need the same treatment. The problem must be studied in gen- 
eral terms, but also in terms of individual trees and good business 
management. 



Discussion. 

Prof. V. A. Waugh inquired concerning the difference in the 
income from sprayed and unsprayed orchards. 

Prof. Craig said that the difference in the income of Sprayed 
and unsprayed orchards might not be more than ten dollars an 
acre, but occasionally runs as high as twenty-five or thirty dollars. 
lie thought that three sprayings, as a rule, were necessary. The 

first when the buds began to show color; the second upon the 
setting of the young fruit; and the third depended <>n weather 
conditions. Dry weather and fungous growth are not correlated, 
but moist weather and fungous development are. 

An inquiry was made as to how large an orchard would have 
to be to make it pay to use a power machine for spraying. 

To this the Lecturer replied that for an orchard of fifteen OF 
even ten acres on level ground it would pay to have a power 
sprayer. Some of these machines as now made are marvels ^i 
simplicity. 



44 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Robert T. Jackson asked as to the relative value of growing 
dwarf apple-. 

Prof. Craig replied that the dwarf apple has a place, especially 
in New England, where land is high priced and where high class 
apples have a market. 

Theodore F. Borst asked the lecturer's opinion as to the value 
of growing shelter belts for orchards as well as for plantations of 
forest trees. 

Prof. Craig replied that in certain exposed situations shelter 
belts were desirable, especially in the case of wind-swept orchards 
on the coast. They were useful also in preventing the too rapid 
evaporation of moisture from the land. 

Miss Cora H. Clarke inquired if there was any danger of poi- 
soning from the spray remaining on the fruit. 

Prof. Craig answered that a very few cases of poisoning had 
occurred by this means, but that chemists had tested this matter 
and found that one would have to eat about a ton of fruit to get 
sufficient poison (Paris green) to cause injurious results. As a 
ride if the spraying is done carefully no harm can ensue. 

William X. Craig asked what were the principal varieties of 
apples grown in western Xew York. 

The Lecturer stated that the leading kinds were the Baldwin, 
Greening, R ox bury Russet, and Northern Spy. A number of 
other varieties were also grown, such as the Hubbardston, 
Maiden Blush, and Spitzenburg. and, he was sorry to say, they 
grew a few of the Ben Davis. 

James IT. Bowditch inquired if the disease of canker was not 
more liable in orchards poorly cared for than in those well kept. 
To which the answer given was "certainly." 

Warren H. Manning asked if it were not advisable to plant 
shorter-lived trees as fillers in young orchards ; such as the 
peach or plum; to be removed when the main orchard is well 
grown. 

Prof. Craig replied that it would depend upon conditions. 
He would recommend apple- as fillers if one would rigidly cut 
out when necessary. The fillers are, however, often left a year 
or two too long and are only removed after damage has been done. 

Mr. Spooner, referring to the subject of neglected orchards, 



AN ORCHARD SURVEY. 45 

inquired how long it would take to renovate them by pruning 
and cultivation. 

Prof. Craig stated that he would advise the purchase or rental 
of such run-down orchards of good varieties, and that it would 
take from five to six years to bring them into paying condition, 
if they were not too old or decayed. He had known one to 
produce a paying crop in three years. 

The first thing to be done to improve a neglected orchard was 
to open up the soil by shallow plowing or by means of a spring- 
tooth or disc harrow ; next prune moderately. Then fertilize 
with stockyard manure or other nitrogen bearing substances. 
This treatment to continue about three years. He gave an 
instance in which a farm had been paid for in a few years from 
the crop of an orchard of nine acres of Baldwins that had been 
thus treated. 

J. Woodward Manning inquired how long one could depend 
upon an apple orchard's producing capacity. 

Prof. Craig answered, sometimes ninety years; and he could 
see no reason why they should not last hundreds of years if 
properly cared for. 

Joshua C. Stone said he could see no reason why an apple 
orchard should not live and be productive even beyond a hun- 
dred years. His trees looked as large fifty years ago as they do 
now. 



DWARF FRUIT TREES. 

BY PROF. F. A. WATJGH, AMHERST, MASS. 



Delivered before the Society, February 11, 1905. 



There used to be considerable interest in dwarf fruit trees fifty 
to seventy-five years ago. They were nearly always mentioned 
in the pomological discussions, and all the text-books of that time 
made extended reference to their use and propagation. This was 
partly due to the fact that American horticulture at that time 
had not broken entirely away from the horticulture of Europe. 
Dwarf fruit trees had always been grown in the old country and 
the European books gave liberal attention to them. There was 
still another reason for the attention given them, however, in the 
fact that they were considerably grown. At that time, further- 
more, the great commercial interest of the present day had not 
come to the front. But during the last few years these com- 
mercial enterprises have monopolized our thought and we have 
largely forgotten about the old-fashioned amateur horticulture to 
which the growing of dwarf fruit trees belongs. 

At the present time there are many indications that we are 
coming back to some of the old-fashioned ideas especially as 
regards amateur fruit growing. There is a lively renewal of 
interest in small grounds and gardens. These circumstance 9, 
along with several others, are bringing dwarf fruit trees back t<» 
notice; and in all probability they will come back into vogue to 
a certain extent. At all events there is very much in the subject 
to interest us; and our knowledge of dwarf fruit trees, their 

propagation, pruning, and training, ought to be reviewed and 
brought up to date. 

First of all it may be proper to tell what a dwarf fruit tn 
That seems like too simple a questioD to be mooted, but it i- a 
question 1 have m> often asked me that I think best to make the 
explanation. A dwarf fruit tree is simply one which ia made t<> 



4S MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

grow in smaller stature than the same variety reaches under 

ordinary conditions of treatment. There are three principal 

y which this dwarfing 3 secured. These are 1 ga- 

tion. _ rnning. (3) training. The first method is by much the 
most hn it A dwarf tree is nearly al - gated by 

budding or grafting on some kind of a root which grows slowly, 
and thus the slow-g: _ root checks the growth of the top to 

h an extent that the top is dwarfed. The commonest and 
most striking example is the propagation of dwarf pear tr 

.Town by budding ordinary varieties, such as Bartlett. 
Duchess, or Anjou. on quince roots. The quince root grc r fi 
much more slowly than the pear r t e that a Bartlett pear tree 
on a quince root will be much smaller at the same age than a 
Bartlett tree on a pear root. I will refer to this matter as it 
affects otLr :es of trees further on in this lecture. 

Pruning has ak > been s one of the means of 

dwarfing trees Many trees are kept back to their small stature 
largely by this means. If they are allowed to grow unpruned 
they will eventually beeonie as lar_- a any tre— : the variety. 
This refers to all kinds of dwarf tree-. 3Iore or less heading 
back is ah the trees in their dwarf form. 

In a somewhat similar manner trees are retained in their small 
forms by training them, that is by tyincr them upon a trelli- 
against a wall or to st kes, and preventing their growth beyond 

-eribed limits. Reference will be made also to this subject 
later in this lecture. 

The rirst question which cornea up in presenting such a subject 
as this is that of its practical utility. Almost every one will ask 
at once " What is the value of dwarf fruit trt This is a 

fair question and it ought to have a fair answer. 

^ e mav a< well sav at once that dwarf fruits are not verv 
promising from a commercial point of view. They will not in 
any way rival standard trees i i large orchards. In fact it is still 
a question whether fruit can ever be grown for market in this 
country profitably on dwarf trees in competition with fruit gr 
in the usual way. I am inclined to believe that certain line 
varieties can be _: :i on dwarf trees for fancy trade 
where large prices may be secured. TTe have a constantly 



DWARF FRUIT TREES. 49 

increasing market of this kind in America. It is not unusual for 
fancy apples in our city markets to bring twenty-five cents a 
piece. There are many customers who want the very finest fruit 
that can be produced without any question as to the price. Such 
persons would pay fifty cents a piece for apples without any 
objection, providing that the fruit was really fancier than any- 
thing else in the market. It is well known of course that such 
prices as these are frequently realized in the markets of Europe. 
Any grower who might be able to reach such customers as these 
could well afford to grow fancy fruit on dwarf trees. 

Dwarf trees are of practical value however for other purposes. 
They are good for interplanting in an orchard of standard trees. 
An orchard of standard pears, for instance, might be interplanted 
with dwarf trees, and this is sometimes done. Dwarf trees come 
into bearing much earlier than standard trees and can be cut out 
at any time when the large trees require the entire space. Dwarf 
apples are sometimes used for planting between rows of standard 
apples. 

Anyone who wishes to keep a large collection of apples, pears. 
or plums or who wishes to test new varieties will find dwarf 
trees very desirable. They occupy much less ground and they 
bring the new varieties into bearing at a much earlier time. 
Dwarf apple trees, for instance, usually bear at two or three years 
old while standard trees of the same varieties bear at seven to 
nine years. 

Anyone who wishes to grow fine specimens for exhibition will 
find dwarf trees even more useful. Beyond the fact already 
mentioned, that a large collection of varieties can be maintained 
in a small area, he has the advantage of producing the very finest 
and showiest specimens of the variety under culture. As a rule, 
to which I do not know any exceptions, the finest Bpecimena of 

apples, pears, peaches, and plums can he grown on dwarf 1 1 - 

The greatest value of dwarf fruit trees, however, Lies in their 
adaptability t<> the needs of small landowner-. A large and 
increasing proportion <>f our population now lives ;i Buburban 
life. They are neither on the farm nor yet in the city. M 
over, these people are taking a much larger interest than formerly 
in garden affairs and are doing more in growing flowers, fruits. 



50 MASSACHUSETTS HOKTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

and vegetables. Such persons have only small grounds under 
cultivation and cannot grow many large trees. In fact some of 
the city lots where really good gardening is done would be 
entirely monopolized by three or four full-sized Baldwin apple 
trees. Dwarf apples, pears, or plums which can be set at six feet 
apart, or even less, fit the space much better. A comparatively 
large number of trees can be planted and many more varieties 
can be indulged in. 

Another great advantage to this class of the population lies in 
the fact that dwarf trees come into bearing much earlier. Many 
of these people live only a short time in any one place. They 
move about frequently and it never seems worth while to plant 
apple or pear trees which will bear no fruit inside of seven or 
eight years. In seven or eight years they expect to be some- 
where else. But trees which will bear fruit in two or three 
years might seem worth while. These may be planted on rented 
land. It seems to me that some special effort ought to be made 
to bring this matter to the attention of the suburban gardeners. 

Dwarf trees are propagated by the usual methods of budding 
and grafting. They are more commonly budded than grafted, 
although whip grafting, side grafting or veneer grafting may be 
successfully practiced with apples or even with pears. In certain 
cases such grafts prove very satisfactory in the propagation of 
plums. Still it remains true that budding is more commonly 
employed. In either case it is largely a matter of convenience. 
Each nurseryman follows either method which seems most expe- 
ditious in his own case. There is no difference in the tree after 
it has grown. A budded tree is just as good as a grafted tree 
and vice versa. 

The principal problem in the propagation of dwarf fruit trees 
is the choice of suitable stocks. I will mention here the stocks 
which have been found by experience to answer the purpose 
best. 

Apples are usually dwarfed by propagating them on Paradise 
stocks. Paradise is simply a very dwarf apple which is largely 
grown from layers. The young trees are cut off near the ground 
and are encouraged to throw up sprouts. These are covered over 
with earth and when one or two years old the stools are taken 



DWARF FRUIT TREES. 51 

up and divided. These Paradise stocks come from France where 
this work is done chiefly. 

The Doucin stock is also used to some extent for dwarfing 
apples. It produces a tree midway between the very dwarf form 
grown on Paradise and the ordinary standard form. It has not 
been so much used in this country. Doucin stocks come also 
from France and are grown in the same way as Paradise stocks. 

On account of the slow growth of the Paradise and Doucin 
apples, trees grafted or budded on them make a slow and irregu- 
lar growth in the nursery. It is difficult to grow a nice block 
of trees, especially on Paradise stocks. This is why the nursery- 
men in this country have practically given them up. Any tree 
grower would be compelled to get about two or three times as 
much for dwarf apple trees grown on Paradise roots as for the 
same varieties grown in the ordinary way, because it costs him 
two or three times as much to grow a given number. 

Pears are practically always budded on quince stocks for dwarf- 
ing. The quince most used for this is Angers which comes also 
from France. A few varieties of pears will not form good unions 
on quince roots. Such varieties are "double-worked." The 
process of double working is as follows: The quince root is 
budded with some variety as Anjou which grows well upon it. 
After this pear scion has grown one year the refractory variety, 
say Seckel or Dana's Hovey, is budded on the Anjou upon which 
it makes a good union. The completed tree as it is planted in 
the orchard then consists of three parts, the pear top of the 
desired variety, the quince root, and the very short section of 
some other pear whose sole office it is to unite the two uncon- 
genial neighbors. 

Peaches and nectarines are dwarfed by working them <>n plum 
roots. They will grow fairly well on almost any good plum root. 
The Myrobalan plum which is one of the easiest of all stocks t<> 
be worked has been largely used. St. Julien plum is probably 
better ami is considerably nsed in Prance and Germany. The 
peach may also be easily propagated on the dwarf Band cherry 
which gives a good dwarf peach tree of specially small stature. 

The old rule for dwarfing plums was to work them (m Myroba- 
lan plum roots. A fairly small plum tree can he produced in 



52 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

this way provided it is kept vigorously headed back. The 
Myrobalan plum stocks, however, have been used largely in this 
country for the propagation of all ordinary plums, so that a major- 
ity of what we know as standard plum trees are really growing on 
this so-called dwarfing stock. It is obvious that some still slower 
growing stock must be found if the requirements of the situation 
are to be fully met. Fortunately plums may be worked on a 
great variety of stocks and some of these seem to offer the 
required characteristics. In Iowa. Minnesota and the neighbor- 
ing states plums are very largely grafted on Americana roots, that 
is on some of the seedlings of Primus Americana. These stocks 
produce a tree considerably dwarf er than those grown on Myro- 
balan plums. Moreover this stock is hardy, vigorous, healthy, 
and in all other respects satisfactory. Some persons have com- 
plained that it sprouts from the roots, but I have never observed 
this trait, although I have seen many plums on Americana roots. 
I do not think that this stock is more objectionable in the way of 
sprouting than many others. 

Another plum stock which has been extensively used in an 
experimental way and which offers special promise as a dwarfing 
stock for plums, is the sand cherry. This plant is native to 
Massachusetts, and, in fact, in some of its forms, to practically 
all the northern states as far w r est as the Rocky Mountains. Its 
different forms are known botanically as Primus pumila, P. cune- 
ata, and P. besseyi. These all seem to be good stocks although our 
experience has been specially happy with Prunus besseyi. All 
kinds of plums and peaches grow splendidly on this root. They 
make an exceptionally fine growth the first year in the nursery, 
in this respect differing markedly from most dwarf trees. The 
great difficulty experienced thus far has been in securing stocks. 
We are now experimenting with different ways of propagating 
P. pumila, P. besseyi, and P. euneata and as soon as some satis- 
factory method of producing these rapidly and cheaply has been 
established they bid fair to become the leading dwarfing stock 
for plums. 

Dwarf cherries are sometimes spoken of. For the most part 
the so-called dwarf cherries are merely such varieties as Morello, 
Vladmir and other north European sour cherries which never 



DWARF FRUIT TREES. .")3 

make a large tree. Xo really satisfactory dwarfing stock for the 
cherry is in commercial use. There seems to be a chance, how- 
ever, of discovering some native plum or cherry which answers 
the purpose. 

Dwarf trees are planted in the same way that standard trees 
are, with two exceptions. First, they are usually planted shal- 
lower for the reason that when deeply planted they sometimes 
take root from the scions and cease to be dwarf trees. The Bec- 
ond exception lies in the fact that they may be planted much more 
closely together. While thirty-five feet apart is looked upon as 
being proper spacing for standard apple trees, dwarfs may 
be planted at eight or nine feet apart and indeed can he very 
well managed for a number of years at a distance of four to six- 
feet apart. A gentleman told me recently of an orchard of 
dwarf apple trees now over thirty years old and in fairly good 
condition, the trees having been planted six feet apart and main- 
tained at that distance to the present time. 

Some of the forms of dwarf trees, especially upright cordons, 
can be planted even closer together. The space commonly 
recommended for upright cordons of apple and pear is sixteen to 
eighteen inches apart. To show the possibilities of condensation 
which lie before one in planting dwarf trees, I may say that in a 
garden of less than one-quarter of an acre I have planted over 
five hundred fifty permanent trees. When the plan is complete 
there will be about six hundred or at the rate of twenty-four 
hundred trees to the acre. Many of these arc already in bearing. 
Standard apple trees are ordinarily planted thirty-five to the 
acre. 

Dwarf fruit trees are usually trained in some particular form. 
This training is not absolutely essential, but more or less of it 
is desirable in order to get the best results. The Bimplest 
methods appeal most to the majority of people, ally in this 

country. Still I am sure that garden lovers who become inter- 
ested in this line of work will go more and more into the different 
methods ^\ formal training. 

There are almost an infinite number of ways in which t 

may be trained. Some of these ways are merely fantastic ami 
only comparatively few of them are really useful. All the really 



54 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

practical ways can be easily reduced to eight as shown in the fol- 
lowing : 

A. Trained in tree-like form. 

a. Pyramid. 

b. Bush. 

' B. Trained with several branches in one vertical plane. 

a. Espalier. 

b. Fan espalier. 

c. Palmette-Verrier. 

C. Trained to single stems — Cordons. 

a. Upright. 

b. Inclined. 

c. Horizontal. 

The pyramid differs from the bush form chiefly in the fact that 
in the former a straight central stem is maintained from which 
secondary branches radiate, while in the bush form the center is 
cut out and several radiating side branches constitute the frame- 
work of the tree. The bush form is better adapted to apples, 
while the pyramid can be better applied to pears. 

The espaliers of different forms are extremely popular where 
training is practiced and are considered to be amongst the most 
valuable forms for growing fancy fruits. They require of course 
a great deal of care and attention in order to produce the neces- 
sary forms and to keep them in health and vigor. 

Cordons consist of a single stem which may be placed in 
almost any position ; the three common forms being vertical, 
oblique, and horizontal cordons. These are simple and easy to 
grow either against a trellis or against a wall and they produce 
very excellent results when properly cared for, especially with 
pears and apples. 

The pruning of dwarf fruit trees, especially those trained in 
particular forms, is a somewhat complicated subject. Elaborate 
directions can be found in any of the European fruit books, but 
nothing has been written in detail on this subject in America. 
One or two general principles may be stated here, and these must 
suffice for the present. 

The general management of the tree can be best understood 
by referring to one of the simplest forms, say the vertical cordon. 



DWARF FRUIT TREES. 55 

This tree is composed of a single stem along the sides of which 
fruit spurs are formed and fruit is borne. Each year this cordon 
is encouraged to throw up strong-growing shoots or leaders at the 
top, and at the same time is prevented from making any strong 
wood growth along the sides of the stem. The strong shoots at 
the top feed the tree, or as we sometimes say, " they pump up 
the sap." As fast as shoots start from the sides of the main 
stem they are pinched back. This pinching may be required six 
or eight times, possibly even more, in the course of a summer. 
This constant checking of the vegetative growth from the side 
buds on the stem tends to encourage the formation of fruit spurs 
and fruit buds in this region, which is indeed the fundamental 
object of the whole scheme of pruning. At the beginning of the 
succeeding year the leading shoots at the top of the cordon are 
cut back almost or quite to the point where they began the pre- 
vious year's growth. New shoots arise there year after year 
from almost the same point to be annually sacrificed in the same 
way. 

Considerable skill and experience is required in pinching back 
the side shoots so as to encourage the formation of fruit spurs 
and buds. Different species require different treatment in this 
respect, since the fruit spurs form differently on different kinds of 
trees. Roughly it may be said that with most fruit trees these 
side shoots should be pinched back as soon as they have made 
-i\ Leaves or earlier. They should be headed back to not more 
than four buds (or leaves). Many of them will promptly start 
again. This second growth should be headed back somewhat 
sooner, say when it has reached a length of four or five lea- 
It should also be headed back more closely, say to two or three 
buds. If the shoot starts a third or fourth time, as sometimes it 
does, it should be repeatedly pinched back, each time earlier and 
each time more severely. Usually all further tendency to vigor- 
ous growth will be Stopped early in the summer and after the 

K>nd or third pinching. This is more likely to be the case with 
apples and pears. Teaches and plums have to be allowed some- 
what freer growth. 

When fruit spurs become old and weak as they will commonly 
do on the apple and pear after about ti\ re, they should be 



56 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

cut out altogether or headed back to within an inch or so of the 
main stem. Sometimes a new growth will be secured from the 
base of the spur and this new growth can be promptly developed 
by the system of repression outlined above into a new fruit spur. 
In some cases where the fruit spurs die or have to be removed, 
it is even necessary and practicable to bud or graft in new shoots 
or new fruit spurs. This looks like a good deal of work to be 
given to a tree, but it is not more difficult or exacting than many 
things that we already do in our garden work. 

In conclusion I wish to reiterate the statement that the grow- 
ing of dwarf fruit trees is not urged upon the public. It is not 
recommended to everybody and especially it is not claimed to be 
commercially practicable. 

On the other hand it will bear serious consideration by all that 
large class of people who have small grounds of their own and 
who wish to grow a limited quantity of fine fruit for their own 
use. The large number of trees which can be put on a small 
area, and the comparatively early age at which they may be 
brought into bearing are considerations of prime importance in 
the eyes of all small landowners. 



BACTERIA AS FERTILIZERS. 

BY DR. GEORGE T. MOORE, WASHINGTON, D. C. 



ANNUAL LECTURE UNDER THE JOHN LEWIS RUSSELL BEQUEST. 

Abstract of an illustrated lecture delivered before the Society, 
January 23, 1904. 



It is hardly necessary for me to discuss in detail the effect of 
leguminous crops upon soils or the necessity for the roots of 
these crops being provided with the proper nodules in order to 
obtain the greatest good from them. You all know how neces- 
sary nitrogen is in the soil, and any means calculated to increase 
the quantity of this most important plant food is, of course, of 
great practical value. From the earliest days of agriculture it 
has been recognized that all plants belonging to the Leguminosae, 
that is, peas, beans, clover, alfalfa, etc., had a decidedly beneficial 
effect upon the soil, but it is only within recent years that we 
have been able to explain this phenomenon. 

Although it has been a matter of common observation that the 
roots of leguminous plants were usually provided with peculiar 
swellings or nodules, these were popularly supposed to be due to 
the bites of worms or insects, and that they were directly con- 
nected with the fertilizing power of the plant was not discovered 
for many years. Even after i 1 was shown that Leguminous plants 
devoid of these nodules were Unable to benefit the soil, there was 
the widest difference of opinion as to why they appeared upon 
some plants and were absent from others. Now we know that 
the Legume noddle is the direct effect of the presence of myriads 
of bacteria which have made their way into the ro«>t> through 
the root hairs, and as a result of the irritation the plant manufac- 
tures the nodule, each cell of which is full of bacteria. 

Although it is true that thousands oi acre- >^\ land in this 
country and abroad are well stocked with these nodule-forming 
bacteria, it is Likewise a fact that there is equally as much land 



58 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

which does not naturally contain these beneficial organisms. 
Practical farmers have realized for years that some parts of a 
field would produce clover or alfalfa successfully, while others, 
which seemed to be in fully as good condition and were as care- 
fully cultivated, failed to produce a good stand. Many times this 
condition could be remedied by the addition of lime or some 
careful cultural method, but it was often found that the roots of 
the plants which failed showed no nodules and it was evident 
that the nodule-forming bacteria did not exist in that spot. For 
this reason it became necessary to devise some means of arti- 
ficially introducing into the soil the nitrogen-fixing bacteria. 
Naturally, the easiest and simplest way of accomplishing this was 
to transfer soil from a field which had produced nodule-bearing 
plants and by this means introduce the bacteria into the soils 
which were devoid of them. 

Transferring soil from one field to another on the same farm is 
a comparatively simple and inexpensive process, but when, as is 
often the case, thousands of pounds of soil have to be shipped 
hundreds of miles, the operation becomes more difficult. It is 
also a fact that certain diseases of plants, the spores of which 
remain in the earth, are widely disseminated by such means of 
attempting to introduce nodule-forming bacteria, and in some 
cases where the disease causes great damage to leguminous crops, 
it has become necessary to abandon altogether this method of 
inoculation. There is also great danger of introducing objec- 
tionable weeds and insect pests, so that if any better means of 
inoculating the soil could be devised, it would certainly be de- 
sirable. It should be understood, however, that many cases of 
inoculation by soil transfer in this country have been eminently 
successful, and, although the percentage of failures is greater 
than is usually supposed, there is no question but that much good 
has been done by this means of inoculating the soil. 

A number of years ago a German botanist conceived the idea 
of bringing about inoculation by the means of pure cultures. 
This was to be accomplished by isolating from the nodule the 
right organisms and then transferring to tubes containing a me- 
dium which would enable them to multiply rapidly. There was 
no difficulty in obtaining these pure cultures, and within a short 



BACTERIA AS FERTILIZERS. 59 

time the product was put upon the market under the name of 
" Nitragin " and sold at the rate of one dollar per bottle, which 
was sufficient for one-half acre. Numerous experiments abroad, 
with a few in this country, soon demonstrated that while in some 
instances Nitragin produced an abundant formation of nodules, 
there was a vastly greater number o* cases where no benefit 
was obtained. 

When this line of investigation was taken up in the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, the demand for some artificial means of 
inoculating soil was already sufficiently great to make it desirable, 
if possible, to increase the bacteria very rapidly and to insure a 
sufficient quantity of them so that they could be distributed to 
various parts of the country where it seemed that they were 
needed. For this reason the means used for propagating them 
was similar to that of the German botanist ; that is, clover or 
bean, or whatever the plants from which the bacteria originally 
came, was stewed and to this decoction were added sugar, pep- 
tone and other substances ordinarily used in cultivating bacteria. 
The result was a medium very rich in nitrogen and the growth 
obtained was all that could be desired. 

At this stage the problem seemed an exceedingly simple one 
and it was thought that within a short time it would be possible 
to send out bacteria by the keg, barrel, or any quantity desired. 
Unfortunately, however, when these organisms were tested in 
the greenhouse and in the field, it was found that they did not 
produce nodules. There could be no question about their having 
been derived from the true nodule-forming organism, but it 
looked as though they had by BOme means or other lost the 
power of infecting the plants upon which it was bo desirable to 
bays them produce root nodules. After a littje experimenting, 
it became evident that the manner of growing these bacteria wa> 
not one designed to make them efficient nitrogen fixers. When 
you remember that these organisms reproduce themselves in from 
thirty to forty-five minutes, you can readily see that if they are 
at all susceptible to their environment, the tremendous number ^\ 
generations obtained at the end of a few days enables any slight 
difference in their efficiency to be transmitted in a mos1 astonish- 
ing way; and that, although one started with an organism 



60 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

capable of producing nodules and fixing nitrogen, unless the 
conditions were exactly right this function might be entirely 
lost. 

Experiments soon proved that this loss of power was the result 
of growing upon a rich nitrogenous medium. It was as though 
the bacteria soon discovered that it was easier to get nitrogen 
out of the substance upon which they were growing than it was 
to fix it from the air, for it requires a tremendous energy to com- 
bine free nitrogen. Consequently, they simply degenerated and 
became lazy, just as a number of other organisms do under the 
same circumstances, and so long as they were allowed to grow 
under such luxurious conditions they refused to perform the bene- 
ficial function for which nature intended them. As soon as this 
fact was thoroughly demonstrated an attempt was made to find 
some medium which would sustain the life of the bacteria and 
yet not enable them to degenerate and lose their beneficial power. 
By transferring the bacteria to a medium made up of chemically 
pure salts which contained no nitrogen and solidifying with silica 
jelly, it was possible to obtain colonies which had never had ac- 
cess to nitrogen in a fixed form. These colonies could then be 
transferred to nutrient solutions devoid of nitrogen, and in this 
way the beneficial function of combining nitrogen from the air 
was so augmented that chemical tests proved these organisms to 
be from seven to ten times as efficient as when they were origi- 
nally isolated from the nodule. 

Of course large numbers of the original bacteria were not able 
to stand this sudden transition from a comparatively rich nitro- 
genous medium to one absolutely devoid of this element, but a 
few million bacteria more or less makes practically no difference. 
If one organism persisted it was a matter of a very short time 
when this could be multiplied to any desired quantity. Thus by 
a process of selection it was possible to obtain a culture which so 
far as the direct fixation of nitrogen was concerned certainly was 
very much more efficient than the ordinary wild, nodule-forming 
organisms. 

There is one other important element, however, which must be 
maintained or increased if these organisms are to produce the 
best results, and that is their ability to penetrate the root hairs, 



BACTERIA AS FERTILIZERS. 61 

for at present, at least, it does not seem that these bacteria are 
able to obtain sufficient energy outside of the plant to fix nitro- 
gen in any perceptible quantity. It is probable that they need 
large amounts of carbohydrates to enable them to carry on their 
important function, and these, of course, are readily obtained from 
the roots of the plant. Consequently if they are not ajde to enter 
the plant they are of little or no benefit to the soil. The pene- 
trative function of these bacteria is generally restricted to a very 
small motile form which is seldom found within the root nodule 
after it has developed to any size. 

Growing nodule-forming organisms upon nitrogenous jelly or 
agar tend to fix the large rod-shaped form which cannot pene- 
trate the root hairs. In fact it is almost impossible after these 
bacteria have been grown under what would seem to be the most 
favorable conditions for a considerable length of time, to cause 
them to break up into the small root-hair penetrating form. On 
the other hand, bacteria cultivated upon nitrogen-free media, 
particularly when kept in liquids, readily break up into this small 
form and thus are able to produce large numbers of nodules tilled 
with bacteria which are at what may be considered their highest 
state of efficiency. 

In order to test the results of these selected methods several 
acres of different legumes were planted upon the experiment farm 
near Washington, part of which was inoculated with bacteria 
grown upon rich nitrogenous media, and part with organisms 
taken from the same silica jelly agar and thereafter kept growing 
in solutions absolutely devoid of any fixed nitrogen. The results 
were very striking indeed. In the case of soy beans some thou- 
sands of plants grown in rows and inoculated with bacteria cul- 
tivated after the method <>f Nobbe upon decoctions of soy beans 

with peptone added failed to show a single nodule; whereas 
other plants in rows within four feet of these and inoculated with 
bacteria taken from the >ame nodule, but grown upon nitrogen- 
fret' media, showed an average 01 from ten to twenty-five nodules 

per plant, of course the contrast above gronnd was equally 

striking. 

It will be impossible for me to read you the great numb 
favorable reports we have had from practical Carmen throughout 



62 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

the country who have successfully used these selected bacteria. 
Of course it was expected that soils which were devoid of any of 
these organisms would be improved by inoculation, but it was 
not supposed that where the bacteria already existed and had 
been producing a fair number of nodules upon the standing crop 
that the addition of the cultivated form would be of any distinct 
benefit. Reports demonstrate, however, that in some instances 
the inoculation with the cultivated forms shows as much differ- 
ence upon the field as in those places where bacteria had not 
previously existed, and it seems probable that by following the 
method so well understood by plant breeders that eventually we 
may be able to develop an organism which will be available for a 
number of conditions which at the present time it is not supposed 
possible to benefit. 

Numerous laboratory experiments have seemed to demonstrate 
that it is impossible for the nodule-forming bacteria to penetrate 
the roots of legumes after the plants are of any size. For this 
reason it has always been considered that it was useless to 
attempt to add the nitrogen-fixing bacteria to a growing crop. 
However, experience with these cultivated forms seems to indi- 
cate that under some circumstances the use of inoculating mate- 
rial upon a standing crop of any age will be beneficial. 

I quote some opinions of practical men on the subject as 
follows : F. G-. Short of Fort Atkinson, Wis., writes, " In July 
the Department sent me a sample of alfalfa bacteria, with direc- 
tions for application. This was used on a field of alfalfa which 
had been newly seeded this spring and up to that time had shown 
a very small growth of yellow, rather stunted plants. I used the 
bacteria according to directions and can see there is quite a 
decided change for the better." John C. Lloyd of Utica, Neb., 
used a culture upon five acres of alfalfa sown three years ago. 
The result was "ranker growth than before treatment and much 
heavier crop of hay. Cut three times and could have cut four, 
but pastured the last crop." 

In Hoard's Dairyman for Nov. 11, 1904, an account is given 
of the treatment of old alfalfa fields with liquid culture applied by 
means of a street sprinkler. An experimental trial of this method 
was made by one of the editors of the paper with " very evident 



BACTERIA AS FERTILIZERS. 63 

success." From Levy, Mo., Thomas O. Hudson writes regarding 
a field of alfalfa planted in 1901 and treated with inoculating 
material in March, 1904. He says: "Results good. It was 
sickly and yellow and spindling, and did not do any good until 
this year. This year it was dark green and thrifty. I think it 
will be better next year." Another report upon an alfalfa field 
to which bacteria were added during the fourth year was recently 
sent by U. J. Hess, North Yakima, Washington, who wrote : 
"The crop, which had been short, pale, and spindling, took on a 
darker color and a rank growth and yielded, I think, about three 
times as much as formerly." 

The same results have been noted for clover, IT. W. Dunlap, 
Holland Patent, N. Y., reporting that having more of the liquid 
culture than could be used for some seed he was inoculating he 
mixed it with a light loam and spread it upon a part of a field 
already in clover. The difference in color and size of the plants 
later on indicated where the soil had been distributed. Mrs. J. 
A. Wells of Bryn Athvn, I 'a., tried watering pea vines a month 
old, and with undoubted success. John R. Spears of Nbrthwood, 
N. Y., treated his peas with the culture solution with the excep- 
tion of one row, after they were two or three inches high, and 
the decided benefit is indicated by his report of his success. It 
will thus be seen, that whereas the ordinary wild bacteria of the 
soil are not able to penetrate the roots of plants of some age, the 
cultivated, more virulent form has less difficulty 10 accomplishing 
this, and, where conditions arc favorable, is aide to produce 
nodules which very booh become beneficial to the plant. 

In order to test the value of these cultivated bacteria which 
have been improved by selective methods, it was decided to dis- 
tribute sufficient material for inoculating an acre or more of 
ground to a large number Of practical fanners throughout the 

country. This distribution was begun about a year ago and we 

have already received some three thousand reports giving the 
results of the experiments. It would be very interesting it' I 

COUld read you the experience Of the men who ha\e used tl 
bacteria, but BS BOme of the reports have already been published 

and it would take altogether too much time to give you even an 

abstract of their reports, I can only say that the results have far 



64 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

exceeded our expectations, the percentage of success upon all 
crops, under all conditions, and in every part of the country 
being over seventy-five per cent. This means that the farmer 
was able to see a decided difference in the legumes which had 
been treated with the bacteria distributed by the Department as 
compared with those grown under ordinary circumstances. 

Sometimes the percentages of increase were as much as 500 
per cent or more, and in the majority of cases the difference in 
favor of the inoculated crop was 100 per cent. When it is 
remembered that all of these experiments were carried on by 
men who had no other knowledge of the bacteria than that 
given them in the printed directions accompanying the cultures, 
that they were not selected in any way, and that oftentimes the 
region in which they attempted to grow the specific crop was not 
by any means best adapted for it, I think you will agree with me 
that the results have been very satisfactory. 



GENERAL DISCUSSION ON FLOWERS. 

OPENED BY J. WOODWARD MANNING, READING, MASS. 



Saturday, February 25, 1905. 



A general discussion on the subject of flowers and their cul- 
ture was introduced into the course of horticultural lectures 
today. It was opened by J. Woodward Manning who presented 
the following paper on 

Flowers and Their Seasons. 

A review of the more prominent classes of flowering trees, 
shrubs, and herbs that are commonly used in ornamental 
planting probably will be of some use in leading one to a more 
satisfactory selection that will enable a continuance of blooming 
effect from early spring to the hard frosts of late fall. To do 
this the shortest possible mention of species must ensue to allow 
the subject to be covered. 

The first warm days of April find the scarlet maple ready to 
unfold its crimson flower buds, and the spice or Benjamin bush 
(Benzoin odoriferum) is occasionally found in this vicinity in 
showy colonies aglow with yellow at the same time. The pussy 
willow has perhaps already passed and the aspen poplar, birches, 
and alders are tilling the air of the swamps and wild woods with 
their floating pollen from showy catkins. The shad bush is 
quite ready to burst into bloom in the swamps, and occasional 
isolated native groups of flowering dogwood are opening their 
showy flower bracts. 

Of introduced trees the cornelian cherry (Comas Mas) is even 
more showy in its wealth of yellow flowers than the spice bush, 
and peaches quickly respond to the warmer days. The red bud 
( Cercis Canadensis) is in full bloom by the end of the month 
and the Hall's magnolia (Magnolia Halliana) persists in bloom- 



66 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ing even if its fragrant, pure white flowers do suffer by late 
frosts. 

In shrubs Spiraea arguta often blooms with thin snow on the 
ground. The mezereum in its bright purple and pure white 
varieties braves several degrees of frost that it may be foremost 
in the ranks of showy, berry-bearing shrubs. The lily of the 
valley tree {Andromeda floribundd) and its Japanese cousin 
have been patiently waiting all winter with half-opened buds for 
an opportunity to display their wealth of bloom, and, with the 
Cornish heath {Erica vagans), are most welcome in their early 
bloom. Fothergillas, Cydonias or Japan quinces, Japanese 
hazels {Corylopsis), leatherwoods {Dirca), golden bells or For- 
sythias, shrub yellow-roots {Xanthorrhiza), Thunberg's spiraeas, 
and Chinese wistarias all compete with each other to make a 
glorious show before May overtakes them. 

Our native Hepatica or liver-leaf generally leads in herbs, and 
yet the rivalry for precedence of Claytonias, bloodroot {Sangui- 
naria), wind anemones {Anemone nemorosa), squirrel corn, 
and wake-robins tend to give that peculiar interest to our wood- 
land rambles. In the gardens crested and vernal iris {Iris 
cristata and /. verna) are racing. Lungworts {Mertensia), 
alpine rock-cress {Arabis), moss pinks {Phlox subidata), speed- 
wells ( Veronica), hardy candytufts {Iberis), golden yarrow 
{Achillea tomentosa), the Geneva bugle {Ajuga Genevensis), 
madworts {Alyssum), alpine gentians {Gentian a), and creeping 
forget-me-nots ( Omphalodes) are striving to outdo their country 
cousins, and trying madly to keep in advance of the oriental and 
alpine poppies {Papaver), the Christmas roses {Helleborus), and 
the English cowslips and polyanthus {Primulas). The leopard's 
bane {Doronicum) holds forth its heads, a reminder of the innu- 
merable cousins of the composite family to follow. 

In the meantime the innocence of the pastures and meadows 
{Houstonia), while insignificant in size, more than makes up this 
deficiency by its prolific abundance sufficient to color the land- 
scape. Bulbs, too, have been contributing their share ; snowdrops 
have fought with Siberian squills {Scilla Sibirica) and they with 
Puschkinias from Asia Minor and glory of the snows ( Chiono- 
doxa), to see which could outstrip the tulips and narcissi. The 



GENERAL DISCUSSION ON FLOWERS. 67 

hyacinths with their fastidious requirements have repaid tender 
care by fragrance and beauty of color and form with symmetrical 
mien. Winter aconite (Eranthis), Pasque-flower {Anemone 
Pulsatilla), and ox-eye (Adonis) have already passed their 
flowering period and are preparing for a summer's rest. 

May arrives anxious to outdo her predecessor. She flashes 
most gorgeous Chinese and Japanese magnolias into a wondrous 
wealth of bloom, and permeates the air with the fragrance and 
rare beauty of the sadly overlooked Norway maple. Larches 
combine brilliant coloring of rather inconspicuous flowers with 
softest green unfolding foliage. Plums and cherries in great 
variety tinge the landscape with their inflorescence. Flowering 
crabs bend beneath their burden of bloom in delicate shadings of 
crimson, pink, and white. Sheltered snowdrop trees (Jfohro- 
dendron or Halesia) repay this care in their marvelous way, and 
toward the end of the month thorns in great variety by their 
prolific abundance of showy white, subtly fragrant flowers give 
promise of their showy autumn crops of fruits. 

Shrubs make a wonderful show in confusing variety ; spiraeas, 
pearl bush (Exochorda), Jew's mallows (Kerria), Carolina all- 
spice or calycanthus, golden currants (Ribcs), bush honeysuckle 
(Lonicera), in great variety, rose acacias (Mobinia hispida), 
Himalayan cotoneasters, pink and white flowered, Madder nut 
( Staphylea ), Persian lilacs, and Japanese chestnuts (Xanthoce- 
rae) are vying with the gorgeous hued hybrid azaleas to detract 
attention from the wildings; hut the mayflower (Epigea repent! 
Pinxter flower (Azalea nudiflora) % and Rhodora hold their own 
for quiet harmonious beauty, and one cannot choose between the 
rivals. 

Bulbfl are in their heyday of beauty: tulips in all their galore 
of marvelous coloring; the weird Fritillarias startling j n their 
variety of habit and play of color; the white lipped grape hya- 

cinths ; the stars of Bethlehems and dog-tooth violets; Darcisf 
squills, and wake-robins | Trillium) are still with as, 

Of herbs silvery yarrow (Achillea argeniea), windflowers 
(Anemone), columbines (Aquilegia), thrifts (Armeria), d&u 
of England (Belli*) , I erastrama, shooting stars V ■■• 
mandrakes (Podophyllum), Solomon's seal (Poly w), 



68 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

pansies and violets, Primulas and barren-worts (jEJpimedium), 
lily of the valley, day-lilies (Hemerocallis) , rockets (Hesperis), 
dwarf iris, and creeping phlox each adapted to its own use and 
presenting possibilities to enliven every portion of one's grounds. 
Why should we crave the evanescent effect of the tender bedding 
plants to the exclusion of the above with so much beauty awaiting 
our effort. 

June arrives with its marvelous horse-chestnuts, the tulip tree 
with its soft-hued flowers, the golden chains or Laburnums, the 
mountain ash (Sorbus), and the late blooming crabs and cherries. 
The country roadsides are lined with the locust (Robinia) ; 
lindens, basswoods and limes virtually load the air with the 
honeyed fragrance of their pale yellow flowers; later in the 
month the white fringe (Ohionanthus), small in stature, shows 
wonderful masses of purest white flowers amidst its rich, dark 
green foliage. Finally the yellow-wood (Cladrastis) adds to its 
graceful form a marvelous sight of hanging festoons of purest 
white flowers, and in shrubs azaleas are continuing their won- 
drous range of color. 

Rhododendrons take precedence in the popular appreciation but 
to those who cannot afford their expense and care there remains 
abundant material to select from. Lilacs in all their range of 
color in which such improvement has been attained of late, 
Weigelas, beautiful in all aspects of foliage or flower and won- 
drous prolific of bloom, Spiraeas, Deutzias, dogwoods, snowballs, 
privets in great variety, mock orange or Syringa (Philadelphns), 
deliciously fragrant and of varied kinds. The woods teem with 
their pendulous, yellow flowered barberries, their dockmackies, 
arrow-woods, hobble-bushes, and Appalachian teas, all members 
of a single family, the Viburnums, whose varied wealth of later- 
berried effects renders them interesting long beyond the flow- 
ering period, elders (Sambucus) and choke berries (Aronia or 
Sorbus), the showy mountain laurel (JTalmia latifolia) which 
will continue to bloom in the deeper woods well into July. 
Then the roses always associated with June and too numerous in 
variety and too marvelous in their beauty and fragrance to other 
than mention. The heather with all its associations is at its best 
at this time and with other shrubs like the tamarisk, indigo 



GENERAL DISCUSSION ON FLOWERS. 69 

shrub, and lead plant carry on their bloom effect into the next 
month. • 

Herbs are in their greatest profusion ; rose campions (Agros- 
temma) ; columbines (Aquilegia) ; Astilbes ; golden chamomile 
(Anthemis); St. Bruno's lilies (AntJtericum) ; milkweeds 
including the orange butterfly weed (Asclepias tnberosa) ; 
poppy-mallows (Callirhoe) ; harebells (Campanula)^ in great 
variety ; forget-me-nots (Mgosotis) ; lupins (Ltqrinus) ; the 
graceful, pendent flowered alum-root (Heuchera) ; violets; 
speedwells (Veronica) ; tick-seeds or Coreopsis; pinks in their 
sweet odors and varied colors; foxgloves (Digitalis)', fleabanes 
(Erigeron)\ cranesbills (Geranium)-, blanket flowers or Gail- 
lardias, in wondrous combinations of color; cross-wort (Cruci- 
anellas) ; Primulas; evening primroses (Oenothera), profuse in 
their golden shades; spider-worts (Tradescantia) and day- 
lilies (Hemerocallis). 

Yet the above are but a smattering of the wealth of herbaceous 
plants for the month of June. Three families have not been 
mentioned as yet and are surely indispensable. I refer to peonies 
with their wondrous variety in color, size, and shape, irises in their 
marvelous range of color, and Pyrethrums which also seem to 
have reached their limit of improvement. Surely we have much 
to anticipate in our gardening of the future if improvement is t<> 
continue as it has in the past fifty years. 

July ushers in the sweet chestnut with its wealth of yellow, 
clustered flowers showing to advantage against the glossy green 
foliage. Our landscape gain- new interest daring its period of 
bloom. Catalpas, too, are coming into their perfection and rival 
the horse-chestnut ^i the previous month in the size, coloring, and 

abundance of its flowers. Sumacs also are Interesting though <<\ 
more subdued color, and late in the month the Chinese pagodfl 
tree (Sophora) produces abundantly very Large open panicles of 
creamy white flowers. Last of all the Japanese varni>h t 

( Kbelreuteria) attracts attention with its large showy open pani- 
cles of bright yellow tlowers contrasting effectively with i t > richly 
varnished foliage. In shrubs .Inly is well provided With the 
dyer's broom (Cfenista tiflCtOTta) which gives the vicinity <<i 
Salem and Marblehead distinction in its golden tinge to the land- 



70 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

scape ; intolerable nuisance to the farmer, but a thing of beauty 
to the artist. 

Our swamps are fragrant with the honeysuckle azalea {Azalea 
viscosa), the sweet pepper-bush (Clethra alnifolia), and the cool 
woods of the north still have the mountain laurel. The shrubby 
cinquefoil or hardhack (Potentilla) is equally effective from the 
utilitarian and artistic standpoint in the western part of the state. 
The buttonball ( Cephalanthns) is showy now and we are to be 
congratulated that we are commencing to appreciate its midsum- 
mer beauty. Our home grounds are happy with their collection 
of Adam's needles or Yuccas, the white kerria (Phodoty pos) i, 
bladder sennas (Colutea), St. John's-worts (Hypericum), sorrel 
tree (Oxydendrum), that old but beautiful dwarf horse-chestnut 
(^Esculus parviflora), and the climbing clematis and honey- 
suckles. In the flower border the peonies are still making a 
lingering effect in a vain effort to vanquish its coming rival, the 
phlox, which from now on till the time of Michaelmas daisies and 
chrysanthemums will have first place. Japanese irises, however, 
hold temporary sway with their gorgeous coloring and immense 
size of bloom. Larkspurs, too, are old and indispensable favorites 
with their showy spikes of rich, deep hued flowers. 

Marsh mallows (Hibiscus) are now wondrous in the size of 
their richly colored flowers, and the cardinal-flower (Lobelia 
cardinalis) is most brilliant in its coloring. Of the lesser lights 
of the garden plume poppies (bocconia), bowman's-root ( Gil- 
lenia), chalk-plant (Gypsophila), valerian (Centranthus), Oswego 
tea (Monarda didyma), giant harebell (Platycodon), Dictamnus, 
and blackberry- lily (Belemcanda) are all showy in bright hues of 
color. Gaillardias still show their varied flowers and Cassia, 
Anthemis, Asclepias, and Centaurea add their variety. Yellow 
flowers now become over abundant. Helianthus, Rudbeckias or 
ox-eye daisies, Coreopsis, and Helenium all bearing yellow flowers 
in profusion. Fortunately, by carefully selecting color, variety 
can be obtained from the list above or to it can be added the 
white or giant daisy (Pyrethrum uliginosum), sea hollies (Eryn- 
gium), Echinops, and speedwells ( Veronica). The tender plants 
are now gaining strength to add in varied color of flower and 
foliage to meet all needs. In bulbs, lilies, Hall's amaryllis 



GENERAL DISCUSSION ON FLOWERS. 71 

(Lycoris squamigera) , are at their best, and in the lilies, at least, 
give great range in beauty of color and form of flower. 

August has few flowering trees, the Aralias standing by them- 
selves in creating a flowering effect at this period. Their huge 
masses of white flowers show to great advantage against the sub- 
tropical foliage. In shrubs the New Jersey tea (Ceanothus) is 
pleasing in its late blooming effect. Clematis vines are showy in 
their abundant bloom. Hydrangeas, however, are indispensable 
in their showy effect. Yellow-flowered herbs predominate includ- 
ing sun-flowers (Helianthus), and sneezeworts (Selenium and 
Heliopsls). There is really ample variety of color, however, in 
a selection of the false chamomiles (Boltonia), plantain lilies 
(Funkia), Eupatoriums, meadow rues (T/ialictrum), and Kni- 
phofias. Phlox, too, gives a wide range of color and the Mich- 
aelmas daisies or asters commence to appear at this time. Stoke's 
aster (Stokesia cyanea) gives a large range in shades of white, 
purple, and blue flowers in the hybrid forms between the New- 
England, the New York, and other species of this family. The 
above with Sedums, Veronicas, Lvthrums, Saponarias, Lysima- 
chias, and Stachys give us abundant hardy flowers with which to 
make August a show month of the year in the flower border. 

September arrives with but a single notable tree for showy 
bloom and that requiring care and shelter to obtain results. I 
refer to that rare and choice loblolly bay (Gordonia Lasianthus 
Altamahd). Probably the specimen plant in the Arnold Arbore- 
tum will remain the best of its kind for a long period to come. 
Its beautifully showy, fragrant white flowers are borne nearly to 
frost. We do occasionally have second crops of flowers from 
the white bay (Magnolia glauca) that appear in September. In 
shrubs Baccharis the groundsel tree, Hydrangeas, and the showy 
sweet pea shrub (Desmodium or Letpedeza Sieboldx) practically 
comprise the list. The first with white silky seed vessels that 
look like flowers, the second with its large showy heads of white 
blooms, and the last with its immense profusion o\ rich purple 
flowers often lasting till hard frost. Phloxes are showing their 
second bloom if they have not been allowed to [X<^ to seed. 
Asters are in greatest profusion of kinds ami in all shades of blue. 
purple, and of the purest white. Iron weeds ( Vetti art' 



72 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

showy with their broad heads of deep purple. Blazing stars 
(Liatris) are effective too in their purple shades. In yellow 
flowers there are plenty of sunflowers yet, and compass-plants 
(/Silphium) are in several distinct forms. Gaillardias still persist 
in blooming, and the goldenrods have been and are still making a 
brilliant show. The flame-flowers are defying the frost and 
chrysanthemums are making great promise of bloom provided 
weather conditions do not become too severe to enable the matur- 
ing of the flowers. Leadwort (Ceratostigma plwmbaginoides) is 
a carpet of richest blue, and the beautiful Japanese windflower 
{Anemone Japonicci) is at its best. Boltonia latisquama, too, is 
still a mass of pale, lavender- blue flowers particularly effective 
for cutting. 

October and November according to the mildness of the sea- 
son continue the flower effect of September. Chrysanthemums 
should be at their best as should also the Japanese anemones. In 
the woods the witch hazel gives a glow of color with its clouds of 
deep yellow flowers ; but flowering time is over and fruiting time 
is at hand and attention must be diverted to this direction until 
the scarlet maple commences the round again. 



James H. Bowditch, the chairman, remarked that those pres- 
ent must now know just what to plant in their gardens. 

Adin A. Hixon stated that the principal thing in gardening 
was to know the conditions of your soil, and this was necessary 
in order to know what to plant to get satisfactory results. He 
said that it was useless to try to grow rhododendrons, for instance, 
in a light soil with a gravelly subsoil. The Siberian crab would 
give one as good satisfaction as anything that could be set out. 

He was often asked what to set out around seashore cottages, 
and advised the transplanting of the native ferns, plants and 
shrubs of the immediate neighborhood. Amidst the ferns he 
recommended the planting of tuberous begonias which he said 
were the easiest and cheapest flowers to grow ; gladioli also were 
very effective. 

One of the greatest difficulties to be met with in gardening 
was the trouble with insect pests. This trouble could be largely 
cured by the plentiful use of soap and water, which he consid- 



GENERAL DISCUSSION ON FLOWERS. 73 

ered fully as efficient as many of the higher cost remedies. It 
would kill two-thirds of all the insect pests of flowers if used in 
season. 

Edward O. Orpet spoke favorably of the use of soap as an in- 
secticide and especially of ivory soap which he said owed its 
peculiar value for this purpose to the fact that it was made of 
vegetable oils rather than of animal fat, and that it contained no 
free alkali. He gave as a formula for its use: one cake to six 
pails of water. He knew of numerous species of insects that 
this solution would kill. 

Mr. Orpet said he thought that the best results could be ob- 
tained in the garden with bulbs and annuals, and that wonderful 
progress had been made in recent years in the development of 
desirable annuals. He mentioned especially the asters, Salpiglos- 
sis, Schizanthus, and the Nicotiana jSanderae, a recent, valuable 
acquisition. 

T. D. Hatfield spoke of planting rhododendrons in gravelly 
soil, which he managed to fit for these shrubs by putting in an 
abundance of leaf mold. 

Mr. Manning said that with rhododendrons it was not so much 
a question of soil as it was of exposures ; they should be planted 
in partial shade and protected by wind-breaks. Forty per cent 
of rhododendrons die from lack of proper conditions, and alter- 
nate freezing and thawing cause more destruction than anything 
else. 

Mr. Ilixon reiterated a warning not to plant rhododendrons in 
a gravelly soil. 

Mr. Orpet said that gravelly ground was an unsuitable location 
for rhododendrons, and also it there was lime in the soil they 
could not be grown. Ericaeeous plants generally could not be 
grown in soil impregnated with lime, which accounted tor the 
fact of the laurel and arbutus being so abundant in some places 
and not to be found in other localities 

Thaddeus Friend said he was an amateur and had come into 
the possession of a tract of barren land at Cape Ann, Massachu- 
setts, which he desired to cover with trees, shrubs and flowers at 
a small expense. The first thing he did was to get rid i^\ the 
stones abundantly distributed over the surface. This he accom- 
plished by planning a macadamized road through the land, and 



74 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

digging up the soil he had dumped the rocks into the excava- 
tion. 

He then went into the woods and transplanted many native 
herbaceous plants, trees, and shrubs. The first plant he set 
out was the common yellow lily with which he was very suc- 
cessful for it increased rapidly and he grew specimens with thir- 
teen blooms and flowers six inches across. He planted snowdrops 
under the ledges and had them flower February 22. He also had 
success with the moosewood out of the woods. 

Ashes had been referred to as a fertilizer and he believed in it. 
He had put on his land the proportion of two tons of ashes and 
one ton of bone and it had made great crops. He grew on it a 
squash which weighed 97 pounds and corn also did well. He 
had found a wild rose with very few thorns on the stems which 
he had transplanted with pleasing results. 

In all he had set out 6000 trees, among them 100 Oregon 
pines, and his knowledge of the subject had come wholly from 
practice and experience. 

Robert Cameron asked Mr. Manning to name the best twelve 
hardy trees, shrubs, and perennial flowering plants suitable for 
estates and gardens about Boston. 

In response to this request Mr. Manning gave the following 
lists : 

Best Twelve Hardy Trees. 

Yellow Wood (Cladrastis tinctoria). Unquestionably our most 

beautiful tree in flower. 
Wier's Cut-Leaf Maple. For rapid, graceful growth. 
Horse Chestnut (^Esculus Hippocastanum) . 
Rivers' Purple Beech. For its brilliant foliage. 
Chinese Magnolia {Magnolia Soulangeana) . Yery effective in 

early spring. 
Pyrus floribunda, var. Hallii. There should be on an estate at 

least one specimen of the flowering crab. 
Catalpa. For its showy bloom in July. 
American Elm. There is no tree more graceful. 
Norway Maple. For sturdy growth and longevity. 



GENERAL DISCUSSION ON FLOWERS. 75 

Pin Oak. An oak should not be left out of the list and there is 
nothing finer than the pin oak (Quercus palustris). 

Tulip Tree. This should be one of the twelve. 

Varnish Tree {Koelreuteria paniculata). This tree although 
structurally not imposing is valuable on account of its 
summer flowering habit. 

Best Twelve Hardy Shrubs. 

Double Flowered Plum (Primus triloba). Our showiest, early 

flowering plum. April and May. Grows to six or twelve 

feet. 
Golden Bell (Forsythia Fortuni). With its Avealth of yellow 

flowers. 
Spiraea Van Houttei. A graceful, hardy shrub, bearing dense 

racemes of white flowers early in the season. 
Early Mock Orange (Philadelphus coronarius). More graceful 

than the larger flowered P. speciosissimus. 
Japanese Snowball ( Viburnum plicatimi). Perhaps a little 

tender for an unusually severe winter. 
Dwarf Horse Chestnut (Pavia macrostachy<i). 
Honeysuckle. The honeysuckles are all fine, but considering the 

berry-bearing effect through to the fall, Lonicera Morrowii 

is perhaps to be chosen. 
Russian Rose (Posa rugosa). Its showy fruit hardly less dec- 
orative than its large single flower. 
Hydrangea {Hydrangea paniculata). One must choose here 

the hardy species rather than those of greater grace or florif- 

erousness. 
Thunberg's Barberry. Nothing better for a hedge. 
Deutzia gracilis. 
Lilac. The best is the Rouen lilac (/Syringa Rothomagensis). 

Best Twelve Pkkknnial Plants. 

English Cowslip (Primula officinalis). The best old-fashioned 

perennial for early bloom. 



76 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Speedwell. ( Veronica amethystina). Some of the early bloom- 
ing speedwells, as this species, will give a perfect sheet of 
blue inflorescence early in the season. 

Lily of the Valley. Possesses so much merit that it must be 
included in the list. 

Iris. [Iris Plorentina). The German varieties of iris are pref- 
erable. 

Yellow Day Lily. (Hemerocallis flava). 

Larkspur. 

Phlox. Varieties can be planted to give flower from April to 
October. 

Peony. The best red is Paeonia officinalis and the best double 
white is P. f estiva maxima. 

Lupine. (Lupinus polyphyllus). In early June ; but unfortu- 
nately does not always retain its perennial habit. 

Gaillardia. 

Aster. The aster Lady Trevellyn is very recommendable. 

Veronica ( Veronica longifolia). 
or 

Sunflower. There was none better than the ten-petaled Helian- 
thus decapetalus. 

Mr. Manning stated that there were three thousand varieties 
of hardy perennials catalogued by nurserymen and to select 
twelve of them was a difficult proposition. 

Kenneth Finlayson advised the growing of Spiraea Van 
Houttei rather than S. Thunbergii which in his experience was 
not good after three years. 



SOME ASPECTS OF HARDY FLOWER CULTURE. 

BY A. HERRINGTON, MADISON, X. J. 



Read before the society, March 4, 1905. 



Notwithstanding all that has been written in the past about 
style and design, there is no garden so beautiful as that untram- 
meled by the application of needless geometry to its plan and plant- 
ing. A certain formality may be necessary and right about the 
house, but those who tell us the garden as a whole should be a 
thing of formal design are enemies to true gardening, not perhaps 
of wilful intention, but from lack of knowledge or inability to see 
and appreciate how their much vaunted formality circumscribes 
or prohibits the possibility of good gardening by limiting us to 
the use of a few forms and t}^pes of vegetation adapted to the 
formal scheme. 

Hence the floral poverty and meagre beauty of too many so- 
called gardens, wherein no place can be found for the planting of 
those beautiful flowers that tell the story of the year from the 
moment the frost relinquishes its grip of the earth till the time 
when vegetation again goes to its winter rest. In many gardens 
where place can be found for hosts of beautiful hardy flowers, 
they are not to be seen there because of the prevalent erroneous 
notions that the flower garden is a thing apart of itself, a set 
arrangement of cultivated beds and borders formal or other- 



's 
wise. 



Some attempt is made to display floral beauty, some good results 
are seen, but so long as our efforts begin and end there we arc 
merely prospecting ; we have not discovered the actual mine of 
floral treasure whose outcroppings are not thus localized. 

This is especially true of hardy flowers, and when we come to 
a right understanding of the subject we ought to find in hardy 
vegetation the main source of garden embellishment, just as in 
our permanent plantations we use only hardy trees and shrubs. 



78 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The purpose in view, therefore, is to suggest means and methods 
of widening the scope of our efforts, to suggest possibilities for 
growing and enjoying the beauty of more of the vast floral treasures 
garnered from many temperate parts of the globe, and all these 
further amplified by the substantial additions to the original types 
that have been obtained under cultivation. 

The flower gardening that is here advocated goes beyond the 
prim beds and borders, although admitting the propriety and 
necessity of these in their place. It advocates getting as near to 
nature as the garden will permit ; in other words, doing in many 
ways what nature does, with a tolerable certainty of good results. 
It will give us flowers on the hillside, flowers in the valley, flowers 
in the open sunlight or in the shade, in the grass or in the wood- 
land ; in short, it will enable us to have flowers in hundreds of 
places that surround the home, heretofore only devoid of them 
by reason of our neglect to plant, and what is perhaps of great 
importance to many, at a minimun cost of future care and keep- 
ing after the original outlay. Let us look for a moment at facts 
that annually confront us in regard to our methods of planting 
certain flowers, and then consider other ways of planting the same 
flowers that are prettier and more permanent. Take for the first 
example the 

Spring flowering bulbs. What a floral host they make! Rich 
in varied beauty; snowdrop, snowflake Scilla, Chionodoxa, Ery- 
throniums, Anemones, fritillaries, hyacinths, tulips, and daffodils. 
How do we grow these? Generally in beds and borders, planted 
with mathematical precision or worked into those spectacular 
designs for making which we seem to have a special aptitude. 
The effect is striking, somewhat pleasing, and it may be no better 
way could be devised for these particular types ; but such hya- 
cinths and tulips as we see are florist creations, therefore need cul- 
tural care. The error that is commonly made is in supposing or 
assuming that they adequately represent what is possible with 
spring bulbs in the garden. 

Most of the spring bulbous flowers need no cultivation at all, 
in the sense in which we understand or apply that word. They 
are children of nature, wild species, abounding still in grassy 
meadows or leafy woods. We too can plant them under condi- 



HARDY FLOWER CULTURE. 79 

tions of similarity. Snowdrop and crocus, Scillas and dog's-tooth 
violets are perfectly happy and infinitely more at home planted 
in association with trees and shrubs. They often perish from 
disease, if not killed by disturbance in the deeply dug manured 
border, yet associated with trees and shrubs and left undisturbed 
they will go on from year to year increasing and multiplying in 
numbers and beauty. A colony of the beautiful blue Scilla 
Sibirica that comes up each spring may be cited. A few bulbs 
were planted originally among some JRosa rugosa ten years ago, 
and nothing has been done since but to annually prune the roses. 
Each spring the Scillas appear and blossom profusely. They 
have greatly increased, not only by natural multiplication of the 
bulbs, but the flowers seed, which ripens and germinates, and the 
offspring grow on and flower in due course. A week or ten days 
this Scilla picture lasts and they retire to rest beneath a thicket 
of rose growth unthought of and forgotten, it may be, till they 
reappear the following year. Does not this suggest a pretty way 
of having huge colonies of spring bulbs in the garden? Gems of 
beauty that we commonly ignore because they are not adapted 
for use in conventional methods of flower gardening. Doubtless, 
long before a flower has graced the garden in spring you have 
gone into the woods and worshipped the spring beauty, the 
hepatica, and the yellow dog's-tooth violet. They need no 
culture and know no care, and if we wish it in just the same way 
we can make permanent additions to the interest and beauty of 
the garden by naturalizing these gems from the woods and 
meadows of Europe and Asia. 

As these early harbingers of spring fade away the floral pro< 
sion is continued with flowers of greater stature and more strik- 
ing beauty. Of these let us look for a while at the great group 
of daffodils. It is essentially a European family, hut they nerd 
not be strangers to oar gardens. The double Von Sion and 
Emperor and Horsfieldii we sometime Bee in bedfl after the usual 
fashion. The home of the daffodil is in the grass: in fact, some 
of the prettiest >peries refuse to live more than a year or two in 
cultivated ground, yet in the same garden planted in gra>s. con- 
tinue from year to year with proportionate increase. May we 
not have a grass garden too. and plant therein some o\ t! 



80 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

flowers ? All that you require is a grassy spot that need not be 
mown till midsummer. The smallest nook can be prettily 
adorned and if you have an acre or two to devote to the purpose 
the possibilities are immense. To stand knee-deep in grass and 
daffodils in May suggests surely a desirable and delightful aspect 
of hardy flower gardening, and one that once created will like- 
wise, without further care, increase in extent and beauty year 
after year. Planting is a simple matter of lifting the sod and 
underlying soil, dropping in the bulbs and replacing the soil and 
sod, taking care to plant the groups in a natural or irregular way, 
as any formality of arrangement in a grass garden would look 
most inappropriate. Not only the trumpet daffodils, but the 
graceful star and the lovely poet's narcissus are all amenable to 
grass planting, while some of the gems like Johnstoni and Queen 
of Spain can only be permanently established in the grass. Par- 
tial shade, if available, will prolong the life of the flowers so that 
proximity to large trees might be chosen, or a grove of trees not 
too close to one another might be made a daffodil garden. 

A word concerning tulips. The familiar type is that of the 
garden varieties of which there are hundreds, important spring 
flowers too, but scattered through Europe and Asia is a score 
or more of beautiful and most variable species that can be semi- 
naturalized about the shrubbery and plantations, and, if planted, 
will bring to the garden new forms and types of tulip beauty. 

For example, there is the sweet scented yellow Tulipa sylvestris 
of Great Britain, a charming variety to naturalize ; others with 
branched stems bearing several flowers, novel in appearance to 
those who only have seen the solitary-flowered, ordinary tulip. 
Tulipa proestans from Bokhara is a fine species with sometimes 
as many as five flowers, of a bright orange red, on a branched stem 
12 to 15 inches high ; and Tulipa Persica from Persia is another 
branching tulip with brilliant yellow bronze marked flowers. In 
all the tulip family, wild or cultivated forms, few can compare in 
gorgeous beauty to Tulipa Greigii, and in the opposite direction 
what a pretty gem we have in T. Clusiana, the lady tulip, its 
flowers cherry red externally, white internally, most refined in 
beauty, yet a pure child of nature, disliking rich garden soil, but 
happy and long-lived in stony ground among roots of trees and 



HARDY FLOWER CULTURE. 81 

shrubs. Besides these are many others and if you would take the 
species and make a tulip garden of them, tulip time would bring 
you such varied beauty and refinement of form that you would no 
longer be satisfied, in fact, you would wonder why you had for so 
long been content with the ordinary garden tulip. 

Spring flowering perennial plants. The bulbs, numerous as 
they are, only comprise a part of spring's contribution to the floral 
gayety of the earth. Another type of vegetation, of perennial 
characteristics, offers to the garden a wealth of beautiful material. 
Alpine flowers we used to call them, and a rockery or rock garden, 
was considered an essential adjunct, in fact a necessity before 
attempting their cultivation. Too often they perished from 
drought or starvation when planted upon ill-constructed rockeries. 
Many of these gems from the high mountain ranges of the world 
are just as happy if suitably planted and cared for upon the level 
ground such as the garden affords. Because they are indigenous 
to high altitudes it does not follow they must be strangers to gar- 
dens. These little gems are there because they are able to exist 
and raise their tiny heads in a zone where storms allow no life of 
tree and shrub. In association with trees and shrubs they would 
perish in the unequal conflict, but with the open sky above them 
they live and endure continuously — examples of the fitness with 
which all things are ordered in nature. 

From these lowly types of high mountain life we can gather an 
assemblage of pretty, easily grown plants and make a spring gar- 
den of exceeding beauty . Here are some of the important fainili. - : 
Alyssum, Arabis, Aubrietia, Phlox, Sedum, Saxifrage, Semper- 
vivum, Iberis, Epimedium, Silene, Pulmonaria, Primula. Armeiia 
and many others. 

To see and enjoy these to the fullest measure we must not be 
content with them as units, we should have them in hundreds 
and thousands if room permits. The cushion pink or dwarf phlox 
is often seen in gardens. It oovers the ground with a mof 
carpet of perennial verdure, but what a picture in Bpling when it 
covers itself with a mantle of white, or rose, or pink, according to 
variety. This is but one. Suppose you get an assOciatioD of 
types allied in needs and characteristics and see what a spring 
picture can be created therefrom. Some of them are admirable 



82 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

for planting in broad masses as a fringe or margin to shrub planta- 
tions; may even be used as carpet plants where choice shrubs 
stand widely apart ; but beyond this they justify the making of 
a special feature, especially where the topography or geological 
formations permit. Take, for example, a spot overlying rock 
with rocky outcroppings here and there, but some depth of soil 
between ; it is ideal for the purpose. Again, upon hundreds of 
places there yet remain those boulder reminders of the glacial 
epoch. These can be brought into use and help in forming a 
rock garden that will be satisfactory, a delight instead of an eye- 
sore. 

Instead of piling rocks high in heaps with the interstices filled 
with soil that is too often dry as dust, an altogether inadequate 
method for a country of great summer heat and limited rainfall, 
these same stones may be used to assist in correcting or ameliorat- 
ing adverse conditions of climate. Doubtless, you have often 
placed your hand upon a rock or stone on a hot summer day and 
noted its absorbency of heat. Lift a rock or stone on a hot day 
and place your hand on the ground where it rested and note how 
cool the ground is in comparison, not only with the rock but with 
the surrounding bare earth. In like manner rocks may be made 
of assistance in growing some of these choice spring flowers even 
upon level ground, some of the smaller ones lying on the surface ; 
others, larger, buried one-half or two- thirds, furnishing protection 
and a cool root run to the plants clustered about them. Rock 
gardens have been failures because the rocks were in excess or 
misused, but the proper use of them in bed or border or on a 
sunny slope subordinated to the purpose in view, as aids to culti- 
vation, opens the way to the creating of a garden feature of per- 
manent interest and perennial charm. 

Late spring and early summer flowers. The continuing of 
the floral procession brings next to view the taller plants with 
larger flowers, and a veritable host is at our command. 

How can we marshal such a force ? How can we hold an 
adequate review of Flora's army within the limits of the average 
garden ? It is not possible. The amassing of a collection of hardy 
herbaceous plants in a long mixed border is at its best a mere col- 
lection of units, yet collections more or less in number mainly 



HARDY FLOWER CULTURE. 83 

represent the extent of hardy flower culture. The collection has 
its place but it cannot be made a strong feature of the garden. 
If our aim is to create pictures in the garden landscape, effects of 
color, distinctive features in different parts, selections not col- 
lections must be the rule. As soon as we depart from the collec- 
tive method and take up the selective the availability of hardy 
flowers for garden decoration is" enormously increased. For ex- 
ample, take some special class of plants suited to a chosen spot, 
both from a cultural standpoint and with relation to effect in the 
garden landscape. Thoroughly prepare the situation and plant it 
and you can create a flower feature that will stand for rive to ten 
years with only the ordinary care of keeping free from weeds. 

An iris garden. Suppose we decide to make an iris garden. 
Here is a family worthy of ten times the attention it gets in the 
ordinary garden, and no matter how much space you have at 
command, you can plant half an acre or more, if the space justifies 
so extensive a planting, and yet show difference of variety in every 
square rod but fitness of association throughout the whole arrange- 
ment. Instead of a mixed medley of everything that flowers at 
iris time, consider irises only and see what the family has available 
for such planting. You are familiar with them ; you will concede 
irises in point of beauty stand related to all other hardy flowers, 
as the Cattleyas do to the orchid family, peerless and unsurpass- 
able in form, color, effect, the highest type of attainable flower 
beauty. 

Do you know that you can have an iris garden that will give 
you profuse and unbroken succession of loveliness from April well 
on into July, and that too without using the family in it > entirety, 
as sonic types, like the cushion irises and the bulboufl class, need 
separate special treatment. You must have seen some of our mead- 
ows blue with native iris in groups of an acre or more, a tine dis- 
play at flowering time but of one species only. 

In the iris garden we can have an early beginning, a continu- 
ous succession, and a late ending. An appropriate setting t<>, and 
background tor, an iris garden is a belt or plantation oi shrubs, 
planting the irises in hold groups in well-prepared soil in the 

foreground. The dwarf growers are the early bloomers, and 
height of growth and time oi flowering are in such perfect har- 
mony there need he nothing incongruous in the arrangement 



84 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

As a margin to the grouping we have the choice of several 
species, each in variety, some of them commencing to bloom in 
April, even before frost has entirely left us, as in Iris pttmila. 
This, as the name implies, is dwarf, attains a height of only eight 
or ten inches, yet flowers with equal profusion to those that suc- 
ceed it. In color its varieties are white, pale yellow, violet, 
purple, and the most exquisite of all the sky blue form named 
coeruha. 

Iris QUrien&i* is the type of a similar dwarf group, its best 
varieties being grandiflora^ deep violet purple; pallida, creamy 
white, sulphui'ta grandiflora, yellow ; and Socrates, rich purple. 
Iris Charncteiris is another dwarf group embracing nearly a dozen 
varieties in shades of yellow, blue, and purple. These are all 
plentiful and cheap and unquestionably hardy as they come from 
the Crimean country. Xext in succession come the tall bearded 
flag irises. Of these there are hundreds of varieties in cultivation, 
as variable as they are pretty, so there is no dearth of choice. 
They have been classified into groups and of these the Germanica 
group flowers first in May. The common blue needs no special 
mention but besides it there is a white form and atropurpurea, 
deep purple, vnacrantha^ a giant deep blue-flowered species and 
Purple King. In June the whole family of bearded irises is 
with us forming six distinct groups and every group replete with 
handsome varieties. Taking first the Amoena section ; in this the 
standards or upright petals are white, but the falls or drooping 
petals vary from white to purple, according to kind. A selection 
must begin with Victorine, an old but still one of the most charm- 
ing varieties, Mrs. H. Darwin, and Thorbeck, with a dozen more 
in existence to amplify the group if space permits. The Pallida 
section otters some of extreme beauty, in fact it is doubtful if 
among the hundreds of bearded irises there is one quite as beauti- 
ful as pallida Dalmatica, its flowers of great size, of a deep clear 
lavender color, and with a delicious perfume. It should be planted 
in big bold masses Celeste is a pretty azure blue, and Queen of 
May is in a class by itself, so distinct from every other kind, with 
flowers of a rosy-mauve color, probably as near pink as is obtaina- 
ble in this type of iris. This is a select trio from a class of at 
least two dozen. 



HARDY FLOWER CULTURE. 85 

The Neglecta section is characterized by varieties having stand- 
ards ranging from lavender to deep purple, and is equally numer- 
ous in variety. In this belongs the pretty Cottage Maid, Fairy 
Queen, and Perfection. This last is especially handsome, having 
light blue standards and deep violet falls. The Plicata section is 
a small one but contains an iris fit for the choicest collection in 
Mme. Chereau which has white standards and falls, quaintly and 
prettily marked with horizontal lines of blue, forming a fringe or 
margin around the edges of the petals. This odd manner of color 
markings is the distinguishing feature of the group. A very large 
section is that known as the Squalens, and it embraces an entirely 
different color scheme, the standards being fawn, or of a bronze 
or copper hue. Out of nearly a half -hundred to select from special 
mention must be made of Jacquiniana, a striking beauty, the stand- 
aids like burnished copper and the falls rich maroon, in appearance 
and texture like unto velvet. Another great section is the Yarie- 
gata, in which the standards are always of some shade of yellow, 
whilst the falls of the various kinds cover the whole range of iris 
color ; Gracchus, Darius, Louis Meyer, and Maori Iv inir are a select 
quartet from this numerous group. Other bearded irises given 
specific rank are Florentine, white and an early bloomer, with 
varieties, I. albiana and Princess of Wales, white, large and hand- 
some; Oypriana in several varieties in lovely shades of blue; 
flavescens, also varied in yellow tints; and samb-ucina in bronzy 
hues. 

All the irises so far enumerated are in the bearded group. A 
succession to them in time of flowering is given with another beard- 
less group, rich in species and varieties. Our native irises belong 
to this group, but they need not be considered, being greatly sur- 
passed in beauty by those from other lands. 

An important family that bursts into a blaze of glory after the 
bearded kinds have faded is the Sibirica group. The typical 
species /. Sibirica grows three feel high, has narrow grassy leaves, 

and small but exceedingly numerous bright blue flowers. There 
are a dozen good varieties; one white and one (A larger mzc and 

great beauty are orientalis and George Wallace. Tris spuria i-* 

another good species, bright lilac-blue, and has several distinct \ ari- 
eties as well, especially that named Celestial. Iris <><•/, r<>h 



86 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

gigantea is the giant of the family, throwing up its flower stems 
to a height of nearly six feet, the flowers white and yellow, whilst 
I. Monnieri and I. aurea are two pure yellow tall growing species 
of more than ordinary interest. 

Several hybrids, too, between Monnieri and spuria, classified 
under the name Monspur are among the best late irises. The 
iris season finishes with the flowering of the Japanese kinds, 
forms innumerable and of exceeding variation in the species laevi- 
gata or Kaempferi, and what a glorious climax to the whole. 
There is no need to describe these, only to say, although semi- 
aquatic they appear just as much at home right out in the open 
sunlight in the ordinary soil of the garden, if it is of fair depth, 
so that we need not be prevented from planting these in the iris 
garden contiguous to, or commingled with, the many types before 
enumerated. 

The bulbous irises and that quaintly beautiful class to which 
the mourning iris, jSusiana, belongs have been intentionally 
omitted from this suggested iris garden because they call for 
special treatment and particular choice of situation. Given the 
right conditions, a striking feature might be made of these alone 
but not quite as long lasting. 

The usual mixed planting of hardy flowers is often made in 
some more or less obscure spot, for the reason that as the varied 
subjects pass out of flower the appearance of the border is not of 
the best. There is nothing detrimental in the aspect of the iris 
garden as all have good, persistent foliage which alone is not lack- 
ing beauty from the time the green spears are thrust upwards in 
spring till they turn yellow and decay in the fall. 

Peonies and lilies, happy in appropriate association, replete 
in variety, may be suggested for another special extensive plant- 
ing, a garden of them in fact. The peony needs no eulogium 
here as it is one of the hardiest and best appreciated of hardy 
garden flowers, something you can plant and leave alone for a 
number of years. There is an unlimited choice from which to 
plant wisely and well. A careful selection *of the best should be 
made, not however forgetting some of the species like the Chinese 
albiflora with its great single, white flowers, as large as a plate, 
and varieties in other colors that have been raised from it. Other 



HARDY FLOWER CULTURE. 87 

single flowered species, natives of Europe and their varieties are 
important too. The peony season is not a long one. It is shorter 
than it need be because we have given most attention to the albi- 
flora varieties that come in June. The European representatives 
of the family are May flowering so that starting with these and 
with a selection of the Chinese peonies following in succession, a 
properly planted peony garden should be gay with flowers for at 
least six weeks. Whilst peonies are not averse to the open sun- 
light, it should be borne in mind that they do remarkably well in 
the shade, even quite near to large trees, so that a peony garden 
might be made a great success in a position where an iris garden, 
if attempted, would be a failure. 

Given a generous preparation at the start, you can make a great 
plantation of peonies with the assurance, that beyond keeping 
them clean and giving an occasional top dressing, that plantation 
may remain undisturbed for a period of at least ten years. What 
a contrast in comparison with the costly, laborious operations pur- 
sued in flower gardening as generally practised, involving the 
entire replanting of large areas certainly once, and if spring 
flowers are desired, twice a year. Is it any wonder that numbers 
of people who have gardens forego the costly pleasure of such 
flower gardening? 

With the passing of the peony bloom naught remains for the 
balance of the year but its own great tufts of luxurious leafage. 
hence the suggestion to plant lilies with the peonies. To give 
ample room for development it is essential that we plant our 
peonies at least a yard apart, as by the time they attain full 
growth they will completely hide the ground, yet there will be 
much unoccupied ground beneath or between the great spreading 
leaves. This is just the condition desired by many lilies. They 
raise their heads of glorious blossom high in the air — much 
higher than any peony grows — whilst the peony foliage over- 
spreading and shading the ground furnishes comfort, shelter and 
protection from burning sun to the lily roots. In this association 
of peony and lily we have practical adaptability as well a- artis- 
tic fitness, and the lily family suffices t<> continue the flowering 

interest in the garden almost to the end ^\ the garden year. The 

lily season opens before the peony season has passed, with the 



88 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

flowering of JLilium elegans. This is a dwarf lily, to be had in a 
score or more distinct varieties, and as they only grow from one 
to two feet in height they should be grouped in the immediate 
foreground of the planting. Next comes the rich orange lily, L. 
croceu?n, attaining a height of five feet, with the scarlet turk's- 
cap, Ziilium Chalcedonicum, the Umbellatum group, the Marta- 
gon group, and Lilium testaceum — all July flowering kinds. 
August will bring the tiger lily in several distinct varieties, also 
Lilium Henryi, a giant among lilies, easily grown and gracefully 
beautiful. Last comes the Speciosum group of lilies as a fitting 
termination of the long succession. Only the cheap, easily grown 
lilies have been enumerated. Many others of great interest and 
beauty might be added, the Auratum group, for example, that 
would need a little more cultural care and attention. 

Summer and autumn perennials. — Numerous other groups 
of flowers have strong claims for consideration. Suppose you 
have a good deep fertile soil that will grow good Delphiniums, 
why not plant a group of a hundred or more. In all Flora's fair 
family there are none more stately, and what a range of color they 
present in every conceivable shade of blue. Perhaps your ground 
is poor and shallow, then take the Yuccas, filamentosa and flac- 
cida, and plant these in bold broad masses. In New Jersey and 
doubtless elsewhere there are by the country roadsides great 
groups of the tawny day lily, Hemerocallis fulva, apparently 
wild ; and gorgeous they look with thousands of flowers open at 
one time on a July day. This is a Chinese plant but the way it 
has become naturalized would easily lead one into the belief it 
was a native of our land. Does not this suggest a similar free 
use of the other species of Hemerocallis in our gardens in asso- 
ciation with tree and shrub in a wild, free way ? Bocconia, 
Crambe, Ferula, Echinops, and Polygonum are names that, to 
those who know the plants that bear them, recall plants of great 
size and handsome character, too coarse perhaps for the choice 
collection, but given a place in the tree and shrub plantations they 
will give the garden another aspect of beautiful, hardy vegetation. 
As summer verges into autumn other great groups continue the 
floral story of the year. To cite a few, there are Phlox, Helian- 
thus, Rudbeckia, Helenium, Aster, Kniphofia, and others all 
worthy of the same bold generous treatment. 



HARDY FLOWER CULTURE. 89 

In short, hardy-flower culture presents so many aspects, provides 
us with material suitable to every kind of soil, condition, and 
environment, flowers for spring, summer, and fall, in unlimited 
variety, as to make utterly inexcusable the generally prevalent 
monotony of so called flower gardening. Instead of practicing 
universal imitativeness in the display of tender summer flowers, 
we should make original, adaptive plantings of those that are 
hardy and permanent, and this we must do with the knowledge 
that no garden can do justice to them all. 

Between planting for beautiful effects and planting for collec- 
tive interest, or botanical study, a wide gulf exists. It must be 
admitted that the very much mixed border of hardy flowers that 
is usually seen where hardy flowers find favor at all, is at its best 
little more than a botanical collection of living specimens. The 
true consideration of hardy flowers is ooverned by their relation- 
ship and fitness to all parts of the garden except the roads we 
walk upon and the essential lawns that we mow. 



THE RETURN TO NATURE. 



BY MISS MAUD SUMMERS, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 



Abstract of a lecture delivered before the Society, 
March 11, 1905. 



Truth and beauty are qualities of the universal ideal toward 
which the growing soul is ever tending. Always, man finds in 
water, land, and sky the outward expression of his own soul, 
where alone truth and beauty dwell. In the earliest stage of 
religion, the gods were friendly, manifesting themselves to their 
mortal children in blossom and leaf, in the ripening wheat and the 
golden corn. The loveliest stories of the mythopoetic fancy have 
to do with the gods whose love of man showed itself in their 
kindly relations to his interests, as a hunter, a tiller of the soil, a 
shepherd, or a navigator. The fabled golden age was in truth a 
reality wherein man's attitude toward nature was one of faith and 
worship; hence his life was serene and filled with content, lie 
had infinite trust in the fruitf ulness of the earth, infinite belief in 
the beneficence of the spirits that brought life and death, that 
ensphered the dew for his Bake, enriched the grass, fattened the 
kine, and empurpled the southern slopes of fall with cordial 
grapes. 

At just what period their was horn in the race the conscious- 
ness that nature was not only not divine, nor trustworthy, nor 
generous, but cruel, capricious, and tyrannical, history does not 
and cannot say; but it was inevitable that some such period of 
disillusion should come, and that when it did come man should 
change from a worshiper to a doubter, from a confiding child to 
a bitter accuser, from B joyful co-laborer in the work of the uni- 
verse, to ■ drudge earning his bread by the Bweat of his brow. 

Alas! this has been for the most part the attitude of man from 
immemorial times, and this same feeling y^i nature's tyranny and 
of man's enmity has driven entire populations in days past to seek 



92 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

their bread in cities, even as it is driving them from the prairie 
and the uplands today, to the reeking factory towns and the intol- 
erable tenements. Savage men and women struggled with nature 
to wrest from her food, clothing, and shelter. In the pastoral 
stage of civilization men and women worked side by side in the 
open, in order to force from nature the necessities of life. In the 
agricultural stage, farming was the chief occupation though the 
men, in addition, often followed the trades of shoemaker, black- 
smith, carpenter, etc., and the women worked in the dairy, cared 
for the poultry, were the bakers and brewers, the dyers, spin- 
ners, and weavers. Both men and women by force of circum- 
stances had eye, ear, and hand fitted to do with precision the task 
required in order to support life. 

We are now in the beginning of another epoch-marking change, 
for the race in its upward climb is entering the industrial stage of 
civilization, but the warfare does not cease. Domestic production 
has given place to factory production, and, in consequence, men, 
women, and children have left the farm to work in the factories. 
They are crowding into the cities to live in an environment of 
brick and mortar, where sordid surroundings too often crush out 
the impulse toward a higher life. In these early years of indus- 
trialism, as in the past, the undeveloped soul of man fails to see 
in the glories of sunset sky and the blue depths of heaven the 
joys of existence. The poets have always been seers and through- 
out the ages have called man's attention to the wealth and pro- 
digality of beauty everywhere in evidence, and have dwelt upon 
the perfection attainable by man when he should see that "nature 
is but a name for an effect whose cause is God." In the history 
of human progress, however, the black and bitter winter of unrest, 
discontent, and change always heralds the gracious springtime 
with healing in its wings. 

Through this period of eclipse we are passing, but as the rain- 
bow in the ancient story stands eternal in the heavens as a proof 
that seedtime and harvest shall not fail, so we realize that this 
return to nature is the visible sign of man's awakened conscious- 
ness to right ideals, which exists as an irresistible undercurrent, 
despite the apparent materialism of the age. This makes every 
thoughtful person watch with the keenest joy, in this swiftly 



THE RETURN TO NATURE. 93 

changing time, the breaking away of multitudes from the shackles 
of an artificial life, to know the way of peace and pleasantness, by 
living in harmony with nature and true self-expression. This 
reaching out for right ideals is not confined to America ; it is 
apparent today in the political awakening of Russia and in the 
religious revival which is stirring the national heart of Wales. 

Channing's description of Thoreau will best define a natural 
life. He says " We may profitably distinguish between that sham 
egotism which sets itself above all values, and that loyal faith in 
our instincts on which all sincere living rests. His life was a 
healthy utterance, a free and vital progress, joyous and serene, 
and thus proving its value. If he passed by forms that others 
held, it was because his time and means were invested elsewhere. 
To do one thing well, to persevere, to accomplish one thing per- 
fectly, was his faith." The recent interest in Thoreau's writings 
is one of the most hopeful signs of the times, for it bespeaks the 
fact that men and women see the inner meaning of his life, and in 
terms of self begin to realize that loyal faith in one's own in- 
stincts is the basis of sincere living. 

Thoreau's thought deeply impressed Tolstoi and was one of 
the influences which led him to renounce the ways of the world 
to live the life of a peasant on his own estate. The application 
of this principle does not mean that each one of us must slavishly 
follow Thoreau and live beside Walden Pond, nor lead the life 
of a Russian peasant. But it does mean that the best test of the 
worth of character is to apply Thoreau's standards and ask 
whether the person lives a contented, joyous life, fills his hours 
agreeably, is useful in his way, and on the whole achieves his 
purpose. This is what it means to live a free, spontaneous, and 
natural lite as opposed to the artificial one which holds so many in 
bondag 

The real significance of this return to nature is the recognition 
that it is a spiritual movement, tor it is revealing man to himself. 
It will lead to far-reaching economic and industrial changes when 
the public is aroused to an understanding <>f its deep underlying 
meaning. All of the various measures advanced to ad just the 
troubled conditions of Labor and capital are good. Each will act 
and read upon the other until an industrial mechanism devolved 



94 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

that works with automatic perfection. Whether this nicely 
adjusted instrument produces good or evil results will depend 
upon the human operators. As are the ideals and ideas of man, 
so will be the work made manifest. Hence, reformers in all ages 
have been forced, in the last analysis, to see that human regenera- 
tion rests with the individual ; that the problem is to substitute 
unselfish effort in the service of others, for the selfish struggle 
that seizes everything for one's self. 

The settlement of industrial troubles, then, depends largely 
upon the emphasis placed upon human wealth as opposed to 
material wealth. As Dr. Henderson so well says, "we need men 
and women with strong and beautiful bodies, with well-trained 
heads and hands, with tender and compassionate hearts." If our 
schools could produce this type of men and women there would 
be no industrial struggle. Education therefore is the most potent 
factor in the solution of the problem. 

We hear much of the old and the new education. The ideal 
.of the old is external repression ; that of the new is internal expres- 
sion. The difference arises from the emphasis placed upon thought 
and expression, or, in other words, upon knowledge and character. 
These functions are inseparable and the struggle today is due to 
an effort to unite that which should never have been separated. 
If education be defined as the expansion of consciousness, it is 
freed from the narrow limitations of the schoolroom and the lab- 
oratory and applies to the adult as well as to the child. 

In the savage, pastoral, and agricultural stages of civilization, 
knowledge rested upon experience, instead of being acquired by 
the indirect method of books. The conditions of life made it 
impossible to divorce thought and expression. Since the chil- 
dren of today will be the men and women of tomorrow, we must 
train them to be natural men, with a lo}-al faith in their instincts, 
instead of being parrots of other men's thinking. This requires 
a new educational ideal. The Indian child was taught to use the 
bow and arrow, to ride the pony, and learned the secrets of the 
forest. So, too, the little red schoolhouse, sacred to the three RV 
met the need of the agricultural stage of civilization, because 
domestic production called forth the activities of the child out of 
school hours. In this industrial age, both home and business life 



THE RETURN TO NATURE. 95 

have changed and we cannot escape a corresponding change in 
the school. 

The school of former days was an unpretentious building, 
located amid unattractive surroundings ; the furniture was un- 
comfortable, the walls and ceilings were black and dingy, the 
apparatus was inadequate. But oftentimes within this school 
was found a teacher of mature years, possessed of scholarly 
instincts, who advised and stimulated his pupils though he did 
not become a companion and associate. Ian Maclaren's picture 
of Domsie in "Beside the Bonnie Brier Bush" will for all time 
stand as an ideal of the common school teacher. 

The schoolhouse of today is often an architectural feature of 
the landscape, with attractive decorations and furnishings, and 
adequate equipment in the way of blackboards, pictures, glol 
etc. In many instances the teachers are young, with an absence 
of professional training, and too often do for the child that which 
can only be of service when the child does it for himself. He 
learns devices when he should be discovering and illustrating 
truth-compelling principles. The strength of the school of yes- 
terdav was the personality of the teacher; the school of todav 
is a well-articulated system that needs the energizing force of an 
inspired teaching body to direct it unto right ends. The school 
of tomorrow will subordinate external mechanism and elevate 
personality to its rightful place as the regenerative, constructive 
power for which the system exists. 

No phase of the return to nature is fraught with deeper mean- 
ing than the introduction of nature study into the course of study 
in our public schools. In its evolution it has passed through the 
various Stages of window boxes, school gardens, the utilization of 
vacant lots tor agricultural purposes, and at Last the fundamental 

idea of the school farm. In many places nature Study adh« 
to the school system as a plaster, to be taken on and off at will. 
In one school it means birds, in another butterflies, in another 
blossoms and growing thin;_ r >. Why not include nature study in 
the more comprehensive word, agriculture, and incorporate this 
as an integral part of an elementary school training." A plant 
should be studied in its relation t<» it> surroundings ami thus 
bring out it > USCS and the general plan. This will lead to an 



96 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

observation of its form, structure, buds and blossoms ; the insects 
and birds, their habits and uses. The study of plant life also 
requires some knowledge of the soil : its formation, kinds, the 
crops it will produce, etc. In all of this work the great aim of 
the teacher should be to lead the child to realize that he lives in 
a world of beauty and that it is an abiding joy to learn to appre- 
ciate it. In so doing he becomes a happy, contented member of 
society. 

A few years ago the progressive teacher put window-boxes 
in her schoolroom in order to relieve the dreary monotony of 
an artificial environment and give the child some idea of the 
beauty of growing things. Then came the day of school gardens. 
These have flourished in Europe for many years, but have only 
recently been introduced into America. Massachusetts has taken 
an active part in this development, fostered largely by the recog- 
nition of this movement in the way of prizes and diplomas given 
by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. An article in The 
Commons, by Anne Withington, calls attention to the lack of 
cohesion in municipal life, and cites garden work in Boston as an 
example. The writer says : " VTe have a city forester, with a 
large staff of workers, and all the materials needed at hand — 
loam, manure, seeds, implements — and yet it is impossible for 
the city's teachers to obtain these for the city's children. So it 
comes about that, while the city provides the land and the chil- 
dren and the teachers, it is left to volunteer organizations — The 
American Park and Outdoor Art Association. The Civic League, 
and The Twentieth Century Club — to initiate the work and to 
bear the expense of preparation of the grounds, implements and 
seeds, and the cost of supervision. Of course the hope is that 
ultimately the school authorities will assume responsibility for 
the garden work, and that it will be incorporated in the school 
curriculum, like other manual work — nay. some of the enthusi- 
have larger hopes. They see in the garden a laboratory 
wherein many branches of learning, now differentiated, may be 
correlated and vivified for the child. It is with this end in view 
that teachers have begun to use the garden in teaching English, 
arithmetic, geography, cooking, sloyd. etc." 

In this same article upon school gardens Miss Withington 



THE RETURN TO NATURE. 97 

furthermore adds : " Boston gardens have, I think, made two 
distinct contributions to the movement. They have indicated 
their importance in directing the mind of the city child toward 
the pleasures and possibilities of country living, and they have 
established themselves as an integral part of school work, with 
the opportunity to become increasingly valuable as our ideals 
come to include an educational alliance between the head and the 
hand." 

Then came a perception of the use of vacant lots. Situated 
in the heart of a tenement district, the DeWitt Clinton Park of 
New York City furnishes so line an example of the school-farm 
idea that it may be helpful to give some of the details in regard 
to it. The farm garden for 1903 was a plot 100 feet by 200 feet, 
divided into areas to accommodate 277 children. A flower bed 
was maintained in the center, and other beds of flowers for cut- 
ting were grown at appropriate points. All of the flowers were 
thrifty and were grown successfully. The borders were planted 
with clover, rye, wheat, oats, and buckwheat. The season 
extended from July 19 to November 1, and the number of chil- 
dren participating was 141 boys and 145 girls. A small building 
was designated as the farmhouse, and in it young girls were 
taught household duties, a boy being assigned to the heavier 
chores. No less than 250 girls assisted in this work. The house 
was equipped with a stove, cooking utensils, dishes, table linen, 
and all that was necessary to teach the performance of house- 
work in a neat and economical manner. Each child had an indi- 
vidual garden plot in which seven varieties <>t vegetables were 
planted ; corn in the center, on either side of this string and 
butter beans, peas, radishes, turnips, lettuce, and a border of 
buckwheat around the whole farm. The child's cooperation in 
preparing the ground wa» found to be a necessary initiative step, 
as his hands were not accustomed to handle anything BO small and 
tender :b a seed. The promoters of the movement were amazed 
to find bow helpless the children were when it came to doing any 
work requiring thought and steady hands, A more live 

tract on the improvement of vacant lots can hardly be found 
than the one coming from the N» m Fork Park Board, entitled 
"Report of the first children'-; School farm :h originated and con- 
ducted by Mrs. Henry Parsons. " 



98 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

In the West, the school farm as an ideal for secondary schools 
is being exploited in teachers' meetings and community mass 
meetings. The idea is so cordially received that no one can 
doubt its future economic results in directing the attention of 
young people to the pleasures of country life. An interesting 
leaflet has recently been issued by the Educational Department 
of the State of Maine. It is entitled " Standard Schools," and 
embodies something of this idea in a plan set forth for the 
improvement of the rural common school. It is supposed that the 
school will cost more money than a small community can readily 
raise. Therefore, it is proposed that a community will be selected 
for the establishment of the school which furnishes the largest 
special fund, based on the valuation of its real and personal 
property for taxation. Secondly, the town where the improve- 
ment is to be made must provide the school building and a lot of 
at least three acres in extent. Then a donor or donors must be 
secured to duplicate the special fund, which is not to exceed 
$1000. 

In other words, it is proposed to secure a small endowment for 
the school, to be used in the improvement of the building and 
grounds. The leaflet indicates the kind of building required, 
and describes the out-of-door surroundings as follows: "A school 
lot of at least three acres. This area should be divided into plots 
for forest trees, fruit trees, vegetable and flower gardens, a lawn, 
playgrounds and necessary drives, walks and paths." The things 
which such a school may be expected to accomplish are enumer- 
ated in an attractive way. The pamphlet has only a dozen printed 
pages and can be obtained free by writing to Mr. W. W. Stetson, 
State superintendent of public schools, Augusta, Me. 

I have described the plan at length, for it suggests a way for 
the Massachusetts Horticultural Society to do active, constructive 
work. Would it not be possible to find a community in Massa- 
chusetts ready to raise a " special fund," to be duplicated by this 
society, to use in the equipment and maintenance of a farm school ? 
The most potent factor in its success or failure would be the per- 
sonality of the teacher. It would be well to establish one school 
as a model, and then to maintain the teacher at a fixed salary per 
year, to go elsewhere to do the same work. He should be a 



THE RETURN TO NATURE. 99 

teacher, not a lecturer, and should remain long enough in a com- 
munity to establish the school upon a firm basis. Denmark 
maintains fifteen of these itinerant teachers, who go from place 
to place, establishing departments of domestic science. If this 
society were interested to take the initiative in a movement to 
equip and maintain one of these schools with one itinerant teacher, 
it might lead to far-reaching results. 

It would be well if the Massachusetts Forestry Association and 
the Federation of Women's Clubs could be induced to cooperate 
with the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, not alone for the 
purpose of sharing the expense, but because these other organiza- 
tions would prove helpful in disseminating the nature idea. We 
have only to notice the work they have accomplished in the pro- 
tection of the trees to see their usefulness and power in the better- 
ment of community life. The devastating gypsy and brown-tail 
moths have met adversaries bent upon deadly destruction. 

Up to this point we have emphasized the economic and social- 
istic aspects of the question, but the return to nature is destined 
to serve a far higher and nobler end, namely, to quicken the 
spiritual life of man. People are beginning to realize that if we 
would save the poor from his poverty, the weak from his weak- 
ness, the public conscience must be aroused to understand what 
wise men have always known, that "to watch the corn grow and 
the blossoms set ; to draw deep breaths over ploughshare or spade ; 
to read, to think, to love, to hope, to pray — these are the things 
that make men happy." 



GENERAL DISCUSSION ON VEGETABLES. 



OPENED BY WARREN W. RAWSON, ARLINGTON, MASS. 



Saturday, March 18, 1905. 



In place of the usual Saturday lecture a general discussion of 
the subject of vegetable culture was held at Horticultural Hall 
today. The meeting was opened by Hon. Warren W. Rawson, 
the chairman of the Committee on Vegetables, who spoke in part 
as follows : 



The growing of vegetables has become one of the principal 
occupations in the vicinity of Boston and other large cities, and 
many who make a specialty of it are doing quite a large business 
in that direction. In many ways it is like other kinds of business ; 
it requires large experience and capital and depends more on the 
man than anything else. In this locality there is probably more 
done in this line than in any other part of the country. The 
market is educated up to a high standard and requires the best 
quality put up in the best manner, and when this is attained good 
prices are received. The growing in the South affects us very 
much in regard to the prices obtained for our goods, but their 
products are not of the best. Their are times when the market 
is bare and a good price is obtained by those who have the goods 
on hand. It is a serious question with the vegetable grower today 
what to grow and when to have it in the market. It used to be 
the case that our early vegetables in the market brought the best 
price, but it is not so today ; it is the quantity in the market that 
governs the price. 

The seasons and climate have changed very much the past 
twenty-five years, and for that reason many of our most delicate 
vegetables have to be grown under glass ; therefore, many green* 
houses have been erected, and today, by I careful estimate, there 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

are nearly 200 acres covered with elass in the state of Massafihu- 
nette. The product is not all sold here, but shipped to New York, 
Philadelphia, Buffalo, and Chicago. There are times when prices 
are very low. but most of the year they will average well. 

The vegetable grower of today would be incomplete in his 
equipment without a number of greenhouses, that is, enough so 
that he can run each crop at the prop>er temperature required. I 
have never known a vegetable gi wer who built any houses that 
did not continue to build and to wish that he had built more when 
he commenced, and today I am sure that the annual sale- : 
in the Boston market amount to more than do the 
sales of fruits, plants, and flov s mbined that are raised in 
] - - -aehusetts. 

TL no place in this country or any other where the grow- 

ing of vegetables has attained the perfection that it has Lere. and 
where the products per acre are equal to that of the vicinity of 

iton. We have the best market and the best g h and obtain 
the highest pr: ee in any market. I think the vegetable 

grower of .Massachusetts should 1 - sal -tied with his lot ; if not 
with the profit he makes, with the quality he produces. This 
success has been attained by careful study and application, thor- 
ough cultivation, and good judgment. 

I will not speak of any special kind of vegetable grown, but 
will leave the subject open for discussion. We have found that 
better crops can be grown inside than out. because inside the 
is entirely under your control, while outside it is not and 
sometimes entirely out of your control, on account of the great 
changes in temperature and climate. Under glass you can - 
plant, cultivate the soil, transplant and gather the crop at any 
time and. by him who understands the ess. better crops can 

be grown in shorter time and often at less expense under glass 
than in the field. 

The vegetables shown at our exhibitions are of the fir. 
quality ar. k for themselves of the care and cultivation 

necessary to produce them, and we hope in the near future to 
double our exhibitions in size and improve in quality. It is by 
comparison we learn who has the best product, and by compari- 
son we learn many things and get new ideas and new inspiration 



GENERAL DISCUSSION ON VEGETABLES. 103 

to go home and try and do better next time, no matter if you 
had the best shown at the last exhibition. 

In growing any crop the principal requirements to produce it 
are air, heat, light, and moisture ; the greatest is moisture. Over 
70 per cent of moisture is contained in every crop grown. The 
necessary air in greenhouses is acquired by ventilation. The 
light is obtained through the glass, or, if the nights are long as 
they are in winter, the amount of light is increased by the use of 
arc electric lights over the houses. The temperature is main- 
tained by heated pipes placed in the house at regular distances, 
and the regulation of heat is attended to through the boiler situ- 
ated at the lower end of the house. One 60 horse power boiler 
will heat a house covering one-half an acre of land to a tempera- 
ture required for lettuce through the winter, and will run the 
house for cucumbers after March 1st. 

There are over seventeen hundred market gardeners who bring 
vegetables to the Boston market and over twenty-five hundred in 
the state; and the number is growing larger every year. None 
of them get rich, but with hard work and economy obtain a 
good living and have their usual dinner at Thanksgiving, no mat- 
ter what the price of turkey may be. 

The time was when almost any crop of vegetables would pay 
for growing, but today it is a problem what to grow ; and the 
man must study the market, know how to produce a good crop by 
the closest attention to details, and confine himself to a few kinds 
with which he is most familiar and which are best adapted to his 
soil and market. With the great improvement in machinery and 
the application of special fertilizers adapted to the requirements 
of each crop, with the use of greenhouses and the aid of electric 
light, with the use of various kinds of appliances for the fumiga- 
tion of crops and of sterilization for the purification of the soil, 
there is no reason why the market gardener of today cannot 
grow a perfect crop and of such quality that it will demand ;i 
good price at any time it is placed upon the market. 



In response to a question as to the value and efficacy of electric 
light in promoting the growth of vegetables, Mr. Rawson stated 



104 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

that he had made use of it for seven or eight years and had found 
that it improved the quality and increased the production of veg- 
etables grown under glass. He used it mostly on days in which 
there was a lack of sunshine and in the winter season when the 
nights were long. He estimated that it increased the growth 
fifteen per cent and appeared to be of greater benefit to a crop of 
cucumbers than to lettuce. 

Benjamin P. Ware, in referring to Mr. Rawson's assertion that 
the climatic conditions of eastern Massachusetts had changed dur- 
ing the last half century, asked what evidence he had for such a 
belief. 

Mr. Rawson replied that it is evidence enough when you can- 
not grow now a crop of cucumbers and melons out of doors. 
The sudden changes of temperature to which we are liable make 
it impossible to do it. 

Varnum Frost ridiculed the idea of growing vegetables by elec- 
tricity which he said was against common sense, and was only a 
"fad " similar to the idea formerly in vogue of painting the glass 
of a greenhouse red. 

He said that success in vegetable growing depended entirely 
on the condition of the soil. The trouble with many crops 
today is that the soil is sick with fertilizers. What is needed is 
virgin soil. You cannot grow a crop of potatoes on old culti- 
vated ground, but plow up a piece of grass land and you will 
get a good crop. 

Samuel H. Warren remarked that Mr. Frost had touched just 
the right point and gave an instance of the results from plowing 
up an old huckleberry field that had never been cultivated. Go 
back to the country he said and take wild land and subdue it and 
good crops can be got as there were years ago. No fertilizer is so 
good as virgin soil. 

Joshua C. Stone remarked that no one now has virgin soil. 
What we want to know is, how to make the best of what we 
have. 

John Ward spoke on the subject of changes in the seasons. 
Changes do occur, but just as great changes took place fifty years 
ago as now. 

George M. Whitaker stated that the Weather Bureau had 



GENERAL DISCUSSION ON VEGETABLES. 105 

compiled the statistics of a great many seasons, and the tabulated 
results showed a practical uniformity of weather in the different 
seasons of New England. 

Edward B. Wilder asked what were now considered the best 
varieties of tomatoes. 

Mr. Rawson replied that in Worcester County the Beauty was 
preferred. For the Boston market the Stone was grown as 
much as any. The Acme was not much grown now. 

In answer to a question as to the best fertilizer for asparagus, 
Mr. Rawson stated that bone and potash were the best; 1200 
pounds to the acre. 

In answer to some of the criticisms which had been made on 
his methods, he replied that in his work it was his practice to 
look forward and not back, and what he recommended was the 
result of his experiments and experience. If others did not 
approve them they were at liberty to use their own methods. 



■*->**':"• * .■'* • -" •'" "5 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS 
HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



FOR THE YEAR I 905 



PART II 




PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY 

BOSTON 
NINETEEN HUNDRED AND SIX 



TEANSACTIONS 



OF THE 




asMJmsttts Puriiailtnral Sfoadj 



FOE THE YEAR 1905 



PART II 




](<>S T < > N 
PUBLISH ED BY Til I -'"I l T \ 
\l\i ; ) I \ ih-\i>kk.i> and - 



CONTENTS 



Annual Reports for the Year 1905 

Report of the Board of Trustees . . . .113 

Report of the Committee on Prizes and Exhibitions . 127 

Report of the Committee on Plants and Flowers . 129 

Report of the Committee on Fruits . . . 165 

Report of the Committee on Vegetables . . . 1n."-> 

Report of the Committee on Gardens . . .195 

Report of the Committee on School Gardens and Native 

Plants 201 

Report of the Delegate to the State Board of Agriculture ^39 

Report of the Inspector to the State Board of Agriculture 2 L3 

Report of the Committee on Lectures and Publication -\~> 

Report of the Secretary and Librarian . . . 247 

Report of the Treasurer . . . . . .251 

The Annual Meeting, Novembeb 18, 1905 . . . 261 

Necrology, L905 265 

Officers, Committees, ind Members, L905 . 



277 



ANNUAL REPORTS FOR THE YEAR 1905. 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



UJasssiulutsctto Jtortmtttttral $ witty. 



1905. PART II. 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES FOR THE 

YEAR 1905. 

The Board of Trustees of the Massachusetts Horticultural Soci- 
ety presents herewith a summary of the business transacted during 
the year 1905. 

Nine meetings have been held with an average attendance of 
nine members. 

January 7. An appropriation of S400.00, in addition to the 
income of the French and Farlow Funds, was voted for the library, 
and an appropriation of $200.00, to include the income of the John 
Lewis Russell Fund. \\a> voted to the Committee on Lectures and 
Publication. 

The report of the Committee on Priz.e-^ and Exhibitions, to which 
was referred, at the last meeting, the subject of an increase in the 
compensation of members oi the exhibition committees, was pre- 
sented by Mr. Craig The committee recommended that the com- 
pensation of members of the Committees on Plants and Flow. 
Fruits, and Vegetables (chairmen excepted) be fixed as follows: 

For the Spring Exhibition, the Rose and Strawberry Exhibition, 
the September Exhibition, and the Chrysanthemum Exhibition, 
five dollars for the fir-t day; other days, two dollars a day. For all 



114 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

other exhibitions at which prizes are offered, two dollars a day. For 
other days on which exhibits are made, one dollar a day. These 
amounts to be paid only to members attending the exhibitions. 

The recommendations of the committee were adopted. 

An appropriation of $250.00 was voted to the Committee on 
Prizes and Exhibitions for the arrangement of exhibitions during 
the current year. 

On motion of Mr. Spooner it was voted that the Committee on 
Gardens be requested to consider the expediency of holding, in the 
City of Boston, another field demonstration of the subject of insect 
pests. It was voted also, on motion of Mr. Spooner, that the same 
committee be requested to consider the matter of offering prizes for 
the renewal of neglected orchards and to report at some future 
meeting of the Board. 

The following named candidates, having become eligible in 
accordance with the requirement of the By-laws, were elected to 
membership in the Society: 

George E. Barnard of Ipswich, proposed by A. F. Estabrook, 
Henry E. Cobb of Newton, proposed by A. F. Estabrook, • 
J. Livingston Grandin of Boston, proposed by A. F. Estabrook, 
Frederick L. Jack of Boston, proposed by A. F. Estabrook, 
J. Morris Meredith of Topsfield, proposed by A. F. Estabrook, 
Charles E. Stratton of Boston, proposed by A. F. Estabrook, 
E. Everett Holbrook of Holbrook, proposed by A. F. Estabrook, 
Frank B. Bemis of Beverly, proposed by A. F. Estabrook, 
Thomas D. Blake of Brookline, proposed by A. F. Estabrook, 
C. Herbert Watson of Brookline, proposed by A. F. Estabrook, 
Walter I. Badger of Cambridge, proposed by A. F. Estabrook, 
William Brewster of Concord, proposed by A. F. Estabrook, 
Frank E. Peabody of Boston, proposed by A. F. Estabrook, 
Edwin S. Webster of Chestnut Hill, proposed by A. F. Estabrook, 
Frank G. Webster of Boston, proposed by A. F. Estabrook, 
George H. Leonard of Boston, proposed by A. F. Estabrook, 
Frank W. Remick of Boston, proposed by A. F. Estabrook, 
Laurance J. Webster of Holderness, N. H. proposed by A. F. Esta- 
brook, 
Robert W T insor of Weston, proposed by A. F. Estabrook, 



REPORT OF BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 115 

Stedman Buttrick of Concord, proposed by A. F. Estabrook, 
Samuel Carr of Boston, proposed by A. F. Estabrook, 
Arthur S. Johnson of Boston, proposed by A. F. Estabrook, 
Wallace L. Pierce of Boston, proposed by A. F. Estabrook, 
Mrs. Ida F. Estabrook of Boston, proposed by A. F. Estabrook, 
Wm. Allan Riggs of Jamaica Plain, proposed by J. K. M. L. 
Farquhar. 

February 4. The following vote was adopted: 

The Massachusetts Horticultural Society hereby authorizes- 
Arthur Dehon Hill to act on its behalf as legislative counsel at 
the present session of the Legislature of Massachusetts in all 
matters pertaining to a certain bill entitled "An Act Relative to 
the Choosing of the Treasurer and Secretary of the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society. " 

Mr. Hunnewell stated that complaint had been made that the 
library room was insufficiently heated and presented suggestions 
from the heating contractors concerning a remedy. It was voted 
to refer the matter to a committee of three to investigate and report 
at the next meeting of the Board. The Chairman appointed as the 
committee Messrs. Farquhar, Pettigrew, and Spooner, and it was 
voted to add Mr. Hunnewell to the number. 

It was voted also that the same committee be requested to inves- 
tigate the cost of the electric lighting of the building. 

The following named candidates were elected to membership in 
the Society: 

William J. Hoyt of Manchester, X. II.. proposed by A. F. Estabrook, 
Frank A. Day of Newton, proposed by A. F. Estabrook, 
Henry B. Day of West Newton, proposed by A. F. Estabrook, 
Thomas P. Beal of Boston, proposed by A. F. Estabrook, 
Miss Susan White Hardy of Boston, proposed by A. F. Estabrook, 
James J. Storrow of Boston, proposed by A. F. Estabrook, 
Gardiner M. Lane of Boston, proposed by A. F. Estabrook, 
Mr^. Susan E. French of North Easton, proposed by A. F. Esta- 
brook, 
David Loringof Boston, proposed by A. F. Estabrook, 
James Stuart of Brookline, proposed by .lames Wheeler. 



116 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

April 1. Mr. Hunnewell reported for the committee on heat- 
ing the library room that the matter had been satisfactorily arranged 
by means of a damper in the hot-air duct and a pair of swinging 
doors at the entrance to the room. It was voted to confirm the 
action of this committee and to appropriate the sums of $55.00 for 
the work on the hot-air duct and $38.00 for the swinging doors. 

A communication was received through the architects, Wheel- 
wright & Haven, concerning the condition of the skylights of the 
exhibition hall, and it was voted to authorize the Finance Com- 
mittee to take such action in the matter as may be advisable. 

A communication from the President of the National Horticul- 
tural Society of France was presented inviting the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society to be represented by one or more delegates 
at the approaching International Horticultural Congress at Paris. 
It was voted to appoint our Corresponding Member, M. Edouard 
Andre, as delegate to represent the Society on that occasion. 

On motion of Prof. Sargent it was voted to recommend for corre- 
sponding membership in the Society, Messieurs Maurice L. de 
Yilmorin, Philippe L. de Vilmorin, and James Herbert Veitch. 

Arthur D. Hill reported a draft of proposed amendments to the 
By-laws as follows : 

Section I to be amended by striking out in the third line of the 
first paragraph the words "a Treasurer, a Secretary," so that said 
paragraph shall read as follows : — 

The Annual Meeting of the Society for the transaction of business and 
for the election of officers, namely, a President, two Vice Presidents, a 
Delegate to the State Board of Agriculture, a Board of Trustees, and a 
Nominating Committee, shall be held on the second Saturday after the 
first Monday in November, and the officers elected shall enter upon their 
duties on the first day of January ensuing. 

Section VI to be amended by striking out in the first line of the 
first paragraph the words " elected annually by the Society" and 
inserting in place thereof the words : — appointed annually by the 
Board of Trustees for a term of one year beginning on the first day 
of January ensuing, — so that said paragraph shall read as follows: 

The Treasurer shall be appointed annually by the Board of Trustees for 
a term of one year beginning on the first day of January ensuing, and shall 
have the following powers and duties : — 



REPORT OF BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 117 

Section VII to be amended by striking out at the end of the 
first sentence the words "elected annually by the Society" and in- 
serting in place thereof the words : — appointed annually by the 
Board of Trustees for a term of one year beginning on the first day 
of January ensuing, so that said sentence shall read as follows : 

The Secretary shall be appointed annually by the Board of Trustees for 
a term of one year beginning on the first day of January ensuing. 

Section IX to be amended by inserting in the first line of the 
first sentence of clause (6), after the word "appoint," the words: — 
the Treasurer and Secretary of the Society, — also by striking out in 
the fourth line of said sentence the word "either" and inserting in 
place thereof the word : — any, — so that said sentence shall read as 
follows : 

They shall appoint the Treasurer and Secretary of the Society, a Super- 
intendent of the Building, and a Librarian of the Society, and define their 
duties, except when these are determined by the By-Laws, and may re- 
move them or any of them, and appoint others in their stead, whenever, 
in their opinion, the interests of the Society shall require it. 

Section XIV to be amended by inserting at the end of the first 
sentence of clause (1) the following new sentence: 

Said committee shall nominate candidates for all offices which arc to be 
filled by election by the members of the Society. 

Section XIV to be further amended by inserting in the first line 
of the first sentence of clause (2), after the word "office," the 
words: — which is to be filled by election by the members of the 
Society, — so that said sentence shall read as follows: 

Nominations for any office which is to be filled by election by the mem- 
bers of the Society, in addition to those made by the Nominating Com- 
mittee, may be made by papers signed by fifteen or more members of the 
Society, and deposited with the Secretary at Least two week- before the 
Annual Meeting. 

The report of Mr. Hill was accepted and it was voted to recom- 
mend to the Society at the next annual meeting the adoption of the 

proposed amendments. 



US MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The following named persons were elected to membership in the 
Society : 

Miss Rose Hollingsworth of Boston, proposed by Robert T. Jack- 
son, 

Frank R. Pierson of Tarrvtown-on-Hudson, X. Y.. proposed by 
Wm. X. Craig, 

Miss Eliza D. Boardman of Boston, proposed by Miss Cora H. 
Clarke, 

Thomas William Head of Groton, Conn., proposed by Wm. P. 
Rich, 

Mrs. Etta Fish Tingley of Greenwood, proposed by Wm. P. Rich, 

Mrs. Sallie R. Allen of Medford, proposed by Mrs. E. M. Gill. 

May 27. The following memorial notice of the late Warren 
Fenno. a member of the Board, was read by the Secretary: 

It is with feelings of deep regret that the Board of Trustees of the Mass- 
achusetts Horticultural Society records the death, on April 27. of its 
associate member. Warren Fenno of Revere. 

For a period of twenty-eight years he has been an active member of this 
Society, and for twenty-five years has served on the Committee on Fruits, 
the present year as its chairman. 

His critical knowledge freely and faithfully devoted to this important 
department of the Society's work has been of the greatest value, and he 
had come to be regarded as a leading authority in the judging and nomen- 
clature of fruits. 

His many estimable qualities of character also had won the respect and 
kindly regard of all who knew him. 

It is voted, therefore, to express to the members of his family our sincere 
sympathy in the loss they have sustained by his death, and to convey to 
them the assurance of the esteem in which he was held by his associate 
members of the Board, and their appreciative recognition of his long and 
valuable service in the interests of this Society. 

The memorial was adopted and a copy ordered to be sent to the 
family of the deceased. 

The President declared a vacancy in the office of Trustee occur- 
ring through the death of Air. Fenno, and called for nominations 
to fill the same in accordance with the provisions of the By-laws. 



REPORT OF BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 119 

Dr. Henry P. Waleott of Cambridge was nominated for Trustee 
by Mr. Spooner and was elected by a unanimous vote. 

Nominations were also called for to fill the vacancy existing in 
the Committee on Fruits. 

Warren H. Heustis of Belmont was nominated by Mr. Spooner, 
and Wilfrid Wheeler of Concord by Mr. Farquhar. The ballot 
resulted in the choice of Wilfrid Wheeler who was declared elected 
chairman of the Committee on Fruits. 

A communication was read from John P. R. Sherman, Esq., 
Executor, conveying to the Society SI 000.00, being in full for the 
legacy payable under the Will of the late John C. Chaffin of New- 
ton. 

The conditions of the Will under which the legacy is paid are as 
follows : 

"I give to the Massachusetts Horticultural Society one thousand dollars, 
the income thereof to be given annually by said Society as a special prize 
for Hardy Perpetual Roses of unusual merit, according to the impartial 
judgment and discretion of the prize committee of said Society, but if in 
any year the exhibit shall not be, in the opinion of the committee, of suf- 
ficient merit to deserve the prize, the income for that year, or a portion 
of it, may be added to the prizes of subsequent years." 

It was voted to accept the bequest of Mr. Chaffin and to refer it 
to the Committee on Prizes and Exhibitions. 

On motion of Mr. Craig it was voted to extend an invitation to 
the American Rose Society to hold its annual meeting and exhibi- 
tion in connection with the spring exhibition of the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society in March, 1906. 

The following named persons were elected to membership in the 
Society: 

Clarence A. Backer of Melrose, proposed by Wm. P. Rich, 

William Whitman of Brookline, proposed by Wm. P. Rich. 

Mrs. Charles P. Greenough of Brookline, proposed by B. Preston 

(lark, 
Miss Margaret White of Cambridge, proposed by Robert T. Jack- 
son, 
Sabin Bolton of North Easton. proposed by Oakes Ames, 
George Percy Williams of Medfield, proposed by Miss Caroline I.. 
W. French. 



120 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

September 9. The following proposed amendments to the By- 
laws were adopted and referred to the Society for action at the 
annual meeting in November: 

Section IX, sub-section 4, on page 12, to be amended by strik- 
ing out the first sentence thereof and inserting the following : 

(4) They shall consider and pass upon all questions of the appropriation 
of money, including the amounts to be appropriated for prizes and gratui- 
ties, and shall, at the annual meeting, report to the Society the amounts 
they have appropriated for prizes and gratuities during the ensuing year, 
and also such other appropriations as they think meet for the ensuing year. 

Section II to be amended by striking out the period at the end 
thereof and inserting the following : 

; provided, however, that the Trustees may appropriate a sum or sums 
not exceeding seven thousand five hundred dollars in any one year for the 
purpose of prizes and gratuities. 

It was voted to authorize the Committee on Prizes and Exhibi- 
tions to publish a preliminary schedule of the Spring Exhibition of 
March, 1906. On motion of Mr. Spooner it was voted to recom- 
mend to the Society at its annual meeting an appropriation of 
S6700.00 for prizes and gratuities for the year 1906; the division of 
this amount among the several committees to be made by the 
Committee on Prizes and Exhibitions. 

Mr. Fewkes presented the following motion : 

Moved. — That two or more delegates be sent each year to, at least two 
of the principal exhibitions held in the United States, and one or more 
delegates be sent once in three years to European exhibitions, and that 
these delegates shall make a report of such matters as in their opinion will 
be of interest and value to this Society. And also that these delegates be 
appointed each year by the Committee on Exhibitions, subject to approval 
by the Board of Trustees. 

It was voted to refer the matter to the Finance Committee. 

On motion of Mr. Fewkes it was voted to extend an invitation 
to the American Peony Society to hold its next annual exhibition in 
connection with the Peony Exhibition of the Massachusetts Horti- 
cultural Society in June, 1906. 



REPORT OF BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 121 

Miss E. Gertrude Woodberry, proposed by A. F. Estabrook, was 
duly elected a member of the Society. 

October 7. A recommendation from the Committee on Prizes 

and Exhibitions was received favoring an additional appropriation 

'of $300.00 for the Committee on Vegetables for the year 1906. 

On motion of Prof. Sargent it was voted to refer the matter to the 

Finance Committee with power. 

A communication from Miss Caroline L. W. French was read 
inclosing a check for $50.00 to be expended for books for the 
library. It was voted to accept the gift with thanks and to refer 
it to the Committee on the Library. 

It was voted to authorize Mr. Spooner to invite the State Board 
of Agriculture to hold its winter meeting for 1906 in the halls of 
this Society. 

It was voted also, on motion of Prof. Sargent, to appoint a com- 
mittee of two to present at a future meeting of the Board a revised 
schedule of prizes and exhibitions for the year 1907. The chairman 
appointed as that committee Messrs. Sargent and Farquhar. 

On motion of Mr. Manning an additional appropriation of $50. 00 
was voted for the Committee on Lectures and Publication for the 
year 1906. 

The following named persons were elected to membership in the 
Society : 

Henry W. Dodd of Boston, proposed by A. F. Estabrook, 
The Honorable Mrs. G. Duncan of Boston, proposed by "Win. P. 
Rich. 

November 21. A communication from the Society L'Avenir- 
Horticole was read constituting the Massachusetts Horticul- 
tural Society "Socicte Correspondante." It was voted to accept 
the communication with expression of thanks for the honor con- 
veyed. 

A communication t'roin Henry S. Adams, chairman of the Com- 
mittee on School Gardens and Native Plants, was presented recom- 
mending several changes in that committee. It was voted to change 



122 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

the name of the Committee on School Gardens and Native Plants 
to the Committee on Children's Gardens and to discontinue further 
exhibitions of children's herbariums and native plants. An appro- 
priation of $150.00 was voted for the Committee on Children's Gar- 
dens for the year 1906. 

Prof. Sargent, chairman of the committee on the revision of the , 
Schedule of Prizes and Exhibitions for the year 1907, presented 
the following report: 

Your committee asked at a recent meeting to prepare a scheme for a 
schedule of prizes to be awarded during the year 1907 finds, — 

That the number of exhibitions at which an admission is charged can be 
advantageously reduced by giving one year an exhibition of early spring 
flowers, like bulbs etc., in March, and the next year, in place of this exhi- 
bition, an exhibition about the first week in June for azaleas, rhododen- 
drons, and other plants in perfection at that season, and that the second 
large exhibition of the year be given in November for chrysanthemums. 

That these two important exhibitions of the year should be supple- 
mented by four, one-day, free exhibitions in May, June, and September, 
the first for narcissi, the second for peonies, the third for roses and straw- 
berries, and the fourth for dahlias. 

That all money prizes given at weekly exhibitions during the spring and 
summer months should be discontinued, and that in place of these exhibi- 
tions the Committee on Exhibitions and Awards should meet on every 
second Saturday from the first of March to the first of November to judge 
any plants, flowers, fruits, or vegetables that may be brought to the Hall 
for the recognition or endorsement of the committee, and that the com- 
mittee should be authorized to expend a certain sum for medals and other 
forms of endorsement for such exhibits. 

That prizes for wild flowers and for children's herbaria should be dis- 
continued as such prizes in no way encourage horticulture; the collection 
and display of wild flowers being the sphere of a botanical and not of a 
horticultural society. 

That the Committee of Awards should have the right to employ experts 
as judges, and that nurserymen or florists making exhibits should have 
the right, under the control of the Committee of Arrangements, to display 
their trade catalogues in connection with their exhibits. 

That horticulture can be made more popular in the state by offering 
prizes for the gardens of amateurs, that is, persons who do not employ a 
gardener and do not employ a laborer regularly, and for bunches of the 
flowers of perennial and annual plants grown by such amateurs and exhib- 
ited before the Society; and that a taste for flowers can be further increased 



REPORT OF BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 123 

by prizes for plants grown in window boxes and exhibited before the So- 
ciety at the end of the summer. 

The committee believes that this movement of making horticulture 
more popular can be further extended by offering small prizes for amateurs 
through some of the local horticultural societies in different parts of the 
state, and in this way extend its influence beyond the metropolitan district. 

That the best interests of the Society can be obtained by reducing the 
number of money prizes and increasing the number of medals and certifi- 
cates, as appears to be the universal custom in European societies. 

That in order that exhibitors may have time to prepare their exhibits 
schedules should be published from twelve to fifteen months before the 
year in which the prizes are to be awarded. 

That prizes might well be offered for essays on practical horticultural 
subjects, those essays receiving the highest awards to be printed from 
time to time in the proceedings of the Society. 

At the conclusion of his report Prof. Sargent offered the following 
motion : 

Voted, that it is the opinion of the Trustees that the best interests of 
horticulture in Massachusetts will be served if the Society offers prizes 
to be given at its exhibitions that will give to these the greatest possible 
variety and interest: that will encourage the production and cultivation 
of new plants, fruits, and vegetable-: that will call attention to neglected 
but desirable flowers. Emits, and vegetables; that will develop a taste for 
flowers among persons who can cultivate their gardens only by their own 
labor and without the aid of paid gardeners, and that to produce the-e 
results the experiment should be tried of increasing the number of medal-, 
plate, and certificates of merit offered by the Society, of increasing the 
amount of money prizes when money is offered, and of diminishing the 
number of small money prizes which, while they may have the effect of 
filling the Hifll with exhibit-, do little to promote horticulture. 

After some discussioD o! the matter the motion of Prof. Sargent 

was adopted. 

( )n motion of Mr. Hill the report of the committee on the revision 
of the schedule of prizes and exhibitions was accepted ami the 
ompanving detailed li-t of prizes and exhibitions was referred 
to the Committee on Prize- and Exhibitions for it- action ami re- 
port. 
( >n motion of Prof. Sargent it was voted that the sum of $5£ 
appropriated tor prize- and gratuities t<> }>«• awarded during the 
vearl9< 



124 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

It was voted also, on motion of Prof. Sargent, that the Com- 
mittee on Prizes and Exhibitions be requested to report to the Trus- 
tees at an early meeting a scheme for the endorsement of new plants, 
fruits, and vegetables exhibited before this Society. 

The following named persons were elected to membership in the 
Society : 

Mrs. Moses Williams of Brookline, proposed by James H. Bow- 
ditch, 
Charles H. Slade of Belmont, proposed by W. W. Rawson, 
Maurice Fuld of Boston, proposed by W. W. Rawson, 
Thomas L. Creeley of Belmont, proposed by W. W. Rawson, 
John Clark of Watertown, proposed by W. W. Rawson, 
Edgar Crosby of Arlington, proposed by W. W. Rawson. 

December 2. The following recommendation from the Com- 
mittee on Prizes and Exhibitions was adopted: 

That medals and certificates be delivered immediately after 
being awarded and that a certain number of medals be kept on hand 
ready for distribution. That money prizes be paid by check within 
ten days after the first day of January next succeeding the date of 
award. 

The Committee on Prizes and Exhibitions, to which was referred 
at the last meeting the proposed schedule for 1907, submitted the 
following report through its chairman, Mr. Farquhar: 

The Committee on Prizes and Exhibitions approves the general 
plan of the schedule for 1907 but recommends that more encourage- 
ment be given to small exhibitors. The committee asks for further 
time in which to consider the arrangement of details. 

The report of the committee was accepted. 

The committee on nominations reported a list of committees for 
the ensuing year as follows : 

Finance. — Walter Hunnewell, Chairman, Arthur F. Estabrook, 
George F. Fabyan. 

Library. — Charles S. Sargent, Chairman, T. Otis Fuller, Samuel 
Henshaw, Charles W. Jenks, John Lawrence, Henry P. Walcott. 



REPORT OF BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 125 

Lectures and Publications. — J. Woodward Manning, Chair- 
man, James H. Bowditch, John A. Pettigrew, Edward B. Wilder, 
E. W. Wood. 

Prizes and Exhibitions. — John K. M. L. Farquhar, Chairman, 
William N. Craig, Arthur H. Fewkes, Warren W. Rawson, William 
H. Spooner, Wilfrid W T heeler. 

Plants and Flowers, — Arthur H. Fewkes, Chairman, Robert 
Cameron, William N. Craig, William Nicholson, James Wheeler. 

Fruits. — Wilfrid Wheeler, Chairman, Charles F. Curtis, J. 
Willard Hill. 

Vegetables, — Warren W. Rawson, Chairman, William H. Derby, 
Warren H. Heustis. 

Gardens. — Oakes Ames, Chairman, George Barker, William X. 
Craig, William H. Elliot, Arthur F. Estabrook {ex officio), Arthur H. 
Fewkes, Charles W. Parker, John A. Pettigrew, William P. Rich, 
Henry P. Walcott. 

Children's Gardens. — Henry S. Adams, Chairman, Charles W. 
Jenks, Harry S. Rand, William E. C. Rich, William P. Rich. 

The report of the committee on nominations was accepted and it 
was voted that the list presented constitute the committees of the 
Society for the year 1906. 

December 9. The following motion of Prof. Sargent, specially 
referred to this meeting, was taken up for consideration: 

Voted, that from the beginning of 1907 the committees on prizes and 
exhibitions, on plants and flowers, on fruits, and on vegetables, be discon- 
tinued, and that in place of these four committees, a committee to be 
known as the Committee on Exhibitions and Awards, to consist of five 
members, shall be appointed, and that the Secretary of the Society shall 
act as the secretary of this commit 

After some discussion of the subject it was voted, on motion 

of Dr. Walcott, that the motion be laid on the table. 

'The President called attention to the unsatisfactory condition of 
the two* large storage rooms on the >nd floor of the Sociel 

building and recommended some changes iu the method ^i hand- 
ling the exhibition glassware. 



126 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

It was voted that the Secretary be authorized to attend to this 
matter and an appropriation of $300.00 was voted for such ex- 
penses as might be incurred. 

J. Thomas Butterworth of South Framingham, proposed by 
William N. Craig, was elected a life member of the Society. 

William P. Rich, 

Secretary. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON PRIZES AND 
EXHIBITIONS FOR THE YEAR 1905. 

By John K. M. L. Farquhar, Chairman. 



During the year of 1905 the usual exhibitions have been held and 
they have all shown improvement over those of the preceding year. 
The growth of public interest in the exhibitions of the Society has 
been demonstrated by the increased number of paying visitors — an 
increase of 1141 over last year. 

The committee is pleased to note, too, greater enthusiasm among 
exhibitors and their appreciation of the improved facilities pro- 
vided by the Society for displaying exhibits. A sufficient supply of 
glass bottles and vases and better covering material for the tables 
have been the means of removing inconveniences formerly expe- 
rienced. 

The establishment of a system of entry cards requiring exhibitors 
to file entries three days previous to the opening of exhibitions has 
enabled the officers of the Society to allot spaces in advance. The 
arrangement of the exhibitions on account of these entries has been 
greatly facilitated and improved. 

The committee was again fortunate in securing the services of Mr. 
Robert Cameron of Cambridge and Mr. James Wheeler of Brook- 
line in laying out the exhibits. The able and tactful manner in 
which this work has been done has contributed greatly to the success 
of the exhibitions as well as to promote interest among exhibitors. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND 
FLOWERS FOR THE YEAR 1905. 

By Arthur H. Fewkes, Chairman. 



The year 1905 has been an uneventful one in the exhibition of 
plants and flowers. Although the awards of all kinds for the year 
exceed those of the previous year by nearly one hundred, the actual 
number of exhibitors has decreased. In 1904 there were one hun- 
dred and forty-seven persons and firms who made exhibits at various 
times, while in 1905 there were one hundred and forty-three, four 
less than the previous year. 

It must be admitted that the enthusiasm displayed some years 
ago has been steadily declining, this being particularly noticeable 
at the large exhibitions in the classes calling for displays of decora- 
tive plants. In this connection great credit should be given the 
Harvard Botanic Garden for the magnificent displays made at dif- 
ferent times by Robert Cameron, the superintendent, not only for 
the excellence of the specimens shown but also for the interest mani- 
fested in the success of our exhibitions. In fact if we had not 
been favored with these displays several of our shows would have 
been failures, almost, through lack of competition. 

The decline of interest has been, perhaps, most apparent in the 
displays of trained chrysanthemum plants; one by one the promi- 
nent growers have dropped out after reaching the goal of first prize, 
until those who still keep up the race are few indeed. 

There seems to be a popular demand for plants grown in a more 
natural way, having in view the great artistic decorative capabilities 

of the plant, but it is seldom indeed that the grower develops the 

artistic sense to the same degree that he docs the ability to grow his 

plants well, and it Is extremely doubtful if satisfactory results will 

be attained in this direction unless some extraordinary means are 
adopted to secure them. 

The chrysanthemum is unique in the position it holds and it 

practically has no rivals at the time it is at it> best. The before 



130 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

mentioned decline of interest in it, from the point of view of the pub- 
lic, is largely due to rebellion against a mistaken conception on the 
part of the grower of what goes to make up a beautiful plant. With 
this should be recognized the fact that the public is annually sati- 
ated by the almost overwhelming displays of chrysanthemum flowers 
of the finest quality seen on every hand in store windows and on 
street corners during the chrysanthemum season. 

When some genius arises endowed with the necessary artistic 
skill for arrangement, coupled with the ability to grow the plants in 
a suitable manner for the purpose, and backed by ample means or 
sure prospect of very liberal prizes, then we shall have chrysanthe- 
mum shows which will be a revelation and stop the cry of monotony 
and sameness so often heard in connection with these shows. 

Here is an opportunity for some individual or individuals, abun- 
dantly supplied with this world's goods, to come forward and offer, 
fully a year in advance, one or more prizes sufficiently large to make 
it an object for growers to seriously consider the artistic side of the 
matter and break away from the stereotyped character of these 
shows as seen today. 

With restrictions sufficient to secure the object sought, it would 
make our chrysanthemum exhibitions educational as well. as a pay- 
ing proposition for the Society. 

While there is a decrease of interest in the direction indicated 
there is an increase in others, notably the carnation, the peony, and 
the dahlia. Hardy roses barely hold their own although the intro- 
duction of the new Rambler class is doing much to keep up 
the interest. These with the Hybrid Teas and Rugosa hybrids 
should be given careful attention, for the most important improve- 
ments in the rose are being made in these classes. 

The February show of carnations has become a very important 
one both to the grower and the public, for it is at this season that 
the finest exhibits can be made and at a time when the public is 
most interested in them. 

At the March show the interest seems to be changing consider- 
ably and where a few years ago the Dutch bulbs formed the center 
of attraction, they are now secondary and have given place to such 
things as orchids, cyclamens, cinerarias, roses, and plants grown for 
Easter decorations. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 131 

The sweet pea has increased in popularity from year to year and 
has now reached a point where a special exhibition is necessary to 
do it justice. 

The peony and dahlia, both old-time favorites, but for many years 
almost forgotten, have through their inherent beauty and worth 
forced themselves to the front, until our peony shows have eclipsed 
the rose shows and the dahlia has attained a new beauty which en- 
titles it to the first place in our autumn exhibitions. 

A wise course to follow, it seem to us, would be to exploit these 
flowers to their fullest extent. They are the flowers in which the gen- 
eral public is most interested and which are attracting a corre- 
sponding commercial interest. We would include the rose in this 
category, for although the interest in it seems not to be as pronounced 
as it was a few years ago, it is only dormant and needs but little to 
arouse it to its old-time life and energy. 

The honorary or special awards for the year have been numer- 
ous, but very few of them have been medals and of these none 
were higher than a Silver Gilt. 

The first award of this nature was made on January 21 to W. 
A. Manda for a natural hybrid Lycaste, apparently between L. 
Skinneri and L. lasioglossa. It was interesting from the fact of 
its natural origin and Honorable Mention was awarded it. lie 
was also awarded Honorable Mention for Dendrobium nobUe alba. 
The specimen was a collected plant and bore flowers of a creamy 
white color with crimson throat. He also showed a fine Cym- 
bidium, C. Tracyanum, for which he was awarded a First Class 
Certificate of Merit. 

Anew hybrid orchid. Cattleya X Susanse, shown by E. O. 
Orpet, was thought worthy of Honorable Mention. It is a cr 
between C. Skinneri and ( '. W'urneri. 

February \ Mrs. -I. Montgomery Scars was awarded Honorable 
Mention for a seedling Amaryllis, deep red in color, of fine form 
and large size. 

On February 11 there were several interesting new seedling 
carnations shown, awards being made them as folio? 

To S. J. Goddard a Firsl Class Certificate of Merit for Helen 
Goddard which had previously been awarded Honorable Mention. 
This is a beautiful flower of a light cerise-pink color. 



132 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Wm. Palmer of Buffalo, N. Y., was given the same award for Red 
Lawson, a red sport from the Mrs. Thomas W. Lawson. The 
color is rather dull but the variety should prove a very useful one 
as it has all the other good qualities of its parents. 

Guttman & Weber again showed their Victory and the flowers 
were so fine that they were given a Silver Medal for it. 

The variety Winsor, raised by Peter Murray and previously 
awarded Honorable Mention, was again shown by the present 
owners, the F. R. Pierson Co., and awarded a First Class Certi- 
ficate. It is a promising variety of a fine light pink color. 

The Governor Guild, a new scarlet seedling of considerable 
promise, was shown by E. N. Pierce & Son, and awarded Honorable 
Mention. 

The variety Mikado, shown by M. A. Patten, was awarded Hon- 
orable Mention. It is a large bold flower in the way of Prosperity 
but marked with a much deeper color and can be considered only 
in the fancy class. 

R. Witterstaetter of Cincinnati, Ohio, exhibited two new seed- 
ling carnations, the Aristocrat and Afterglow. They arrived in 
fine condition and were of beautiful color, fine form, and large size. 

The former is a beautiful cerise-pink in color and the latter a 
shade between this and a red, a very pleasing and unusual color. 

They were both awarded First Class Certificates. 

Besides the awards for new carnations, J. E. Rothwell was 
given Honorable Mention for Lselio-cattleya Adolphus, (L. cinnaba- 
rina X C. Acklandice) and a First Class Certificate for Lselia Mrs. 
M. Gratrix, (L. cinnabarina X L. Digbyana). 

A Cultural Certificate was also awarded Wm. C. Rust for a 
remarkably well-grown specimen of Dendrobium Ainsworthii. 

March 4 Walter P. Winsor was awarded a Silver Gilt Medal for 
a remarkable display of Dendrobiums. There were forty plants 
in the collection and included twenty-five species and varieties, 
mostly of the Nobile type, and from among them five were selected 
as varieties not before shown before the Society and worthy of recog- 
nition: D. euryalus and D. Dominianum were awarded Honorable 
Mention; D. Ainsworthii roseum, a very much improved form, 
D. X Venus, pure white with maroon throat and tips, and D. nobile 
Murrhiniacum, white, suffused soft pink with maroon blotch, were 
awarded First Class Certificates. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE OX PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 133 

The F. L. Ames Estate was awarded a First Class Certificate for 
Miltonia Bleuana virginalis, and W. X. Craig a Cultural Certificate 
for well-grown plants of Phahenopsis. 

The Spring Exhibition, March 25-26, was of unusual excellence; 
the exhibit of the American Rose Society, which held its annual 
meeting and exhibition in connection with it, contributing much to 
its success. 

The display of forced Rambler roses in pots and tubs probably 
has never been equalled. There were about sixty plants, principally 
from M. H. Walsh of Woods Hole, and were nearly all seedlings 
of his own raising, including the varieties Juniata, Wedding Bells, 
La Fiamma, Debutante, Sweetheart, Gaiety, Lady Gay, Delight, 
Hiawatha, Minnehaha, and Babette. 

The same exhibitor also made a fine display of forced Hybrid 
Perpetuals in pots in an attempt to revive the old-time interest in 
these roses. This collection included among many other kinds 
several plants of the beautiful new white hybrid perpetual rose 
Frau Karl Druschki and about twenty plants of his fine seedling 
Urania. Also an unnamed double white seedling which was 
awarded Honorable Mention. 

Four new carnations were awarded Honorable Mention: Car- 
dinal, exhibited by the Chicago Carnation Co., a fine cardinal-red 
color; John E. Haines, a promising scarlet variety exhibited by 
John E. Haines and grown by II. Weber & Son, Oakland Mary- 
land; Fred Burki, a promising white variety exhibited by John 
Murchie; and Glendale, a white variegated variety, shown by W. 
J. & M. S. Vesey. Fort Wayne. Ind. 

Special awards made for orchids were Honorable Mention to 
Lager & Hurrell for Cypripedium gtoucophyllum, a new species 
from Borneo, with upper sepal green, edged with white, side petals 
mostly brown and white with hairy edges, and the lip mostly deep 
rose marked with white near the center; to Morton V. Plant a 
First Class Certificate tor Phakenopsis amabilis RimestadUana, a 
beautiful pure white form with lip marked with yellow, and fully 
twice the size of any other white Phaleenopsis; to Julius Roehra ( 
who exhibited a very fine specimen plant of Cymbidium Lowianum 

for which they were awarded a Cultural Certificate; and t<> E I I 

Orpet a Silver Medal for a seedling Cattleya, C. \ Olivia, the 



134 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

result of a cross between C. intermedia and C. triance. It is a beau- 
tiful flower with pure white sepals and petals, bright crimson lip y 
and white throat. 

Other exhibitors receiving special awards were F. R. Pierson Co., 
who received a First Class Certificate for the new rose, Mad. Nor- 
bert Levavasseur, the so-called Baby Rambler, a plant with flowers- 
resembling very closely the old Crimson Rambler, but of a dwarf 
bushy form and of an exceedingly free-flowering habit. 

Wm. Sim, Honorable Mention for new sweet pea, Earliest Sun- 
beam, a pale yellow variety mostly valuable for its earliness. 

Julius Roehrs, Honorable Mention for Ficus Cannonii, a species 
belonging to the same class as Ficus Parcelli but with deep purple 
foliage. 

Henry H. Barrows and Son, a First Class Certificate for Neph- 
rolepis Barrowsi, a sport from the Pierson fern of much the same 
character as the Tarrytown fern, but somewhat less finely divided 
and apparently a better plant. 

The Lucius H. Foster Estate, Honorable Mention for Neph- 
rolepis Dorchester, a sport from the Anna Foster fern which bears 
the same relation to its parent as the Tarrytown fern does to the 
Pierson fern. 

Bayard Thayer, Honorable Mention for a pan of Phlox divari- 
cata, showing the beauty of this plant when forced; and to the 
Misses Eldridge, Norfolk, Conn., for some beautiful sprays of 
Bougainvillaea spectabilis. 

April 15 J. E. Rothwell showed two new orchids, Cattleya Gua- 
temalensis (C. Skinneri X Epidendrum aurantiacum) and Pha- 
jus Martha, (P. Blnmei X P. tuberculosus) . The former 
received a First Class Certificate and is a beautiful free-flowering 
orchid, retaining much of the color of the seed parent but strongly 
effected in form by the pollen parent. The latter received Honor- 
able Mention and is a large flower in the characteristic brown and 
yellow shades of the genus, but was not in sufficiently good condi- 
tion to form a correct opinion of its merits. 

April 29 Robert Marshall, gardener to E. W. Converse, was 
awarded a Cultural Certificate for well-grown plants of Amaryllis 
vittata, and Thomas T. Watt a like award for a fine plant of Sac- 
colabium ampullaceum with seven spikes of beautiful rosy purple 
blooms. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 135 

The new Zanzibar balsam, Impatient Holstii, was shown by 
Robert Cameron from the Botanic Garden. It is a strong growing 
species with bright red flowers in the way of /. Sultan i. 

The Rhododendron Show, June 3, was a very successful one, 
there being several exhibits in most of the classes besides a large num- 
ber of miscellaneous displays. Among these, as specially instruc- 
tive and valuable, was the display of flowering trees and shrubs 
made by the Boston Park Department and arranged by Mr. J. W. 
Duncan. 

Pyrethrums and hardy azaleas were shown in unusually good 
condition, and tree peonies in greater number than ever before. 

The most remarkable of the miscellaneous displays was from 
Walter Hunnewell who exhibited a magnificent plant of a hybrid 
Rhododendron, var. lurid inn, grown in a tub. It was in fine condi- 
tion, fully ten feet in height, and nearly as broad. Mr. T. D. Hat- 
field, gardener for Mr. Hunnewell, was awarded a Silver Medal 
for superior cultivation. 

A cultural award was also made to Win. C. Rust, gardener for 
Dr. C. G. Weld, who received a First Class Certificate tor superior 
cultivation of Calceolaria rugasa, Golden Gem. Two plants were 
shown each nearly three feet in diameter and a complete mass of 
bloom. 

J. E. Rothwell was awarded Honorable Mention for ('ijpripc- 
dium X Lamontianinn, (('. Calypso X C. RothschUdianum). A 
large flower but dull in color, the lip being dull crimson and green, 
the petals striped deep crimson. t He was also awarded a Firsl 
Class Certificate for Laliocattieya Lycedas, (L. tenebrosa \ ('. 
Schroder a). The sepals and petals are brownish crimson, with 
deep purple crimson lip. and heavily veined throat. 

E. O. Orpet was awarded a First Class Certificate for seedling 
orchid Paeavia (Ladia tenebrosa x Lwlia purpurata). The 
flowers have brown-crimson sepals and petals, deep crimson lip. 
and heavily veined white throat. 

On account of the lateness of the season the Peony Show, which 
was set for June 10. was postponed to June 17. and proved a very 
successful one with good competition in all the classes. The increas- 
ing interest in the peony i^ bringing to the front many beautiful new 

varieties as well as numerous old ones which though not less beau- 
tiful than the new have been too scarce to be generally grown. 



136 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Among the latter we would mention the two flowers which took 
first and second prize respectively for specimen bloom: Mme. 
Boulanger, a very large and full flower, glossy soft pink in color; 
and James Kelway, a very large loosely built flower of a beautiful 
blush white color. Both were shown by T. C. Thurlow of West 
Newbury. One of the newer Japanese singles, White Lady, was 
also shown by him and received a First Class Certificate. 

Three new varieties, never before shown here, were exhibited 
by E. J. Shaylor of Wellesley Hills, viz: M. Martin Cahuzac, a 
large finely formed, very deep crimson flower, the deepest color 
known to this section, was awarded Honorable Mention ; Germain 
Bigot, a large flower of a glossy flesh color, shaded salmon; and 
Mme. D. Treyeran, white, shaded flesh were both awarded First 
Class Certificates. 

The regular annual summer Rose Show was held on June 24-25 
and made a fine exhibition. Although this is nominally a rose 
show there are so many other kinds of flowers and plants shown 
that the name nearly loses its significance. However there were 
more roses shown than for several years past, and of better quality. 

A few special awards were made, mostly for peonies which were 
shown quite extensively. J. W. Howard was awarded Honorable 
Mention for Salvia Sclarea, an old species with purple bracts r 
quite showy, but seldom seen in cultivation. 

Geo. Hollis was awarded Honorable Mention for three promising 
seedling peonies, viz : Number 96, a very full double variety, blush 
white with satiny lustre, the petals mostly long. Number 60, 
deep carmine crimson, a large full flower of fine substance and 
strong stem. Number 95, a large full flower with long petals, 
deep blush in color, lighter in the center. 

The exhibition of July 8, 9 proved a little early for sweet peas, 
but other seasonable flowers were in great abundance, particularly 
the exhibits of Delphiniums which made a magnificent show. The 
display of herbaceous plants from the Mt. Desert Nursery, Bar 
Harbor, Maine, was an interesting one and included many peony 
flowers which were just in their prime, showing the difference in 
season between the two latitudes. About Boston they were entirely 
gone while these were at their best. The display included a speci-' 
men of Lilium Grayii never before shown here. It has the habit 
of L. Canadense but is a deep red in color with black spots. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 137 

Honorable Mention was awarded to Jackson Dawson for a 
seedling rose, Daybreak; it is of the Rambler type, a beautiful 
blush pink in color, and of large size. 

On July 22 Mrs. A. W. Blake showed a specimen plant of the 
new Nicotiana Sander as. Cut flowers of this were shown last 
year by the introducers and a First Class Certificate was awarded 
them, but it has not proved altogether satisfactory. The plant 
shown was well grown and was probably presented in as favorable 
condition as it will ever be shown. 

Various opinions have been expressed on the value of this as 
a bedding plant, mostly adverse, but with some it has proved quite 
satisfactory planted in partial shade or where it was protected from 
the sun during the middle of the day. In such locations it makes a 
fine display, particularly after the weather begins to get somewhat 
cool in the fall. 

August 5 Mr. Julius Heurlin from the Blue Hill Nursery 
showed two fine hybrid Tritonias or Montbretias as they are com- 
monly called. The varieties were Geo. Davidson, bright yellow, 
shaded orange, with fine, large well-opened flowers, and Germanica, 
deep red with yellowish throat, also with large, well-open flowers. 
A First Class Certificate was awarded each. 

The displays of herbaceous plants were very fine, and remark- 
ably good dahlias were shown for so early in the season. 

On August 19 there were good displays of phlox, dahlias, and 
gladioli. John Lewis Childs showed the new gladiolus, America, 
for which he received a First Class Certificate. It is a pleasing 
light lavender-pink in color, with violet-crimsoD blotch, and with 
a large close spike of bloom. 

The exhibition on August 26 was an interesting one and included 
very line displays of Chin;! asters, herbaceous plants, dahlias and 
phlox. A particularly interesting display of different species of 
Viburnum in fruit was made by Mr. Duncan of the Boston Park 
Department. It filled twenty-six large vases and included the 
following species: I". OpulllS, I". VenOfUm, I'. rfrnfafum, I". hm- 

tana, V. lentago, I', casrinoides, V. Sargentii, I". dilatatum, and 
I'. pubescent. 
The Annual Exhibition, September 1 1. was a very successful 

one and there was more <>r less competition in nearly every class 



138 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Hardy coniferous trees, a class in which there has been but little 
interest shown for several years, were well represented and added 
much to the exhibition. 

Competition in the classes for stove and greenhouse plants was 
not very spirited and had it not been for Mr. Cameron's magnifi- 
cent group from the Harvard Botanic Garden this class would 
have been very poorly represented. This without doubt was the 
finest group ever staged in our halls and Mr. Cameron was awarded 
a Silver Medal in recognition of the superior skill shown in its 
arrangement. 

The increased popularity of the dahlia has made it of so much 
importance that in future it will be made the prominent feature 
of an exhibition which will practically replace the present fall ex- 
hibition and be held somewhat earlier so there will be less danger 
of injury from frosts. 

Besides the silver medal before mentioned there were a number 
of special awards made, mostly for new dahlias. A. E. Johnson 
of Brockton made an extensive display of seedlings, all of which 
were of equal quality with existing varieties. Nine of these were 
selected as quite distinct and each awarded Honorable Mention. 
Gen. Miles, the only one bearing a name, is a Fancy of a light 
purple color streaked with crimson. No. 89, a finely quilled Show 
variety of a delicate white and mauve color. No. 6, a white Deco- 
rative variety. No. 10, a fine Show bloom, chrome yellow, shaded 
orange. No. 2, a Fancy with orange-yellow ground, streaked with 
crimson. No. 25 a finely quilled Show variety, maroon, tinged 
crimson. No. 27 a pure yellow Show bloom. No. 75, a Decora- 
tive variety with cherry pink petals, tipped with white, and No. 44 
a fine sulphur yellow Cactus variety. 

E. W. Green was also awarded Honorable Mention for a seed- 
ling single dahlia, named Mary Green, with broad rounded petals 
crimson at the base and tipped with white. 

Other special awards made were a First Class Certificate to 
Henry A. Dreer for Victoria Trickeri a remarkable new variety 
which succeeds at a much lower temperature than the original 
species. 

Honorable Mention was also awarded the same exhibitor for 
two Nymphseas, N. Bissetii and N. dentata magnified; the former, 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE OX PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 139 

a very large deep pink flower, is believed to be a cross of N. den- 
tate with N. Sturtevantii and is claimed to be a freer grower and 
bloomer, doing well in a lower temperature. The latter is a fine 
large white flower, best described as a white Sturtevantii. It is a 
cross between A r . O'Marana and N. dentata. 

Alpinia Sanderw, shown by Julius Roehrs Co., and awarded 
an Honorable Mention, is a fine foliage plant with distinct white 
variegation. 

A sport from Scdum spectabile was shown by Walter Hunnewell, 
and awarded Honorable Mention. It is a fine deep rose in color, 
much deeper and richer than the specie-. 

On October 28 a cultural certificate was awarded Mrs. A. W. 
Blake for a finely grown specimen of Zygopetalum Mackaii. It 
had two bulbs, five spikes of bloom, and thirty-two flowers. 

The Chrysanthemum Show, November 9, was fully a week too 
late and the entries of cut blooms were few in consequence; for 
with many growers their flowers had passed their best and were 
unfit to show. 

The plants were well grown and in good condition, but there was 
a lack of interest in competition. 

Carnations were remarkably well shown for so early in the season 
and several new varieties were exhibited; among these Honorable 
Mention was awarded for the variety Marion Peiree, from Peine 
Farm, Topsfield, Mass. The color is a beautiful shade of rose- 
pink and it is similar in form to the variety Enchantress. The 
flowers shown showed a tendency towards weak neck, which will, 
if a constitutional fault, ruin an otherwise beautiful variety. 

The same award was made to II. A. Jahn for his No. 111. a 
promising seedling which seems to combine the ^n)i\ qualities of 
Enchantress and Fair Maid both in color and habit. 

Honorable Mention was awarded also as follow-: 

To (i. B. Anderson for seedling No. 10. a \cry large and very 

full flower of a scarlet color but a little dull in shade. 

To Hacker & Co. for a pink sport from Enchantress of the 
same form as the latter but of a more rosy color, and for seedling 
No. 14, a light yellow self of much promise. 

To II. A. Stevens Co. for a Daybreak colored sport from the A 
T. W. Lawson. 



140 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

To Peter Fisher for seedling carnation No. 171, a deep salmon- 
pink color of fine form. 

M. A. Patten again showed Pink Patten which had previously 
been awarded Honorable Mention, and as the variety seemed to 
be well fixed it was awarded a First Class Certificate. 

Other special awards were a First Class Certificate to Julius 
Roehrs Co. for Phoenix Rwbelenii, a very graceful new palm; an 
Honorable Mention to Dr. H. P. Walcott for seedling Chrysanthe- 
mum No. 1, a fine flower of incurved form and very deep yellow 
in color. 

A Silver Medal was awarded to R. & J. Farquhar & Co. for 
a display of ornamental evergreens in pots, including many of the 
most beautiful golden and variegated forms of Retinispora, Thuya, 
and Biota. 

A Silver Medal was also awarded to R. Vincent Jr. & Son, 
White Marsh, Maryland, for a most comprehensive display of one 
hundred varieties of hardy Chrysanthemums, mostly of the Pom- 
pon class. It proved very interesting and attracted much atten- 
tion. 

December 9 Mr. Oakes Ames showed two new hybrid orchids, 
Zygo-Colax Amesianus, (Zygopetahim brachypetalum X Colax 
jngosus). This was introduced by Sander and is intermediate 
between the two parents; sepals and petals green, spotted and 
blotched brown, lip white, streaked violet-blue. It was awarded 
a First Class Certificate. 

Cypripedmm tonso-Charlesworthii; this is an original seedling 
and is the result of a cross between C. tonsum and C. Charleswortkii. 
It resembles the latter in dorsal sepal while the pouch and petals 
resemble the other ; the petals, however, are larger than in either 
parent. A Silver Medal was awarded Mr. Ames for this. 

On the same day A. H. Fewkes was awarded a First Class Cer- 
tificate for a variegated sport from Stevia serrata compacta, Stevia 
serrata compacta variegata. The variegation is very distinct giv- 
ing it a pleasing effect when grown as a flowering plant as well as 
making it useful as a summer bedding plant. Its dwarf habit 
makes it more valuable than the old variegated Stevia which is a 
variety of the ordinary tall form. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 141 

We have awarded during the year in money prizes and gra- 



tuities ..... 


$3399.00 


One Society's Silver Gilt Medal 


S 12.25 


Three Appleton " 


36.75 


Six Society's Silver Medals 


40.50 


One Cultural 


6.75 


One Appleton 


6.75 


One Bronze Medal 


3.75 


Estimated value of above 


106.75 106.75 




S3505.75 


Appropriation for Plants and Flowers 


for 1905 3731.00 


Amount awarded .... 


3505.75 



Unexpended balance ...... 225.25 

We have also awarded 

Twenty-nine First Class Certificates 

Nine Cultural Certificates 

Forty-eight Honorable Mentions 

Seventeen Votes of Thanks 

Besides the above we have awarded the following special 

prizes, 

Henry A. Gane Memorial Fund .... 35.00 
Gardeners' and Florists' Club of Boston . . 40.00 

Mrs. Oliver Ames . . . . . . 50.00 

Horticulture 10.00 

Boston Cooperative Flower Market . . . ^.00 

Flower Growers' Association 49.00 

s_>22.()0 



142 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



PRIZESjAND GRATUITIES AWARDED FOR PLANTS AND 

FLOWERS. 

1905. 

February 4. 

Gratuities: — 

Mrs. J. Montgomery Sears, Gardenia florida, $1. 

February 11. 

Primula Sinensis. — Six plants in not less than six-inch pots: 

1st, Edward J. Mitton, S5; 2d, Geo. F. Fabyan, S3; 3d, Mrs. John 
L. Gardner, $2. 
Primula Stellata. — Six plants in not less than six-inch pots: 

1st, E. A. Clark, $5; 2d, Mrs. John L. Gardner, S3. 
Primula Obconica Varieties. — Six plants in not less than six-inch pots: 
1st, Geo. F. Fabyan, $6; 2d, Geo. F. Fabyan, S3; 3d, Mrs. John L. 
Gardner, $2. 
Begonia Gloire de Lorraine. — Six pots or pans: 

1st, Hon. M. T. Stevens, $10; 2d, E. A. Clark, $6. 
Violets. — Best bunch, one hundred blooms, Double: 

1st, Malcolm Orr, S3; 2d, L. E. Small, S2; 3d, Arthur F. Coolidge, SI. 
Best bunch one hundred blooms, Single: 

1st, Wm. Sim, S3; 2d, Joseph H. White, S2; 3d, Matthew B. 
Dallachie, SI. 
Carnations. — Best vase, twenty-five blooms, White: 

1st, Peter Fisher, S3; 2d, M. A. Patten, S2; 3d, H. A. Stevens Co., SI. 
Best vase, twenty-five blooms, Scarlet: 

1st, Backer & Co., S3; 2d, C. E. Dickerman, $2. 
Best vase, twenty-five blooms, Light Pink: 

1st, M. A. Patten, S3; 2d, S. J. Goddard, S2; 3d, H. A. Stevens Co., SI. 
Best vase, twenty-five blooms, Dark Pink: 

1st, Wm. Nicholson, S3; 2d, L. E. Small, $2; 3d, M. A. Patten, SI. 
Best vase, twenty-five blooms, Crimson: 

rst, Wm. Nicholson, S3; 2d, M. A. Patten, S2; 3d, Backer & Co., SI. 
Best vase, twenty-five blooms, Variegated: 

1st, Wm. Nicholson, S3; 2d, M. A. Patten, S2; 3d, Peter Fisher, SI. 
Best vase, twenty-five blooms, Yellow: 

1st, M. A. Patten, S3; 2d, Backer & Co., S2; 3d, Backer & Co., SI. 



AWARDS FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 143 



Special Prizes Offered By 
The Boston Cooperative Flower Growers' Association, 

No. 2 Park St. 

Carnations. — Best vase, fifty blooms. White: 

1st, Peter Fisher, $4; 2d, M. A. Patten, S2. 
Best vase, fifty blooms, Scarlet: 

1st, Peter Fisher, $4. 
Best vase, fifty blooms, Light Pink: 

1st, Peter Fisher, $4; 2d, S. J. Reuter, $2. 
Best vase, fifty blooi#s, Dark Pink: 

1st, Peter Fisher, $4; 2d, S. J. Reuter, $2. 
Best vase, fifty blooms, Crimson: 

1st, Peter Fisher, S4; 2d, S. J. Reuter, $2. 
Best vase, fifty blooms, Variegated: 

1st, M. A. Patten, $4; 2d, Peter Fisher, $2. 
Best vase, fifty blooms, Yellow: 

1st, M. A. Patten, $4. 
Best vase, not less than one hundred blooms and not less than six varie- 
ties : 

1st, Wm. Nicholson, $8. 



Special Prizes Offered By 

The Boston Cooperative Flower Market, 

Music Hall Place, 

Carnations. — Best fifty blooms, Fair Maid: 

1st, H. A. Stevens Co., SI; 2d, A. Roper. $2. 
Best fifty blooms of any White: 

1st, C. E. Dickerman, $3; 2d, L. E, Small. $2. 
Best seedling, not in commerce: 

1st, M. A. Patten. $4; 2d, L. E. Small. $2. 
Violets. — Best hundred blooms, Princess of Wales: 

1st. Harry V. Woods, s:-!; 2d, Win. Sim. $1. 
Best hundred blooms. Lady Hume Campbell: 

1st. Harry F. Woods, $3; 2d. L. E. Small. SI. 
Roses, i tesl t wenty-five blooms, any variety other than American Beauty 

1st. Waban Rose Conservators 15 
Mignonette.— Best twenty-five Bpikes of any one variety. 

1st, Wm. Nicholson, >:'»: 2d, A II Fewkea 
Sweet Peas. Besl one hundred Bpikea of any one variety: 

1st, Wm. Sim. $3; 2d, Malcolm Orr, $2. 



144 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



Special Prize Offered By Horticulture. 

Best vase of Carnations, one hundred blooms in not over three varieties, 
arranged for effect with other foliage but not with other flowers; 
color scheme and arrangement considered in making award. 
1st, M. A. Patten, $10. 

Gratuities: — 

John McFarland, Bouquet of Lily of the Valley, $2. 

Francis Skinner Jr., Chinese Primroses, $2. 

Harvard Botanic Garden, Display of Primula obconica, $6. 

Harvard Botanic Garden, Display of Lachenahas, $3 

A. M. Davenport, Cyclamens, S3. 

Mrs. A. W. Blake, Cypripedium Dautheri, $1. 

Jos. H. White, Carnations, SI. 



Spring Exhibition. 

March 23, 24, 25, 26. 

Theodore Lyman Fund. 

Indian Azaleas. — Six distinct named varieties: 

1st, E. W. Breed, $15; 2d, Edward MacMulkin, $12. 

Society's Prizes. 

Palms. — Pair in pots or tubs: 

1st, Mrs. John L. Gardner, $15; 2d, Geo. F. Fabyan, $12. 
Orchids. — Three plants: 

1st, Geo. F. Fabyan, $10; 2d, Edmund W. Converse, $6; 3d, Edward J. 
Mitton, $4. 
Hard-wooded Greenhouse Plants. — Two or more genera, four in bloom . 
Azaleas excluded: 

1st, Ed. A. Clark, $10. 
Acacia. — Specimen plant : 

1st, Dr. C. G. Weld, $10; 2d, Dr. C. G. Weld, $6; 3d, E. W. Converse, $4. 
Climbing Rose. — Specimen plant in bloom: 

IstM. H. Walsh, $10; 2d, Francis Skinner, Jr., $6; 3d, M. H. Walsh, $4. 
Collection of Rambler and other Roses. — Suitable for landscape and 
decorative purposes, grown in pots or tubs: 

1st, M. H. Walsh, $35; 2d, M. H. Walsh, $25; 3d, M. H. Walsh, $15. 
Hardy Primroses and Polyanthuses. — Twelve plants of distinct varieties : 

1st, William Whitman, $8; 2d, Mrs. John L. Gardner, $5; 3d, Wm. 
Whitman, $3. 
Cyclamens.— Ten plants: 

1st, Geo. F. Fabyan, $20; 2d, Edward J. Mitton, $15. 



AWARDS FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 145 

Ten plants in not over seven-inch pots : 

1st, Geo. F. Fabyan, $12; 2d, Dr. C. G. Weld, $8; 3d. Geo. F. Fabyan, 
$6. 
Single plant : 

1st, Geo. F. Fabyan, $5; 2d, Edward A. Clark, S4; 3d, E. A. Clark, $3. 
Cinerarias. — Six varieties: 
1st, Geo. F. Fabyan, $15. 
Three varieties: 

1st, Geo. F. Fabyan, $8; 2d, Edmund W. Converse, $6. 
Cineraria Stellata. — Six plants: 

1st, Mrs. John L. Gardner, $12; 2d, Mrs. John L. Gardner, $8. 
Hyacinths. — Twelve named varieties, in pots, one in each pot: 

1st, Mrs. John L. Gardner, $10; 2d, Ed. A. Clark, $6; 3d, Bussey 
Institution, $6. 
Six named varieties, in pots, one in each pot: 

1st, Ed. A. Clark, So; 2d, Mrs. John L. Gardner, $4; 3d. Bussey 
Institution, $3. 
Three pans, not to exceed twelve inches, ten bulbs of one variety in 
each pan: 
1st, William Whitman, $10; 2d, Mrs. John L. Gardner. $6; 3d, Ed. 
A. Clark, $4. 
Single pan, not to exceed twelve inches, with ten bulbs of one variety: 
1st, Geo. F. Fabyan, $5; 2d, Mrs. John L. Gardner. S4; 3d, Mrs. John 
L. Gardner, $3. 
Tulips. — Six eight-inch pans, nine bulbs of one variety in each: 
1st, Wm. Whitman, $8; 2d, Ed. A. Clark, $6. 
Three eight-inch pans, nine bulbs of one variety in each: 

1st, Ed. A. Clark. $4; 2d, Wm. Whitman. S3; 3d. Ed. A. Clark. $2 
Three ten-inch pans, twelve bulbs of one variety in each: 

1st, William Whitman. S6; 2d, Ed. A. Clark, $5; 3d, Ed. A. Clark. S4. 
Polyanthus Narcissus. — Four eight-inch pots, five bulbs in each: 

1st, Mrs. John L. Gardner, 16; 2d, Ed. A. ("lark. 
Jonquils. — Six pots or pans, not exceeding eight inches: 

1st, Mrs. John L. Gardner. |4; 2d, Wm. Whitman. $3; 3d, Ed. A. 
Clark, - 
Narcissuses. — Six eight-inch pots or pan-, distinct varieties, single or 
double: 
1st, Wm. Whitman. $10; 2d, Mrs. J. L. Gardner, 16; 3d, E. A. Clark. 

Three eight-inch pots or pans: 

1st. Wm. Whitman, 15; 2d, E. A. Clark. *:>; 3d, E. A. Clark. $2. 
Crocuses. — Three ten-inch pans, three distinct varieties: 

1st. Bussey Institution, 
Roman Hy\< [nths. Bis eight-inch pans, ten bulbs in a pan: 

1st, E. A. Clark. S.">; 2d, Wm. Whitman. S3. 



146 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Display of Easter Plants. — Bulbous plants, except Easter Lilies and 
Cyclamens, excluded: 

1st, E. A. Clark, $25; 2d, Edward MacMulkin, $15. 
General Display of Spring Bulbous Plants. — All classes: 

1st, Bussey Institution, $30; 2d, E. A. Clark, $20. 

Flowers. 

Special Prizes. 

Mrs. Anna C. Ames, Boston. 

Rose "Mrs. Oliver Ames." Vase of fifty blooms: 

1st, W. H. Elliott, $30; 2d, Waban Rose Conservatories, $20. 

Gardeners' and Florists' Club of Boston. 

Vase of Mixed Roses. — Twenty-five blooms, not less than four varieties: 
1st, Col. Chas. Pfaff, $25; 2d, W. H. Elliott, $15. 

Society's Prizes. 

Hybrid Perpetual Roses. — Twelve blooms, not less than four named 
varieties : 
1st, Col. Chas. Pfaff, $10; 2d, E. A. Clark, $6; 3d, Miss S. B. Fay, $4. 
Twelve blooms of Ulrich Brunner: 
1st, J. McFarland, $10. 
Tender Roses in Vases. — Twelve blooms of American Beauty: 
1st, Arthur Griffin, $15; 2d, W. H. Elliott, $12. 
Twenty-five blooms of the Bride: 

1st, Wm. H. Elliott, $10. 
Twenty-five blooms of Bridesmaid: 

1st, Wm. H. Elliott, $10. 
Twenty-five blooms of Liberty: 

1st, Wm. H. Elliott, $12. 
Twenty-five blooms of any other variety: 
3d, Wm. H. Elliott, $4. 
Carnations. — Vase of one-hundred cut blooms, of one variety, with 
foliage : 
1st, F. R. Pierson Co., $10; 2d, Patten & Co., $8; 3d, Peter Fisher, $6. 
Twenty-five blooms of any Crimson variety: 

1st, Peter Fisher, "Ruby," $5; 2d, Wm. Nicholson, "Harry Fenn," 
$4; 3d, Patten & Co., "Harry Fenn," $3. 
Twenty-five blooms of any Dark Pink variety: 

1st, Peter Fisher, "Nelson Fisher," $5; 2d, Patten & Co., "Nelson 
Fisher," $4; 3d, Wm. Nicholson, "Mrs. T. W. Lawson," $3. 
Twenty-five blooms of any Light Pink variety: 



AWARDS FOR PLAXTS AND FLOWERS. 147 

1st, Wm, Nicholson, "Enchantress," So; 2d, Peter Fisher, ''Enchan- 
tress," S4; 3d, Patten & Co., "Enchantress," S3. 
Twentj'-five blooms of any named Scarlet variety: 

1st, Guttman & Weber, "Victory" So; 2d, Peter Fisher, "Flamingo," 
$4; 3d, F. R. Pierson Co., "Flamingo." S3. 
Twenty-five blooms of any named White variety: 

1st, Peter Fisher, "Lady Bountiful." So; 2d, Patten & Co., "Lady 
Bountiful," S4; 3d, Peter Fisher, "Princess," S3. 
Twenty-five blooms of any named Yellow Variegated variety: 

1st, Backer & Co., "Eldorado," So; 2d, Patten & Co., S4; 3d, Backer 
& Co., $3. 
Twenty-five blooms of any named White Variegated variety: 

1st, Patten & Co., "Mrs. M. A. Patten." $5; 2d, H. A. Stevens Co., 
"Mrs. M. A. Patten," 84; 3d. Peter Fisher. "Mrs. M. A. Patten. $3 
Pansies. — Forty-eight cut blooms, not less than twenty-four varieties: 

1st, James Anderson. $3; 2d, Mrs. E. M. Gill. $2. 
Violcts. — Bunch of one hundred blooms Lady Hume Campbell: 
1st, H. F. Woods, S3; 2d, L. E. Small. $2; 3d, E. Bingham. $1. 
Bunch of one hundred blooms any other double variety: 

1st, F. R. Pierson Co., "Marie Louise," S3; 2d, Norris F. Comley. 
• Neapolitan." $2. 
Bunch of one hundred blooms Princess of Wales: 

1st, H. F. Woods, 
Bunch of one hundred blooms any other single variety: 
1st, Norris F. Comley. "La France." | 
Orchids. — Display of not less than six genera and fifteen named spe< 
and varieties, filling not less than twenty bottles: 
1st, Langwater Gardens. Appleton Silver Gilt Medal; 3d. Col. Chas. 
Pfaff, Appleton Bronze Medal. 

Gratuities: — 

Edmund W. Converse, Display of Cyclamens, Primulas, etc., $8 

R. & J. Farquhar & Co., Display of spring Bulbs and Plant-. $20. 

Bussey Institution. Forced Shrubs and Plant-. S15. 

Harvard Botanic Garden, Display of Primula obconica, Palms, etc., 130 

I\ \l Pierson Co., Vase of American Beauty Ro 

The Misses Eldridge, Bougainvillaea apectabilis in -pray-. - 

Geo. McWilliam, Cut -pray- of Cymbidium ebumeo-LovnaMum, v 

Lager A Hurrell, Display of Orchids, $10. 

Julius Roehrs Co., Display of Orchids, ^s 

Edward MacMulkin, Yellow Marguerites, $1. 

Palm- and Bay $10 

James p. Little. Antirrhinums, $1 
Mrs. E. M. Gill, Display of Bo* 
Miss Sarah B. Fay. Hybrid Eloses, I 
Wm. Nicholson, Display of Carnatit 



148 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

M. A. Patten. Three vases Carnations. $2. 

L. E. Small. Vase of white seedling Carnation. " Xo. 3," $2. 

Guttman & Weber. Vase of Carnation, "Victory," 82. 

M. A. Patten, Mignonette. SI. 

Carl Jurgens, Vase of Lily of the Valley, SI. 

Wm. Sim, Two vases Sweet Peas. S4. 

M. H. Walsh. Group of Seedling Rose. "Urania," SS. 

April 29. 

Plants. 

Indian Azaleas. — Three plants, distinct varieties, in pots, named: 

2d, Geo. F. Fabyan. S8. 
Calceolarias. — Six varieties in pots: 

1st, Geo. F. Fabyan, $15; 2d, Geo. F. Fabyan. S10. 
Pelargoniums. — Six named Show or Fancy varieties: 

1st. Geo. F. Fabyan. $10; 2d, Geo. F. Fabyan. $6. 

Flowers. 

Tulips. — Forty-eight blooms, not less than twelve named varieties: 

1st, TV. J. Clemson, $5. 
Hardy Narcissuses. — Collection of fifty vases of not less than ten named 
varieties : 

1st. W. J. Clemson, $10. 
Pansies. — Forty-eight blooms, not less than twenty-four varieties: 

1st, Mrs. J. B. ShurtlerT, Jr., $3; 2d, Mrs. E. M. Gill, $2. 

Gratuities : — 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, Display of flowers. $2. 
E. W. Converse, Display of Astilbe, $2. 



Rhododendron Exhibition. 

June 3 and 4. 
Plants. 

Orchids. — Display, arranged for effect, with foliage plants: 
1st, J. E. Rothwell. Appleton Silver Gilt Medal. 

Flowers. 
H. H. Hunnewell Fund. 

.Rhododendrons. — Twelve distinct varieties, of unquestioned hardiness, 
named : 



AWARDS FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 149 

1st, Edward A. Clark, $10. 
Six distinct varieties of unquestioned hardiness: 

1st, Mrs. J. L. Gardiner, $5; 2d, Blue Hill Nurseries, $3; 3d, W. J. 
Clemson, $2. 
Hardy Azaleas. — Twelve varieties, one vase of each: 
1st, William Whitman, $6; 2d, T. C. Thurlow, $4. 
Six varieties, one vase of each: 

1st, Mrs. J. L. Gardner, $4; 2d, Mrs. J. L. Gardner, $3; 3d, T. C. 
Thurlow & Co., $1. 
Cluster of trusses, one variety: 

1st, William Whitman, $3; 2d, William Whitman, $2. 

Society's Prizes. 

German Irises. — Thirty-six vases of three trusses each, not less than 
twelve varieties: 
1st, William Whitman, $5. 
Hardy Pyrethrums. — Display of thirty bottles, single and double, six 
or more varieties: 
1st, Mrs. J. L. Gardner, $5; 2, W. L. Clemson, $3. 
Hardy Ornamental Trees and Shrubs. — Display of not less than 
twenty genera and thirty species and varieties, named, cut blooms 
or foliage: 
1st, E. A. Clark, $10; 2d, Mrs. John L. Gardner $6; 3d. W. H. Heustis, 
$4. 
Tree Peonies. — Not less than five varieties: 

1st, Mrs. J. L. Gardner, $10; 2, T. C. Thurlow & Co., $8. 
Hardy Herbaceous Flowers. — Distinct species and varieties, not less 
than ten genera, grasses admissible, thirty bottles: 
1st, Blue Hill Nurseries, $8; 2d, W. J. Clemson, $6. 

Gratuities : — 
T. C. Thurlow, Peonies and Azaleas, $2. 

Edward MacMulkin, Display of Palms and Foliage plants. $15. 
W. Whitman, Collection of Pyrethrums, $2. 
W. Whitman, Collection of Iris and Sweet Williams, S4. 
Mrs. E. M. Gill, Display of Flowers, s:; 
Mrs. J. L. Gardner, Display of Rhododendrons, $6. 
E. O. Orpet, Vase of Odontoglossum crispum, ^ 

Peoxy Exhibition. 

June 17. 

Flowers. 

Special prizes offered by Ketooay & Son, Langport, England. 

Herbaceous Peonies.— Collection of eighteen named varieties, -ingle 
or double: 



150 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

i 

1st, H. A. Stevens Co., Silver Gilt Medal; 2d, Miss A. M. Means, 
Bronze Medal. 

Society's Prizes. 

Herbaceous Peonies. — Collection of thirty or more varieties, double: 
1st, T. C. Thurlow, $12; 2d, H. A. Stevens Co., $8; 3d, G. Hollis, $6; 
4th. Dr. C. S. Minot. 84. 
Collection of twelve named varieties, double: 

1st, O. B. Hadwen, $6; 2d, G. Hollis. S4. 
Specimen bloom: 

1st, T. C. Thurlow, "Mad. Boulanger," 82; 2d, T. C. Thurlow, 
"Lady Alexandra Duff," SI. 
Collection of twelve or more named varieties, single: 

1st, T. C. Thurlow. 84; 2d, G. Hollis. 83. 
Collection of twelve or more named varieties, Japanese single: 

1st, G. Hollis, 84. 
Vase of blooms on long stems, arranged for effect in the Society's large 
China vases: 
1-t. Mrs. J. L. Gardner, S10; 2d. Blue Hill Nurseries, S6; 3d, E. L. 
Lewis, 84. 

Gratuities: — 

E. J. Shaylor, Display of named Peonies, $8. 

T. C. Thmlow, " ' " " " 86. 

E. A. Clark, " " " " 84. 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, Display of Peonies and Hardy Roses, 85. 

Wm. Nicholson, Four vases Peonies. 82. 

E. A. Wood. Peonies and Oriental Poppies. 83. 

W. Heustis & Son, Display of Hardy Shrubs, 82. 

Blue Hill Nurseries. Display of Hardy Perennials. So. 

Rose and Strawberry Exhibition. 
June 24 and 25. 

Flowers. 

Special Prizes. 

Theodore Lyman Fund. 

Hardy Roses. — Twenty-four distinct named varieties, three of each 
variety : 
1st, Miss S. B. Fay. 825; 2d, Miss S. B. Fay, S20; 3d, W. J. Clemson, 

815. 



AWARDS FOR PLANTS AXD FLOWERS. 151 

Society's Prizes. 

Twelve named varieties, three of each: 

1st, MissS. B. Fay. $12. 
Six named varieties, three of each: 

1st, Miss S. B. Fay, $6. 
Twenty-four named varieties, one of each: 

1st, MissS. B. Fay. $12. 
Eighteen named varieties, one of each: 

1st, Miss S. B. Fay. S8; 2d. A. F. Estabrook, $6. 
Twelve named varieties, one of each: 

2d. Mrs. C. C. Converse and Mrs. Lester Leland. S4. 
Six named varieties, one of each: 

2d. A. F. Estabrook. S3. 
Twenty-four blooms of Mine. Gabrielle Luizet : 

1st, Miss S. B. Fay. $6; 2d, A. F. Estabrook. $4. 
Six blooms of Alfred Colomb: 

3d, Mrs. C. C. Converse and Mrs. Lester Leland. SI. 
Six blooms of Baroness Rothschild: 

1st, Estate of J. C. Chaffin. S3; 2d. Miss S. B. Fay. $2; 3d. Mrs. fc I 
Converse and Mrs. Lester Leland. $1. 
Six blooms of Mrs. John Laing: 

1st. Mrs. C. C. Converse and Mrs. Lester Leland. S3. 
Six blooms of General Jacqueminot: 

1st, MissS. B. Fay 
Six blooms of Llrich Brunner: 

1st, Miss S. B. Fay. S3: 2d, Mrs. C. C. Converse and Mrs. Lester Leland. 

Six blooms of any other variety: 

1st. Miss s. B. Fay. "Margaret Dickson/' $3; 2d, Miss 8. B. Fay. 
•Mrs. R. G. Sharman Crawford," $2; 3d, W. J. Clemson, ••Manna 

Charta." $1. 
Best three blooms of a variety introduced since L902: 
M. Miss S. B. Fay. ••Fran Karl Druschki, 1 

General Display. One hundred bottles of Hardy Roses in the Society's 
rack>. buds admissible: 
1st, MissS. B. Fay, $15; 2d, Mrs. E. M. GM, $10; 3d, W. J. Clemson, $g 
4th, Estate of J. C. Chaffin, $4 
Sweet Williamb.- Display of eighteen vases of three ti ich, not 

Less than six varieties : 
1st, W. Whitman. $3; _M. \Y. Whitman. $2; 3d, Anthony McLaren - 

OratwiHw. — 

H»nry A. Dreer, Display of Aquatics, vn 

R a.- .1. Farquhar a.- Co., Hi-play of Palms. Sv 
Mrs 1 \. Wilkie. Display oi Ro« i 12 



152 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Mrs. Henry L. Foote, Display of Tea and Hybrid Tea Roses, $10. 

Mrs. J. L. Gardner, Display of Campanula Medium, $6. 

M. H. Walsh, Display of Rambler Rose, "Lady Gay," $6. 

A. F. Estabrook, Three plants Astilbe, $2. 

William Whitman, Herbaceous Plants, $5. 

Wm. C. Winter, Display of flowers, $1. 

Blue Hill Nurseries, Display of Herbaceous Plants, $6. 

E. J. Shaylor, Display of Peonies, $4. 

T. C. Thurlow, " " " $6. 

A. F. Estabrook, " " " $3. 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, " " " $1. 

Harvard Botanic Garden, Display of Aquatics, $8. 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, Display of Roses, $5. 

Dr. C. G. Weld, " " " $5. 

Frederic J. Rea, Display of Herbaceous flowers and Roses, $3. 

July 8 and 9. 

Flowers. 

Hardy Roses. — Collection, named, not less than twelve varieties filling 
fifty vases, one rose in each vase: 
1st, Miss S. B. Fay, $12; 2d, E. A. Clark, $8; 3d, Miss S. B. Fay, $4. 
Iris Kjempferi. — Collection of varieties filling twenty-five vases: 

1st, Mrs. J. L. Gardner, $8; 2d, T. C. Thurlow, $5. 
Campanula Medium. — Collection, not less than fifteen vases: 

1st, Wm. Whitman, $4; 2d, A. E. Hartshorn, $3; 3d, Wm. Whitman, 
$2. 
Delphiniums. — Display, thirty vases of three spikes each: 

1st, Wm. Whitman, $10; 2d, Mrs. J. L. Gardner, $6. 
Sweet Peas. — Display of named varieties filling thirty vases, twenty- 
five sprays in each, arranged with their own foliage: 
1st, Wm. Whitman, $10. 
Display of twelve named varieties, twelve sprays of each : 

1st, T. C. Sias, $4; 2d, Joseph Thorpe, $3; 3d, Mrs. L. A. Towle, $2. 
Hardy Herbaceous Flow t ers. — Thirty bottles, distinct species and 
varieties, not less than ten genera: 
1st, Blue Hill Nurseries, $8; 2d, Bay State Nurseries, $6; 3d, F. J. Rea, 



Gratuities: — 

Blue Hill Nurseries, Display of Herbaceous Plants, 

Mrs. J. B. Lawrence, 

Harvard Botanic Garden, " " " " 

Mrs. J. B. Lawrence, Crimson Rambler Roses, etc., $1. 



AWARDS FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 153 

Mrs. E. M. Gill. Display of Flowers. -S3. 

H. A. Stevens Co.. Phlox and Iris. $1. 

M. H. Walsh. Display of Rambler Ro~ 

Mt. Desert Nurseries. Display of Herbaceous Flowers, S10. 

F. H. Hills. Display of Delphiniums. SI. 

R. cv. J. Farquhar & Co.. Display of Herbaceous Flowers, S3. 

Edward MacMulkin, Display of Palms, $5. 

F. J. Rea. Display of Rose Dorothy Perkins. $1, 

July 22. 

Gratuities: — 

Mrs. E. M. Gill. Display of Flowers. S3. 

A. E. Hartshorn. Display of Hollyhocks and Petunias. So. 

T. C. Thurlow, Display of Phlox, $5. 

H. A. Stevens Co., " * " " $2. 

Mrs. L. M. Towle. Display of Sweet Peas. $2. 

Harvard Botanic Garden, Display of Aquatics, SS. 

- Achimines. S6. 
Mrs. A. W. Blake. Specimen plant of Xieotiana Sandrrcv, $2. 

August 5. 

Perennial PHLOXES. — Twelve named varieties, one truss of each: 
2d. H. A. Stevens Co.. SO; 3d. Blue Hill Nurseries, S4. 

Hardy Herbaceous Flowers. — Thirty bottles, distinct species ami 
varieties: 
1-t. Blue Hill Xur<cri< i. Bay State Nurseries. 

Gratuities: — 

Joseph Thorpe. Display of Sweet Peas. $2 

Bay State Nurseries, Herbaceous Flow 

Mrs. I". M. Gill, Display of Flowers, $1. 

Blue Hill Nurseries, Display of Herbaceous Flower-. $4. 

Mrs. P. M. Towle, Display of Dahlias $3. 

Harvard Botanic Garden, Display of Herbaceous Flow 

\ 081 12. 

nuaia. —General display, named, not le<^ than twenty-five varieties 
filling not less than one hundred bottli 



154 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

1st, Mrs. J. L. Gardner, $10; 2d, Mrs. E. M. Gill, $8. 

Gratuities: — 

Harvard Botanic Garden, Display of Herbaceous Plants, $4. 

" " Annuals, $6. 
Mrs. L. A. Towle, " " " $3. 

Blue Hill Nurseries, Display of Phlox, $4. 
Mrs. L. M. Towle, Display of Dahlias, $4. 
Joseph Thorpe, Asters and Sweet Peas, SI. 
W. G. Winsor, Dahlias, $1. 

August 19. 

Flowers. 

Perennial Phloxes. — General display in not less than thirty vases: 

1st, Blue Hill Nurseries, $6; 2d, T. C. Thurlow, $5; 3d, Wra. C. Winter, 
S3. 
Gladioli. — Twenty named varieties in spikes: 
1st, John Lewis Childs, $5. 
Display of named and unnamed varieties, filling one hundred vases: 
1st, John Lewis Childs, $8. 

Gratuities: — 

Harvard Botanic Garden, Display of Herbaceous Plants and Annuals, 

$8. 
Mrs. L. M. Towle, Display of Dahlias, $4. 
Wm. C. Winter " " " $2. 

Wm. G. Winsor " " " $2. 

Mrs. L. M. Towle, Collection of Seedling Dahlias, $1. 
Mrs. E. M. Gill, Display of Flowers, $2. 
Mrs. J. L. Gardner, Clerodendron fallax, $1. 

August 26. 

Flowers. 

Theodore Lyman Fund. 

China Asters. — Of all classes, fifty vases, not less than twelve varieties, 
three flowers in each vase: 
1st, Mrs. L. M. Towle, $8; 2d, H. B. Watts, $6; 3d, Mrs. J. L. Gardner, 
$4. 
Hardy Herbaceous Flowers. — Thirty bottles, distinct species and 
varieties : 
1st, Blue Hill Nurseries, $8. 



AWARDS FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 155 

Gratuities: — 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, Display of Flowers, $2. 

W. G. Winsor, " ' " Dahlias, S3. 

A. F. Johnson, Seedling Dahlias, $1. 

Harvard Botanic Garden, Cut flowers of Tuberous Begonias, $2. 

Blue Hill Nurseries, Display of Phlox, $2. 

Mrs. J. L. Gardner, Display of Asters, S3. 

Harvard Botanic Garden, Display of Asters, So. 

" Herbaceous Flowers. S8. 

September 2. 
Gratuities: — 

W. G. Winsor, Display of Asters, SI. 

A. E. Johnson, " " Seedling Dahlias, SI. 



Annual Exhibition. 
September 14, 15, 16, 17. 

Plants. 

H. H. HunneweU Fund. 

Hardy Coniferous Trees. — Display in pots and tubs: 

1st, Blue Hill Nurseries, $25; 2d, Blue Hill Nurseries, $10. 
Palms. — Pair in pots or tubs: 

1st, Mrs. J. L. Gardner $12; 2d, A I'. Estabrook $10; 3d. E. Ma<- 
Mulkin. |8 
Greenhouse Plants. Best finished group containing foliage plant- of 
all descriptions, arranged for effect: 
1st, Mrs. J. L. Gardner, $50; 2d, E. MacMulkin, 
Six Greenhouse and Stove plants, decorative specimens of different 
named variet ie 
1st. Mrs. .1. L. Gardner, $20; 2d, Mrs. J. L. Gardner, $15. 
Flowering Greenhouse Pi int. Single specimen, named: 

1st. Mrs. J, L. Gardner, $8 
Cai \i'ii its six named varieties: 

1st, Mrs. J. L. Gardner, $10. 
Ferns. — Five named varieties, no Adiantums admissible: 
1st, V l Estabrook, $12. 



156 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Specimen other than Tree Fern: 

1st, Mrs. J. L. Gardner, $4; 2d, A. F. Estabrook, S3; 3d, Mrs. C. C 
Converse and Mrs. Lester Leland, $2. 
Adiantums. — Five named species:* 

1st, A. F. Estabrook, $10. 
Lycopods. — Four named species: 

2d, Mrs. C. C. Converse and Mrs. Lester Leland, $3. 
Dracaenas. — Six named varieties: 

1st, Mrs. J. L. Gardner, $8. 
Cycad. — Single plant, named: 

2d, A. F. Estabrook, $6. 
Begonia Rex. — Ten pots of ten varieties: 

1st, Mrs. J. L. Gardner, $10. 

OlJVIRANDRA FENESTRALIS. 

1st, Mrs. J. L. Gardner $6; 2d, Mrs. C. C. Converse and Mrs. Lester 
Leland, $4. 



Flowers. 

Dahlias. — Show, eighteen blooms, named varieties: 

1st, H. F. Burt, $4; 2d, E. W. Ela, $3; 3d, J. K. Alexander, $2. 
Fancy, eighteen blooms, named varieties: 

1st, Wm. H. Symonds, $4; 2d, G. D. Cook, $3; 3d, E. W. Ela, $2. 
Cactus, eighteen blooms, named varieties: 

1st, H. F. Burt, $4; 2d, J. K. Alexander, $3; 3d, E. W. Ela, $2. 
Decorative, twelve blooms, named varieties: 

1st, E. W. Ela, $3; 2d, H. F. Burt, $2; 3d, R. P. Struthers, $1. 
Show, twelve blooms, named varieties: 

1st, A. E. Johnson, $3; 2d, J. K. Alexander, $2; 3d, E. W. Ela, $1. 
Fancy, twelve blooms, named varieties: 

1st, G. D. Cook, $3; 2d, J. H. Flint, $2; 3d, E. W. Ela, $1. 
Best single bloom, of any class, introduction of 1903 or later. 

1st, W. G. Winsor, "Mme. Victor Vassier," $2; 2d, A. E. Johnson r 
"Jeanne Charmet," $1. 
Pompon, twelve vases of three blooms each, named varieties: 

1st, J. K. Alexander, $3; 2d, Geo. D. Cook, $2; 3d, E. W. Ela, $1. 
Single, twelve vases, of three blooms each, named varieties: 

1st, Edgar W. Ela, $3; 2d, Geo. D. Cook, $2. 
General display one hundred or more bottles: 

1st, G. H. Walker, $8; 2d, E. W. Ela, $6; 3d, Mrs. L. M. Towle, $4. 
Hardy Herbaceous Flowers. — Thirty bottles, distinct species and 
varieties : 

1st, Blue Hill Nurseries, $8; 2d, Blue Hill Nurseries, $6; 3d, Mrs. E. 
M. Gill, $4. 



AWARDS FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 157 

Gratuities: — 

Harvard Botanic Garden, Display of Tuberous Begonias, So. 

" Herbaceous Plants, $10. 
" " " " Economic and other Plants, $8. 

" Nepenthes and Ouvirandra, S 10. 
Group of Foliage Plants, 860. 
Mrs. N. P. Brown, Display of Tuberous Begonias, $2. 
R. P. Struthers, Display of Dahlias, S3. 
The Hon. Mrs. G. Duncan, Display of Dahlias, $2, 
J. K. Alexander, Gladiolus. S3. 

Edward MacMulkin, Display of Evergreen Trees, SS. 
Chas. S. Pratt, Collection of Gladioli, 
W. B. Hunt, Dahlias, SI. 
R. & J. Farquhar & Co., Display of Foliage Plants and Lilium Philip- 

pinense, $15. 
Henry A. Dreer, Display of Aquatics, S6. 
Julius Roehrs, Display of Foliage Plants. So. 
Lager & Hurrell, Display of Orchid-. 
Edward MacMulkin, Display of Foliage Plants, $15. 
E. B. Wilder, Vase of Hydrangea paniculaia grandtflora, SI. 
W. W. Rawson, Display of Impatient HolMii, ^' 
Mrs. E. M. Gill, Display of Dahlias, 12. 
Geo. B. Gill, Ficus elastica variegata, grown in dwelling house. $1. 

Chrysanthemum Show. 

November 9, 10. 11, 12, 

Plants. 

Hi nry A. Crane M> mortal Fund. 

Chrysanthemums. Beet specimen plant of Mrs. Jerome .lone-. Yellow 
Mrs, Jerome Jones, or any of the sport edlings of these two 

varieties: 
1st, J. 8. Bailey, $10. 
Best specimen plant of Marcia .lone-. Henry A. Gane, Mrs. H. A. Gane, 
or any of the -pmt- of seedlings of these three varieties: 
1st, i:. J. Mitton. sio. 

Display of eight oamed plant- in not over twelve-inch pots, any or all 
classes, distinct variel • 

1st, J. >. Bailor. S7o; -M. K. \Y. Convea 



158 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Two Japanese Incurved: 

1st, J. S. Bailey, $10; 2d. E. W. Converse, $6. 
Two Reflexed, distinct named varieties: 

1st, J. S. Bailey, $10. 
Specimen Japanese Incurved, named variety: 

1st, J. S. Bailey, $6; 2d, E. W. Converse, S4. 
Specimen Reflexed, named variety: 

1st, J. S. Bailey, $6; 2d, E. W. Converse, $4. 
Specimen Pompon, named variety: 

1st, E. W. Converse, $6. 
Six plants of six different varieties, grown to six stems with one bloom 
to each, in not over seven-inch pots: 

1st, Mrs. C. C. Converse and Mrs. Lester Leland, $15; 2d, Mrs. C. C. 
Converse and Mrs. Lester Leland, $10. 
Twelve plants naturally grown, without disbudding, may be arranged 
with palms and ferns for effect : 

2d, E. W. Converse, $30; 3d, Mrs. J. L. Gardner, $25. 

Flowers. 

Representative collection of classes, labeled in accordance with the 
classification of the Chrysanthemum Society of America: 
1st, D. F. Roy, $30; 2d, Geo. F. Fabyan, $25. 

Josiah Bradlee Fund. 

Twenty-five blooms of twenty-five distinct varieties, named: 

1st, E. D. Jordan, $25; 2d, Thomas Doliber, $15; 3d, Mrs. C. C. Con- 
verse and Mrs. Lester Leland, $10. 

Six vases, six named varieties, ten blooms in each: 
1st, Thomas Doliber, $30; 2d, M. F. Plant, $25. 

Henry A. Gane Memorial Fund. 

Chrysanthemums. — - Best six specimen blooms of Mrs. Jerome Jones, 
Yellow Mrs. Jerome Jones, or any of the sports or seedlings of these 
two varieties: 
1st, Arthur F. Whitin Yellow Mrs. Jerome Jones, $6; 2d, A. F. 
Whitin, Mrs. Jerome Jones, $4. 
Best six specimen blooms of Henry A. Gane, Bessie Jones, Marcia Jones, 
or any of the sports of these three varieties: 
1st, Thomas Doliber, $5. 

Society's Prizes. 

Twelve blooms Incurved, named: 

1st, Mrs. C. C. Converse and Mrs. Lester Leland, 86. 



AWARDS FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 159 

Twelve blooms Japanese, named: 

1st, Peter B. Robb, $8; 2d, E. D. Jordan, 86; 3d, Mrs. C. C. Converse 
and Mrs. Lester Leland, 84. 
Twelve blooms Japanese Incurved, named: 

1st, Peter B. Robb, $8; 2d, E. D. Jordan, $6; 3d, Mrs. C. C. Converse 
and Mrs. Lester Leland, $4. 
Twelve blooms Reflexed, named: 

1st, Mrs. C. C. Converse and Mrs. Lester Leland, $8. 
Twelve blooms Anemone, named: 

1st, Mrs. C. C. Converse and Mrs. Lester Leland, 86. 
Twelve sprays Pompons, named, distinct: 

1st, Mrs. C. C. Converse and Mrs. Lester Leland, $5; 2d, P. B. Robb. S3 
Six best varieties, named, introductions of the current year: 

1st, Peter B. Robb, S6; 2d. Morton F. Plant. $4. 
Vase of ten blooms on long stems. Pink, named: 

1st, T. Doliber, 810; 2d, James Nicol, 88; 3d, A. F. Whitin. 86. 
Vase of ten blooms on long stems, Red, named: 

1st, G. F. Fabyan, $10; 2d, Thomas Doliber, 88. 
Vase of ten blooms on long stems. White, named: 

1st, T. Doliber, $10; 2d, M. F. Plant. 8S; 3d, Mrs. John Shepard. 86. 
Vase of ten blooms on long stems. Yellow, named: 

1st, T. Doliber, $10; 2d, M. F. Plant, $8; 3d, A. F. Whitin, 86. 
Vase of ten blooms on long stems, any other color, named: 

1st, G. F. Fabyan, $10; 2d, T. Doliber, $8; 3d, T. Doliber, 86. 
Orchids. — Display of named species and varieties, filling not less than 
twenty bottle^: 

1st, J. E. Rothwell, Appleton Silver Gilt Medal; 2d. Col. (lias. Ptatt. 
Appleton Silver Medal. 
CARNATIONS.— Twenty-five blooms of any named Crimson variety: 

1st. Win. Nicholson, $4; 2d. Hacker A Co.. $3; 3d, S. J. Goddard, 82. 
Twenty-five blooms of any named Dark Pink variety: 

1st. G. X. Black, 94. 
Twenty-five blooms of any named Light Pink variety: 

1st. Win. Nicholson, $4; 2d. S. J. Goddard, S3; 3d, Backer A- I 
Twenty-five blooms of any named Scarlet variety: 

1st, Cottage Gardens, 

Twenty-five bloom- any named White variety: 

1st, Wm. Nicholson, 81: 2d, 11. A. Steven Co., 13. 
Twenty-five blooms of any named Yellow Variegated variety: 

}<t. Hacker A- Co.. | 
Twenty-five blooms of any named White Variegated variety: 

1st, s. .1. Goddard, $4; 2d, Wm. Nicholson, 13; 3d, G. N. Black, 12. 

Qrutui&iea: — 
Lager A Hurrell, Display of Orchids. 812. 



160 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

R. Vincent Jr. & Son, Display of cut Hardy Chrysanthemums, $15. 

Wm. Nicholson, Five vases Carnations, $5. 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, Display of Chrysanthemums, $8. 

Edward MacMulkin, Display of Cattleya labiata, $5. 

Waban Rose Conservatories, Vase of rose Wellesley, $2. 

Warren Heustis & Son, Euonymus Bungeanus, SI. 

Henry H. Barrows & Son, Display of Xephrolepis Whitmani and Bar- 

rowsi, $8. 
R. & J. Farquhar & Co., Display of Palms, $25. 
Edward MacMulkin, " " Foliage Plants, $40. 

Mrs. A. W. Blake, Chrysanthemums and Palms, $15. 
Thomas Doliber, Display of Chrysanthemums, $30. 
James Nicol, Vase of Chrysanthemum Mrs. Jerome Jones, $1. 
Julius Roehrs Co., Display of Orchids and Foliage Plants, $8. 
James Fraser, Vase of Chrysanthemum Mrs. Thirkell, $3. 



Society's Silver Gilt Medal. 
March 4. Walter P. Winsor, Collection of Dendrobiums. 

Society's Silver Medals. 

February 11. Guttman & Weber, Seedling Carnation, Victory. 

March 23. E. O. Orpet, Seedling Cattleya, C. X Olivia. 

November 9. R. Vincent Jr. & Son, Display of cut sprays of Hardy 
Chrysanthemums. 

November 9. R. & J. Farquhar & Co., Display of Ornamental Ever- 
greens. 

December 14. Oakes Ames, CypripediumXtonso-Charlesworthii. 

First Class Certificates of Merit. 

January 21. W. A. Manda, Cymbidium Tracyanum. 
February 11. S. J. Goddard, Seedling Carnation, Helen Goddard. 
Wm. Palmer, Carnation Red Lawson. 
Peter Murray, Seedling Carnation, Winsor. 
J. E. Rothwell, New seedling Laelia, Mrs. M. Gratrix. 
R. Witterstaetter, Seedling Carnation, The Aristocrat. 

Afterglow. 
March 4. Walter P. Winsor, Dendrobium Ainsworthii roseum. 
" " " " " Venus. 

14 " " " " " nobile Murrhinionum.. 

u " F. L. Ames Estate, Miltonia Blcvana virginalis. 
" 23. Henry H. Barrows <fe Son, Xephrolepis Barrowsi. 



AWARDS FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 161 

March 23. F. R. Pierson Co., Baby Rambler Rose Mine. Xorbert Leva- 

vasseur. 
March 23. M. F. Plant, Phalwnopsis amabUis Riwcstadtiana. 
April 15. J. E. Rothwell, Cattleya Guat< malensis. 

" 29. Robert Cameron, Impatiens Holstii, 
June 3. E. O. Orpet, LaeliaX Pacavia. 
" 3. J. E. Rothwell, Lcvlio-cattlnja Lycedas. 
" 17. E. J. Shaylor, Peony Germain Bigot. 
" " E. J. Shaylor, " * Mad. Treyeran. 
" " T. C. Thurlow " White Lady. 
August 5. Blue Hill Nurseries, Tritonia hybrida Germanica. 

5. " " " " " Geo. Davidson. 

" 19. John Lewis Childs, Gladiolus Childsii America. 
September 14. Henry H. Barrows. Nephrolepis Whitmani. 

" 14. Henry A. Dreer, Victoria Trickeri. 

November 9. M. A. Patten, Carnation Pink Patten. 
" 9. Julius RoehiB Co., Phoenix RoebeUnii. 

December 14. Oakes Amos. Zygo-colaxX.Amesianus- 

" 14. A. H. Fewkes. Sterna serrate cow pacta variegata. 

Honorable Mentions. 

January 21. YV. A. Manda, Native Hybrid Lycaste. 

" " " " " Dendrobium nobile alba, collected plant. 
" " E. O. Orpet. New Hybrid Orchid. Cattleya > Susans. 

February 4. Mrs. J. Montgomery Scars, Seedling Amaryllis. 

" 11. E. N. Pierce & Son. Seedling Carnation. Gov. Guild. 

" M. A. Patten " Mikado. 

" " J. E. Rothwell, Lcelio-catUeya, Axlolphus. 
March 4. Walter P. Winsbr, Dendrobium Euryalus. 

4 •• Dominii. 

" 23. Lucius H. Foster Estate, Nephrolepis Dorchester. 
" " The Misses Eldridge, BougwnviUtta BpedabUis. 
11 •' Lager A: Burrell, Cypripedium glaucophyllum. 

Bayard Thayer, Phlox divaricata, forced in pans. 
John I Haines, Seedling Carnation, John E. Haines. 
John Murchie " Fred Burki. 

" Chicago Carnation Co.. Carnation Cardinal. 
\V. .1. A M. s. Vesey, Carnation Glendale. 
Win. Sim, Sweet Pea Earliest Sunbeam. 
u M. II. Walsh, Seedling Rose, L90 
" " Julius Roehrs, Ficut Cannonii. 
April 15. J. E. Rothwell, Phaiut Marihgt. 
June 3. J. E. Rothwell, Cypripedium LamonUanwn, 
" 17 K J. Shaylor. Peony M. Martin Cahusac. 



162 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



June 24. J. W. Howard, Salvia Sclaria. 

" " George Hollis, Seedling Peony.. No. 96. 

a a a u tt it a qc 

(C tt it it it n (t nr\ 

July 8. Jackson Dawson, Seedling rose, Daybreak. 
September 14. A. E. Johnson, Seedling Dahlia, No. 44. 

1, Gen. Miles. 
75. 
27. 
25. 
2. 
10. 
6. 
89. 
Bissetii. 
dentata magnifica. 
" E. W. Green, Seedling single Dahlia, Mary Green. 
" Julius Roehrs, Alpinia Sander w. 

" Walter Hunnewell, Sedum spectabile, rose colored variety. 
November 9. H. A. Jahn, Seedling light pink Carnation. 
" Peirce Farm, Carnation Marion Peirce. 
" G. B. Anderson, Seedling Carnation, No. 10, Scarlet. 
" Backer & Co., Pink sport from Carnation Enchantress. 
" " Backer & Co., Seedling Carnation, No. 14, Yellow. 

" Peter Fisher, " " " 17, Pink. 

" Dr. H. P. Walcott " " " 1, Yellow. 



Henry A. Dreer, Xymphaia 



Votes of Thanks. 



February 11. Mrs. E. M. Gill, Display of Flowers. 
March 23. Geo. F. Fabyan, Schizanthus Weistonensis. 

" 23. James L. Little, Double Nasturtiums. 
June 3. Lowthorpe School of Horticulture, Vase of Stocks. 

" R. & J. Farquhar & Co., Display of Herbaceous Flowers. 
" Walter Hunnewell, Display of Rhododendron Flowers. 
" Park Department, City of Boston, Display of Flowering Trees 
and Shrubs. 
" 17. R. & J. Farquhar & Co., Display of Peony Festiva Maxima. 
" 17. Walter Hunnewell, " " Rhododendrons. 

" 24. H. A. Dreer, Herbaceous Plants. 
" 24. Miss S. B. Fay, Display of Roses. 
August 19. C. W. Parker, " ' " " 

" 26. Park Department, City of Boston, Display of Viburnums in 
fruit. 



AWARDS FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 163 

September 14. Park Department, City of Boston, Display of Shrubs in 

fruit. 

November 9. H. A. Wheeler, Cattlcya labiato, var. 

" 9. J. E. Roth-well, Cypripedium insigne Sanderce. 

" 9. H. A. Stevens Co., Carnation Pink Lawson. 

Cultural Awards. 
Society's Silver Medals. 

June 3. T. D. Hatfield, Superior cultivation of Hybrid Rhododendron. 

Lucidum. 
September 14. Robert Cameron, Superior arrangement of Decorative 

Foliage Plants. 

First Class Certificates of Merit. 

February 11. Wm. C. Rust. Superior cultivation of Dendrobium Avis- 
wort hi i. 

March 4. W. X. Craig, Superior cultivation of Phalaenopsis. 

" 23. Julius Roehrs Co., Superior cultivation of Cymbidium Low- 
ianum. 

April 29. Robert Marshall, Superior cultivation of Amaryllis Vittata. 
" 29. Thomas T. Watt, Superior cultivation of Saccolabium ampul- 
la a urn. 

June 3. Wm. C. Rust, Superior cultivation of Calceolaria Goldeo Gem. 

October 28, J. L. Smith. Superior cultivation of ZygopeUxtum Mackayi. 



Arthur II. Fewkes, 
Robert Cameron, 
William X. Craig, 
William Nichoi 
J uies Wheeler, 



Committee 
on 
Plants and Flovx 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON FRUITS FOR 

THE YEAR 1905. 

BY WILFRID WHEELER, CHAIRMAN. 



In reducing the Committee on Fruits from five members to 
three the wisdom of the Society has been clearly shown, for it is 
easier with the smaller number to do more concentrated and effec- 
tive work, as greater responsibility is felt by each. The labor of 
the committee has been of necessity increased, especially at the 
larger shows; so it has been found more expedient to prepare all 
prize cards beforehand, leaving only the name of the successful 
exhibitor to be inserted on the card when the award is made by 
the committee. The season just passed has been a very uneven 
one with regard to fruit displayed, on account of some of the exhibi- 
tions occurring at a time when the fruits were not in their perfec- 
tion. This was especially true of the Rose and Strawberry Exhibi- 
tion and the committee believes that this date should be left open 
to suit the season. 

The prospects for successful fruit growing in Massachusetts 
were never better than at present. There is an exodus of people 
to the country, a making of farms, planting of gardens and orchards 
by amateurs, a striving on the part of the commercial grower to 
produce quality rather than quantity in his fruit. All of which 
indicates a deeper interest in matters pertaining to horticulture 
and will lead to a larger consumption by the people of all kinds of 
the best fruits. On the other hand the fruit industry i- threatened 
by the ravages of the gypsy and brown-tail moth- a- well a- by 

numerous other pests, rusts, and fungus growth- which may cur- 
tail fruit growing on an extensive scale. < >n tin- account, however, 
there i- no need for real discouragement, only an opportunity for 
the gardener, the householder and amateur in general to exercise 
care and precaution ami produce, in spite of these disadvantag 
lind and excellent fruit. 



166 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The committee believes that there is a large field open to all 
classes of growers in the planting of dwarf apple and pear trees 
by which fruit can be produced in two and three years from the 
planting of the tree, instead of from eight to ten as in the case of 
standard tree?. Fruit produced on the dwarf trees in one quarter the 
time and one-tenth the space is as good as that -grown on standard 
trees. We think also that the spraying of fruit trees, bushes, vines, 
and plants should be very strongly impressed on the people of the 
state, and. if necessary, this Society should take some action in 
regard to the matter; also that pruning and trimming of orchards 
should be brought forcibly to the notice of their owners. These 
old orchards could be made to produce a fine quality of fruit pro- 
vided proper care and scientific treatment were employed. 

Boston imports from other states better apples than are produced 
here, for the reason that Massachusetts orchardists will not give 
their orchards the careful attention that is given in other parts of 
the country. Apples come from Oregon. Washington. Idaho, and 
California, and all sell for more per bushel than Massachusetts 
apples do by the barrel. The apple crop in Massachusetts last 
year was small but of better quality than usual. Summer apples 
are being more largely grown and prove quite profitable : the best 
varieties are Williams. Red Asrrachan, and Duchess of Oldenburgh. 
For fall apples Gravenstein, Porter. Mcintosh, and Wealthy are 
most grown; while for winter. Baldwin. Northern Spy. R.I. Green- 
ing, Sutton. Roxbury Russett. and King are popular varieties. 

The pear crop last season was large and of very good quality. 
For market most growers are grafting their pears to Bosc in pre ft- r- 
ence to Bartlett. while the amateurs still cling to the old varieties 
which add much to our exhibitions. Many of the old kinds are 
excellent pears for the table but are not suitable for shipping. 

Peaches were quite abundant and of very fine quality the past 

>n. They were profitable to Xew England growers as the 

crop from other states was small and not very good, except the 

Georgia peaches which coming early do not compete with the 

native fruit. 

Japanese plums were never so abundant. This crop is becom- 
ing very popular in Xew England. We find new varieties are 
being added and. owinor to their freedom from black knot, they 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON FRUITS. 167 

bid fair to depose the European varieties. Among the best Japan- 
ese plums are Abundance, Red June, Burbank, October Purple, 
Climax, Wickson, and Chabot. 

The crop of native grapes in this state does not materially effect 
the market, for New York supplies it almost entirely. This, 
however, should not discourage the growing of a fruit which adds 
much to the pleasure and beauty of a garden and is not without 
its economic value. The long warm fall this past season ripened 
grapes to perfection so we had very fine specimens at our exhibi- 
tions. Concord, Niagara, Green Mountain, Worden, Moore's 
Early, and Delaware are most frequently grown in this state. 

Among the small fruits grown in New England the strawberry 
is the most important. Owing to its adaptability and ease of 
culture it is grown by both professional and amateur with great 
success. The market conditions for this fruit are not as favorable 
as in former times for berries from New York and New Jersey 
are apt to conflict with the native crop. During the past season 
better prices were realized for strawberries than the year before 
and we believe that there is a good market for a strictly first class 
berry put up in an attractive form; trays in preference to baskets. 
In the other small fruits, currants, gooseberries, blackberries, and 
raspberries, the crop was fair and of good quality. We have 
never seen such fine gooseberries and currants as were exhibited 
in this hall last season. 

The weather conditions for 1905 were ideal for all fruits except 
strawberries, blackberries, and raspberries. The long continued 
fair weather during September and October was excellent for 
apples, pears, grapes, and peaches. Plums were badly hurt by 
the heavy rain of September 4-0, and some of the peaches were 
also damaged at this time. 

The committee regrets to say that there was a great lack of 
greenhouse fruits at the exhibitions of L905. We feel sure there 
are growers who could produce excellent fruit and add much to 
our exhibitions. With the exception of grapes there were n<> 
greenhouse fruits shown and we believe that more encouragement 
should be given to the growing of fruit under glass. 

We would also say that, with the exception of strawberries, 
there were very few new varieties of fruit exhibited this past season 



168 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

and we would therefore call the attention of the Society to the 
advisability of requesting the different Agricultural colleges of 
New England to send specimens of fruit to our exhibitions. We 
feel sure that this would be of great interest and value to our exhibi- 
tors, as these institutions have opportunities for growing and 
testing fruit and developing new varieties that are not possessed 
by the amateur or commercial grower. 

Owing to the late season, combined with dark and wet weather 
for a week previous to the exhibition, strawberries were not in the 
best condition at the Rose and Strawberry Show; hence there 
were not as many exhibited as were expected. 

George F. Wheeler of Concord was the largest exhibitor of straw- 
berries staging about fifty baskets, containing such varieties as 
Bubach, Brandywine, Minute Man, Clyde, Haverland, Sample, 
Marshall, Senator Dunlap, Nick Ohmer, Parson's Beauty, Mead, 
and Granville. These last two were exhibited for the first time. 
Granville, which was awarded first prize for any other variety 
in class 190, is a very promising garden variety of the best quality. 

A. W. Clark of Providence, R. I., exhibited Cardinal, Challenge, 
and Victor for the first time. Cardinal is a very promising straw- 
berry of most brilliant color, productive and of good quality. Mr. 
Clark showed a number of fruit stems of Cardinal from which one 
could see the wonderful productiveness of the plant. Victor is a 
very flat berry, cockscomb in shape; very large and of fair quality. 

I. E. Coburn of Everett staged about twenty-five baskets of 
strawberries containing such varieties as Minute Man, Belmont, 
Jessie, Brandywine, Klondike, Haverland, and Marshall. 

George V. Fletcher staged about eighteen baskets containing 
such varieties as Marshall, Belmont, Sample, and Brandywine. 
Mr. Fletcher's Marshalls were very fine. 

Among other exhibitors in the fruit class were Miss S. B. Fay, 
John Ward, Warren Heustis & Son, and Elias L. Wheeler. N. B. 
White exhibited for the first time a seedling strawberry very much 
like Marshall in color and size, but of much better flavor and far 
more productive. This was awarded first prize for any new variety 
not previously exhibited. 

S. H. Warren of Weston showed Great Scott, Golden Gate r 
Brandywine, Glen Mary, Sample, and Miller. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON FRUITS. 169 

Golden Gate, a seedling of Mr. Warren's, is considered a very 
promising variety. It is large, rather shouldered, bright crimson, 
good quality, and very productive. It was first exhibited in 1904. 

George V. and J. H. Fletcher exhibited very good cherries and 
Wm. C. Winter, fine Black Hamburg grapes. 

At the exhibition of July 8-9 a very fine display of strawberries 
was seen, there being seven entries in this class alone with the fol- 
lowing varieties, Golden Gate, Cardinal, Commonwealth, Presi- 
dent, and North Shore; the last two for the first time. Mr. Benj. 
M. Smith of Beverly took all three prizes with President, Common- 
wealth, and North Shore, in order named. 

The season was too early for raspberries but the exhibit of cherries 
was very fine, there being competition in all classes, and eight entries 
in class 217, with such varieties as Hyde's Seedling, Hovey, Yellow 
Spanish, Bigareau, Napoleon, and Early Richmond. Very fine 
Black Tartarian cherries were displayed by George V. Fletcher 
and Charles F. Curtis. Currants, both red and white were very 
good and there was keen competition in these classes. A gratuity 
was awarded to Wm. H. Spooner for Kansas Blackcaps which 
were very fine. 

The second July exhibition brought out very fine currants and 
gooseberries. W. G. Kendall exhibited Wilder currant and Bates' 
gooseberry, each of which received first prize in its class. 

A very fine showing of apples, pears, peaches, plums, and black- 
berries was seen at the Hall during the August exhibitions. Peaches 
and plums were especially good and there was keen competition 
in all these classes. The committee would specially commend 
the exhibit of Red Astrachan apple by Elias Wheeler; Dorchester 
blackberry by M. W. Chadbourne; Sneed peach by A. M. Cle- 
ment; Greensboro Peach by G. V. Fletcher; Chenango apple 
by Charles F. Curtis; Carman peach by F. H. Evans; collection 
of peaches by David L. Fiske; Charbot and Abundance plum 
by E. L. Lewis; Alexander and Chenango apple by Edward E. 
Cole; Bartlett pear by Varnum Frost; and Clapp's Favorite pear 
by John Burnett. 

These August exhibitions are among the most interesting of 
the fruit shows that we have, as there are many changes in the 
varieties of fruit during this month, but the committee believes, that 



170 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

two exhibitions would cover all classes with, perhaps, the exception 
of blackberries. The new Japanese plum, Climax, was shown 
and promises well. 

Owing to lack of room the Annual Exhibition did not do justice 
either to the committee or to the exhibitors; all classes were well 
filled and there were particularly large entries of Bosc, Bartlett, 
Louise Bonne de Jersey, Angouleme, Howell, and Seckel pears; 
Gravenstein, Hubbardston, and Mcintosh apples; Concord, Wor- 
den, Niagara, and Delaware grapes; Japanese plums of many 
varieties; and Elberta peaches. 

The display of grapes was one of the best ever seen at the Annual 
Exhibition. Joseph S. Chase had a very fine collection among 
which were Delaware, Herbert, Lindley, Massasoit, Niagara, 
Pocklington, Prentiss, Vergennes, Wilder, and Poughkeepsie Red. 
Edward R. Farrar showed splendid Niagara and Concord grapes, 
and H. R. Kinney, good Worden. 

The competition in Bosc pears, of which there were eighteen 
entries, was very close, necessitating the weighing of specimens 
by the committee before awarding second and third prizes. 

Bartlett, Seckel, and Anjou pears were very fine. W. G. Kendall 
had very fine Dana's Hovey, Bosc, and Seckel pears. John L. 
Bird also had a very good collection of pears. Charles F. Curtis 
exhibited excellent Bosc, Bartlett, Merriam, Hardy, and Clair- 
geau. Wm. Milrnan showed very fine Seckel and Paradise pears. 
George V. Fletcher had a good collection of fruit as well as fine 
specimens in many individual classes. 

On the whole the pears were excellent and proved one of the 
most interesting parts of the exhibit. 

Apples were not as numerous as was expected but the exhibit 
was very good. Some very fine Gravenstein were shown by G. 
L. Priest; Mcintosh by Hittinger Fruit Co.; Porter by Wilfrid 
Wheeler; Hubbardston by C. M. Handley; and Washington 
Strawberry by A. E. Hartshorn. The committee would call 
attention to the very fine apples displayed by Edward E. Cole. 
We seldom see such good apples in all varieties as were shown 
by Mr. Cole. 

Thos. W. Head had some very fine Black Hamburg, Black 
Alicante, Muscat of Alexandria, and Gros Colman hot-house 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON FRUITS. 171 

grapes which were awarded first prizes. The committee regrets 
that more room could not have been given to this exhibit of fruit 
in order to bring it more prominently before the Society. 

One of the features of this exhibition was a collection of foreign 
and native species of Malus, Pyrus, and Vitis Fruits, exhibited by 
Jackson Dawson of the Arnold Arboretum, showing the wonder- 
ful evolution of our apples, pears, and grapes from their wild and 
primitive state to a condition of real worth and economic value. 
This exhibit was awarded a silver medal and the committee feels 
very grateful to Mr. Dawson for this interesting display. 

The fruit was a welcome addition at the Chrysanthemum exhibi- 
tion. Five large tables were filled with a splendid showing of 
apples, pears, quinces, and cranberries which, having plenty of 
room, were exhibited to great advantage. As usual apples and 
pears predominated, and the display was far better than was 
expected. There were twenty entries of Baldwin apples. 

The Fameuse, Lady Sweet, Northern Spy, Tolman Sweet, 
and King from Edward E. Cole were very fine, as were also Bell- 
flower, Hunt Russet, and Roxbury Russet from C. F. Boyden. 

Pears were exceptionally good, Wm. H. Derby showing very 
fine Augouleme, Bosc, and Clairgeau; Mrs. C. C. Converse and 
Mrs. Lester Leland, large Anjou and Vicar; E. W. Wood, fine 
Cornice and Dana's Hovey; W. G. Kendall, very excellent Dana's 
Hovey. Edward B. Wilder showed very fine Lawrence and Vicar, 
and Charles F. Curtis, fine Clairgeau. Quinces were a feature 
of the show and those exhibited by I. H. Locke were exceptionally 
good. 

Cranberries sent by Henry J. Thayer were very good. 

There have been nine exhibitions of fruit during the season. 
and in these nine exhibitions there were (me hundred and ninety- 
five classes open to competition; of these one hundred and seventy- 
one were competed for. There were eight gratuities and one sil- 
ver medal awarded. 

The total amount of money appropriated for prizes in 1905 was 
$1275.00; of this $966.00 was awarded; leaving an unexpended 
balance of $'294.00. 



172 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

PRIZES AND GRATUITIES AWARDED FOR FRUITS. 

1905. 

Rose and Strawberry Exhibition. 

June 24 and 25. 

Theodore Lyman Fund. 

Strawberries. — Four quarts of any variety : 

1st, G. V. Fletcher, Marshall, $15; 2d, Miss S. B. Fay, Marshall, $12; 
3d, John Ward, Marshall, $10; 4th, A. W. Clark ,[Cardinal, $8. 

Regular Prizes. 

For the largest and best collection, not less than fifteen baskets of two 
quarts each, and not less than five varieties: 

1st, G. F. Wheeler, $15; 2d, I. E. Coburn, $10. 
Ten baskets, not less than three varieties, two quarts each: 

1st, G. F. Wheeler, $10; 2d, G. V. Fletcher, $8. 
Five baskets of five varieties, one quart each: 

1st, G. F. Wheeler, $6; 2d, S. H. Warren, $5; 3d, I. E. Coburn, $4. 
Two quarts of Belmont: 

1st, I. E. Coburn, $3; 2d, G. V. Fletcher, $2. 
Brandy wine : 

1st, S. H. Warren, $3; 2d, G. F. Wheeler, $2; 3d, I. E. Coburn, $1. 
Bubach : 

1st, G. F. Wheeler, $3. 
Clyde: 

2d, G. F. Wheeler, $2. 
Haverland : 

1st, I. E. Coburn, $3; 3d, G. F. Wheeler, $1. 
Jessie : 

1st, I. E. Coburn, $3. 
Marshall : 

1st, G. V. Fletcher, $3; 2d, W. A. Blodgett, $2; 3d, John Ward, $1. 
Minute Man: 

1st, G. F. Wheeler, $3. 
Nick Ohmer: 

2d, G. F. Wheeler, $2. 
Sample : 

1st, G. V. Fletcher, $3; 2d, John Ward, $2; 3d, G. F. Wheeler, $1. 
Any other variety: 



AWARDS FOR FRUITS. 173 

1st, G. F. Wheeler, Granville, S3; 2d, A. W. Clark, Challenge, $2; 3d, 
G. F. Wheeler, Senator Dunlap, SI. 
One quart of any new variety not previously exhibited: 

1st, N. B. White, Seedling, S3; 2d. A. W. Clark, Cardinal, $2. 
Cherries. — Two quarts of any variety: 

1st, G. V. Fletcher, Guigne Noir, S3; 2d, J. H. Fletcher, Queen Ann, 
>2. 
Foreign Grapes. — Two bunches of any variety: 
1st, W. C. Winter, Black Hamburg, So. 

July 8 and 9. 

Strawberries. — Two quarts of any variety: 

1st, B. M. Smith, President, S3; 2d, B. M. Smith, Commonwealth, 
$2; 3d, B. M. Smith. North Shore, SI. 
Cherries. — Two quarts of Black Eagle: 

1st, C. B. Travis, S3; 2d, G. V. Fletcher, S2; 3d, Mrs. C. C. Converse 
and Mrs. Lester Leland, SI. 
Black Tartarian: 

1st, G. V. Fletcher, S3; 2d, C. F. Curtis, S2; 3d, W. A. Green, SI. 
Coe's Transparent: 

1st, C. S. Smith, $3; 2d, J. L. Bird, S2. 
Downer : 

1st. C. S. Smith, S3; 2d, Mrs. C. C. Converse and Mrs. Lester Xeland, 
$2. 
Any other variety: 

1st, C. S. Smith, Hyde's Seedling, S3; 2d, Miss Vera Chapell, Hovey, 
$2; 3d, C. F. Curtis, Yellow Spanish, SI. 
Currants. — Two quarts of any Red variety: 

1st. Mrs. C. C. Converse and Mrs. Lester Leland, Cherry, S3; 2d, W. 
J. Clemson, Versaillaise, S2; 3d, G. V. Fletcher, Versaillaise, SI. 
Two quarts of any White variety: 

1st. J. H. White, White Imperial. S3; 2d, G. V. Fletcher. White Grape, 
$2; 3d, E. L. Lewis, White Grape, SI. 

Gratuities: — 

W. H. Spooner. Kansas Blackcaps, SI. 

E. E. Doran, Franconia Raspberries and Versaillaise Currants, SI. 

JlLY 22. 

Raspberries. — Two quarts of any variety: 

1-t. Mrs. C, C. Converse and Mrs. Lester Leland. Cuthbert. S3; -M. 
M. Hemenway. Cuthbert, 12; 3d. Mrs. C. C. Converse ami Mrs. 
Lester Leland, Columbia, SI. 



174 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Currants. — Two quarts of any Red variety: 

1st, W. G. Kendall, Wilder, S3; 2d, G. V. Fletcher, Versaillaise, $2; 3d, 
D. L. Fiske, Red Cross, $1. 
Two quarts of any White variety: 

1st, H. R. Kinney, White Grape, $3; 2d, J. H. White, White Imperial, 
$2; 3d, W. G. Kendall, White Grape, SI. 
Gooseberries. — Two quarts of any variety of American origin: 

1st, W. G. Kendall, Bates, S3; 2d, J. S. Chase, Triumph, $2; 3d, F. 
H. Evans, Triumph, SI. 
Two quarts of any variety of Foreign origin: 
3d, J. S. Chase, Hero of the Nile, SI. 

August 5. 

Apples. — Red Astrachan: 

1st, E. L. Wheeler, S3; 2d, W. C. Winter, S2; 3d, E. L. Lewis, SI. 
Sweet Bough: 

1st, G. V. Fletcher, S3; 2d, C. B. Travis, $2; 3d, Mrs. A. E. Underwood, 
SI. 
Yellow Transparent: 

1st, G. L. Brown, S3; 2d, Mrs. C. C. Converse and Mrs. Lester Leland, 
$2. 
Any other variety: 

1st' G. V. Fletcher, Williams, S3. 
Pears. — Giffard: 

1st, J. Burnett, S3; 2d, J. L. Bird, S2; 3d, W. C. Winter, SI. 
Summer Doyenne: 

1st, Mrs. C. C. Converse and Mrs. Lester Leland, S3; 2d, W. C. Winter, 
S2; 3d, Wilfrid Wheeler, SI. 
Blackberries. — Two quarts of any variety: 

1st, M. W. Chadbourne, Dorchester, S3; 2d, W. J. Clemson, Rath- 
burn, $2. 
Peaches. — Open culture, any variety: 

1st, A. M. Clement, Sneed, S3; 2d, D. L. Fiske, Waterloo, $2. 

Gratuity: — 
Mrs. A. E. Monblo, Strawberry Raspberry, $1. 

August 12. 

Apples. — Oldenburg: 

2d, W. P. Milner, $2; 3d, G. Nelsen, $1. 
Any other variety: 

1st, Hittinger Fruit Co., Williams, $3; 2d, E. L. Wheeler, Red Astra- 
chan, S2; 3d, Wilfrid Wheeler, Williams, $1. 



AWARDS FOR FRUITS. 175 

Pears. — Clapp's Favorite: 

1st, John Burnett, S3; 2d, W. J. Clemson, S2; 3d, J. L. Bird, SI. 
Any other variety: 

1st, Charles Scully, Giffard, $2; 2d, Hittinger Fruit Co., Giffard, SI. 
Peaches. — Twelve specimens of outdoor culture: 

1st, Hittinger Fruit Co., Matchless, S3; 2d, G. V. Fletcher, Greensboro, 
S2; 3d, D. L. Fiske, Greensboro, SI. 
Blackberries. — Two quarts of any variety: 

1st, W. J. Clemson, Rathburn, S3; 2d, M. W. Chadbourne, Dorchester, 
$2; 3d, Mrs. E. M. Gill, Wachusett, SI. 
Plums. — Japanese, any variety: 

1st, E. L. Lewis, Chabot, S3; 2d, E. L. Wheeler, Red June, S2; 3d, 
D. L. Fiske, Red June, SI. 
Foreign Grapes. — Two bunches of any variety: 
1st, W. C. Winter, Black Hamburg, S4. 

Gratuity: — 

S. H. Warren, Pan-American Strawberry, SI. 

August 19. 

Apples. — Chenango: 

1st, C. F. Curtis, S3; 2d, G. L. Brown. $2. 
Williams: 

1st. Varnum Frost, S3; 2d, G. V. Fletcher, S2. 
Any other variety: 

1st, W. F. Low, Oldenburg, S3; 2d. Aaron Low, Oldenburg. S2; 3d. 
W. Heustis & Son, Gravenstein. SI. 
Pears. — Rostiezer: 

1st. John Burnett, S3; 2d. Mrs. C. C. Converse and Mrs. Lester Leland. 
S2. 
Tyson : 

1st, J. L. Bird, S3. 
Any other variety: 

1st, M. W. Chadbourne. Bartlett. S3; 2d, M. W. Chadbourne. Clapp's 
Favorite, S2; 3d, J. L. Bird. Clapp's Favorite. $l! 
Peaches. — Any variety: 

1st. G. V. Fletcher. Greensboro, S3; 2d, D. L. Fiskr. Greensboro, 
3d. D. L. Fiske, Triumph. Si. 
Plums. Japanese.— Abundance: 

Nt.E. L. I, B. Kenrick, S2; 3d, A M Clement,*] 

Burbank: 

1-t. M. Hemenway 
Any other variety : 

1st, G. V. Fletcher, Bradshaw, S3; 2d, W P, Hutchinson, Fed June, 
3d, B, P. Ware, Red .Fine. 



176 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Gratuity: — 
M. W. Chadbourne, Dorchester Blackberries, $1. 

August 26. 

Apples. — Gravenstein: 

1st, E. E. Cole, S3; 2d, O. B. Kenrick, $2; 3d, H. A. Clark, SI. 
Porter : 

1st, Wilfrid Wheeler, S3; 2d, W. Heustis & Son, S2; 3d, Leonard 
Morton, $1. 
Williams : 

1st, H. A. Clark, $3; 2d, Varnum Frost, S2; 3d, Wilfrid Wheeler, SI. 
Any other variety: 

1st, E. E. Cole, Alexander, S3; 2d, E. E. Cole, Chenango, S2; 3d, W. 
F. Low, Oldenburg, $1. 
Pears. — Bartlett: 

1st, Varnum Frost, S3; 2d, John Burnett, S2; 3d, John Mahan, SI. 
Any other variety: 

1st, G. V. Fletcher, Clapp's Favorite, S3; 2d, W. J. Clemson, Clapp's 
Favorite, S2; 3d, J. L. Bird, Tyson, SI. 
Peaches. — Collection, not less than three varieties: 
1st, D. L. Fiske, 84. 
Single dish, of any variety: 

1st, F. H. Evans, Carman, S3; 2d, G. V. Fletcher, Greensboro, $2; 3d, 

D. L. Fiske, Mamie Ross, SI. 
Plums. — Any variety: 

1st, E. B. Parker, Climax, S3; 2d, O. B. Kenrick, Bradshaw, S2; 3d, 

E. B. Parker, Shiro, SI. 

Gratuity: — 
M. W. Chadbourne, Dorchester Blackberries, $1. 

Annual Exhibition. 
Septembbr 14, 15, 16, 17. 

Theodore Lyman Fund. 

Apples. — Fletcher Russet: 

1st, C. M. Handley, S3; 2d, W. H. Teele, S2; 3d, G. V. Fletcher, SI. 
Pound Sweet: 

1st, G. V. Fletcher, S3. 
Washington Royal or Palmer: 
1st, A. E. Hartshorn, S3. 



AWARDS FOR FRUITS. 177 

Any other variety: 

1st, E. E. Cole, Chenango, $3; 2d, L. F. Priest. Rolfe, $2; 3d, E. E. 
Cole, Alexander, $1. 

Samuel Appleton Fund. 

Apples. — Baldwin: 

1st, G. V. Fletcher, $3; 2d, E. E. Cole, $2; 3d, A. E. Hartshorn, $1. 
Hubbardston: 

1st, C. M. Handley, $3; 2d, W. H. Teele, $2; 3d, G. F. Wheeler, $1. 
Pears. — Bosc: 

1st, W. G. Kendall, $3; 2d, Wilfrid Wheeler, $2; 3d, C. F. Curtis, $1. 
Sheldon : 

1st, G. E. Freeman, $3; 2d, C. W. Libby, S2; 3d, W. G. Kendall, $1. 

Benjamin V. French Fund. 

Apples. — Gravenstein: 

1st, L. F. Priest, $3; 2d, J. B. Shurtleff, Jr., $2; 3d, E. E. Cole, $1. 
Rhode Island Greening: 

1st, A. E. Hartshorn, $3; 2d, G. V. Fletcher, $2; 3d, E. E. Cole, $1. 

Marshall P. Wilder Fund. 

Pears. — Anjou: 

1st, G. V. Fletcher $3; 2d, H. A. Clark, $2; 3d, F. W. Damon, $1. 
Bartlett : 

1st, C. F. Curtis, $3; 2d, W. H. Derby, $2; 3d, G. V. Fletcher, $1. 
Grapes. — Concord, twelve bunches: 

1st, E. R. Farrar, $3; 2d, H. R. Kinney, $2; 3d, J. S. Chase, SI. 
Worden : 

1st, H. R. Kinney, $3. 

Society's Prizes. 

Collection of twelve varieties of Fruit, outdoor culture, not more than 

three varieties each of Apples, Pears, and Grapes admissible, the 

same number of specimens to be staged of each variety as in the 

individual named classes, decorative arrangement to be considered. 

1st, G. V. Fletcher, $15. 

Apples. — Fall Orange or Holden : 

1st, H. R. Kinney, S3; 2d. C. M. Handley. S2; 3d. W. A. Green. SI. 
Foundling: 

1st, C. M. Handley, $3. 
Mcintosh: 

1st . Hittinger Fruit Co., S3; 2d, Wilfrid Wheeler, $2; 3d. C. M. Handley, 
SI. 



178 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Maiden Blush: 

1st, Mrs. C. C. Converse and Mrs. Lester Leland, $3; 2d, H. R. Kinney, 
$2; 3d, W. G. Kendall, $1. 
Mother: 

1st, O. B. Hadwen, S3; 2d, H. R. Kinney, $2. 
Porter : 

1st, Wilfrid Wheeler, $3; 2d, C. M. Handley, $2. 
Sutton: 

1st, H. A. Clark, $3; 2d, O. B. Hadwen, $2. 
Washington Strawberry: 

1st, A. E. Hartshorn, $3. 
Wealthy: 

1st, L. F. Priest, $3; 2d, O. B. Kenrick, $2; 3d, L. H. Browning, $1. 
Crab Apples. — Hyslop; twenty-four specimens: 

1st, A. E. Hartshorn, $3; 2d, W. H. Teele, $2. 
Any other variety: 

1st, W. A. Green, Transcendent, $2. 
Pears. — Angouleme: 

1st, W. H. Derby, $3; 2d, J. L. Bird, $2; 3d, F. W. Damon, $1. 
Clairgeau : 

1st, W. H. Derby, $3; 2d, F. W. Damon, $2; 3d, C. F. Curtis, $1. 
Cornice : 

1st, J. L. Bird, S3. 
Dana's Hovey: 

1st, W. G. Kendall, S3; 2d, G. V, Fletcher, S2; 3d, W. Heustis & Son, 
SI. 
Diel: 

1st, F. W. Damon, $3; 2d, J. L. Bird, $2; 3d, E. B. Wilder, SI. 
Fulton : 

1st, Mrs. C. C. Converse and Mrs. Lester Leland, S3; 2d, C. F. Curtis, 
S2; 3d, J. L. Bird, SI. 
Hardy : 

1st, C. F. Curtis, S3; 2d, Mrs. C. C. Converse and Mrs. Lester Leland, 
S2. 
Howell : 

1st, W. A. Green, S3. 
Josephine of Malines: 

1st, J. B. Shurtleff, Jr., S3; 2d, J. L. Bird, $2. 
Lawrence : 

1st, F. W. Damon, S3; 2d, J. L. Bird, S2; 3d, Wilfrid Wheeler, SI. 
Louise Bonne of Jersey: 

1st, J. L. Bird, S3; 2d, Hittinger Fruit Co., S2; 3d, E. B. Wilder, $1. 
Marie Louise: 

2d, F. W. Damon, $2. 
Merriam : 

1st, Hittinger Fruit Co., S3; 2d, C. F. Curtis, S2; 3d, J. L. Bird, $1. 



AWARDS FOR FRUITS. 179" 

Onondaga : 

1st, J. L. Bird, $3; 2d, C. B. Travis, $2; 3d, Mrs. C. C. Converse and 
Mrs. Lester Leland, $1. 
Paradise of Autumn: 

1st, William Milman, $3; 2d, E. B. Wilder, $2. 
Seckel : 

1st, William Milman, S3; 2d, W. G. Kendall, S2; 3d, E. R. Teele, SI. 
Souvenir du Congres: 

1st, S. L. Howe, $3; 2d, W. G. Kendall, S2; 3d, C. F. Curtis, $1. 
Superfin : 

1st, E. B. Wilder, S3; 2d, F. W. Damon, S2; 3d, J. L. Bird, SI. 
Urbaniste : 

1st, Mrs. C. C. Converse and Mrs. Lester Leland, S3; 2d, W. G. Kendall r 
S2; 3d, C. F. Curtis, SI. 
Any other variety: 

1st, Hittinger Fruit Co., Bartlett, $3; 2d, D. H. Locke, Bartlett, S2; 
3d, F. H. Evans, Flemish Beauty, SI. 
Quinces. — Any variety: 

1st, G. V. Fletcher, Orange, S3; 2d, G. G. Barker, Orange, 82. 
Peaches. — Coolidge's Favorite: 

1st, G. V. Fletcher, S3. 
Crawford's Early: 

1st, H. A. Clark, S3; 2d, D. L. Fiske, S2; 3d, S. H. Warren. SI. 
Crosby : 

2d, D. L. Fiske, $2. 
Foster: 

1st, J. L. Bird, S3. 
Oldmixon Freestone: 

1st, G. V. Fletcher, S3; 2d, J. S. Chase, $2. 
Stump the World: 

1st, S. H. Warren, S3; 2d, D. L. Fiske, S2. 
Any other variety: 

1st, D. L. Fiske, Elberta, S3; 2d. W. Heustis £ Son, Elberta. $2; 3d, 
Hittinger Fruit Co., Elberta, SI. 
Plums. — Coe's Golden Drop: 

1st, Elliott Moore, S3; 2d. Charles Scully, $2. 
Imperial Gage: 

1st, Elliott Moore, S3. 
Lombard: 

1st. W. P. Hutchinson. S3; 2d, Elliott Moore. 12; 3d. H. R. Kinney, II 
Reine Claude de Bavay: 

1st, Mrs. C. C. Converse and Mrs. Lester Leland, |2; 2d, Elliott Moore, 
SI. 
Yellow Egg: 

1st. G. V. Fletcher 



180 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Any other variety: 

1st, Elliott Moore, Pond's Seedling, $3; 2d, H. R. Kinney, Shipper's 
Pride, $2; 3d, W. P. Hutchinson, Grand Duke, $1. 
Japanese Plums. — Any variety: 

1st, D. L. Fiske, Wickson, S3; 2d, W. P. Hutchinson, Chabot, $2; 3d, 
E. L. Lewis, Wickson, $1. 
Foreign Grapes. — Two bunches of Black Alicante: 

1st, T. W. Head, $5. 
Two bunches of any other Black variety: 

1st, T. W. Head, Black Hamburg, $5. 
Two bunches of Muscat of Alexandria: 

1st, T. W. Head, $5. 
Native Grapes.— Six bunches of Brighton: 

1st, G. V. Fletcher, $3; 2d, J. S. Chase, $2; 3d, C. W. Libby, SI. 
Campbell's Early: 

1st, Linus Darling, S3. 
Delaware : 

1st, J. S. Chase, S3; 2d, W. G. Kendall, S2; 3d, W. J. Clemson, SI. 
Green Mountain: 

1st, W. G. Kendall, S3; 2d, E. L. Lewis, $2. 
Herbert : 

1st, C. W. Libby, S3; 2d, J. S. Chase, $2. 
Lindley : 

1st, J. S. Chase, $3; 2d, C. W. Libby, $2. 
Massasoit : 

1st, J. S. Chase, S3. 
Moore's Early: 

1st, E. L. Lewis, S3; 2d, F. W. Damon, $2; 3d, G. V. Fletcher, $1. 
Niagara : 

1st, E. R. Farrar, $3; 2d, J. S. Chase, S2; 3d, H. A. Clark, $1. 
Pocklington : 

'1st, H. R. Kinney, S3; 2d, J. S. Chase, S2; 3d, S. H. Warren, SI. 
Prentiss : 

1st, J. S. Chase, $3; 2d, F. W. Damon, $2. 
Vergennes : 

1st, J. S. Chase, S3. 
Wilder: 

1st, J. S. Chase, S3. 
Any other variety: 

1st, J. S. Chase, Poughkeepsie Red, $3; 2d, E. L. Lewis, Eaton, S2; 3d, 
C. W. Libby, Moore's Diamond, SI. 

Gratuities: — 

Hittinger Fruit Co., Fruit Display, S3. 
M. W. Chadbourne, " " * $1. 



AWARDS FOR FRUITS. 181 

Jackson Dawson, Collection of foreign and native species of Malus, 
Pyrus, and Vitis Fruits, a Silver Medal. 

Chrysanthemum Show. 
November 9, 10, 11, 12. 

Benjamin V. French Fund. 

Apples. — Baldwin: 

1st, Miss A. M. Whiting, S3; 2d, Mrs. J. L. Whiting, S2; 3d, J. Bauern- 
feind. SI. 
Rhode Island Greening: 

1st, Mrs. A. E. Underwood, S3; 2d, A. E. Hartshorn, S2; 3d, E. M. 
Bruce, SI. 

Society's Prizes. 

Apples. — Danvers Sweet : 

1st, Rev. T. L. Dean, $3; 2d, B. P. Ware, $2. 
Fameuse: 

1st, E. E. Cole, $3. 
Hunt Russet: 

1st, C. F. Boyden, S3; 2d, W. H. Teele, S2; 3d, G. F. Wheeler, SI. 
Jacobs Sweet: 

1st, B. P. Ware, S3. 
Lady Sweet: 

1st, E. E. Cole, S3. 
Mcintosh: 

1st, C. C. Shaw, S3; 2d, C. M. Handley, S2; 3d, G. V. Fletcher, SI. 
Northern Spy: 

1st, E. E. Cole, S3; 2d, C. F. Boyden, S2; 3d, A. E. Hartshorn. $1. 
Roxbury Russet : 

1st, C. F. Boyden, S3; 2d. E. M. Bruce, S2; 3d, A. M. Knowlton. SI. 
Tolman Sweet: 

1st, E. E. Cole, S3; 2d, C. F. Boyden, S2; 3d. Mrs. A. E. Underwood. 
$1. 
Tompkins King: 

1st. H. A. Stevens Co., S3; 2d, E. E. Cole. $2; 3d, C. C. Shaw. $1. 
Any other variety: 

1st. C. F. Boyden, Bellflower. S3; 2d, Mrs. Chapman, New York 
Pippin, $2; 3d, M. Hemenway, Fallawater, SI. 
Pears. — Angouleme: 

1st. W. H. Derby. S3; 2d, F. W. Damon. S2. 



» 



1S2 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Anjou: 

1st. Mrs. C. C. Converse and Mrs. Lester Leland. S3; 2d, William 
Milruan. 82; 3d. J. Bauernfeind. SI. 
Bosc: 

1st. C. B. Travis. S3; 2d. W. H. Derby. 82; 3d. G. V. Fletcher. 81. 
Clairgeau : 

1st, C. F. Curtis. S3; 2d. W. H. Derby. 82; 3d. F. W. Damon. SI. 
Cornice : 

1st. E. W. Wood. 83; 2d. J. L. Bird. S2; 3d. G. V. Fletcher. SI. 
Dana's Hovey: 

1st. W. G. Kendall, S3: 2d. E. W. Wood. 82; 3d. F. W. Damon. 81. 
Diel: 

1st. F. W. Damon. S3; 2d. C. E. Swain. 82. 
Josephine of Malines: 

1st, J. L. Bird. S3; 2d. J. B. Shurtlett. Jr.. 82. 
Lawrence: 

1st, E. B. Wilder. S3; 2d. J. Bauernfeind. S2; 3d. Mrs. Nicholson. 81. 
Vicar: 

1st. E. B. Wilder. 83; 2d. Mrs. C. C. Converse and Mrs. Lester Leland,. 
82; 3d. Mrs. Blackbird. SI. 
Any other variety: 

1st. C. E. Swain. Marie Louise. S3: 2d. William Milman. Mount Ver- 
non. 82; 3d. J. L. Bird. Kingsessing. 81. 
Qutnxes. — Any variety: 

1st. I. H. Locke. Apple. S3: 2d. G. V. Fletcher. Orange. 82; 3d. J. L. 
Bird. Orange. 81. 
Cranberries. — Half-peck: 

1st. H. J. Thayer. Mathews. 83; 2d. H. J. Thayer. McFarlins. 82; 3d, 
R. A. Everson. Hockanums. SI. 



Wilfrid Wheeler, ) Committee 
Charles F. Curtis, > on 

J. Willard Hill. Fruits. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON VEGETABLES 
FOR THE YEAR 1905. 

BY WARREN W. RAWSON, CHAIRMAN. 



Your committee has been greatly pleased and encouraged the 
past season by the renewal of interest that has been shown in the 
vegetable department, thereby raising the exhibitions to a much 
higher standard than in former years. The reduction in the amount 
appropriated for premiums some two or three years ago was a 
very discouraging feature and it has been hard to overcome it, 
but, by the earnest effort of your committee and by the encourage- 
ment for the future that we now have, we think this department 
will advance to be what it has never been before, one of the leading 
ones of this Society. 

The object of the Society is to advance horticulture, agriculture, 
and floriculture in the State of Massachusetts. It is not to try 
to advance more in one department than in another nor to show 
any more favors to one than to another, but to try to advance them 
all by making such appropriations for premiums as will in every 
case help to obtain the desired result. 

The agriculture of Massachusetts has increased nearly 50 per 
cent in the last fifteen years due largely to the great advancement 
that has been made in the vegetable or market gardening depart- 
ment. When Massachusetts stands at the head in the amount 
of production of vegetables per acre of all the states in the Union 
and also for the best quality produced, why should not the exhibits 
at our exhibitions be up to the standard, and why should not this 
Society share in the advance that has been made in this direction? 
When the vegetable products of the state equal more in value than 
her fruits, plants and flowers combined why is not this department 
worthy of the first and best consideration, especially when we con- 
sider that by far the greater part of the vegetables produced in the 
state are grown in the vicinity of Boston ? 



184 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

With the use of glass it has been found that plants and flowers- 
can be brought to perfection and so the vegetable growers have 
found that with glass a perfect crop can be produced. Within 
the past ten years at least 100 houses have been built each year 
in this state and by the use of this glass a great deal has been accom- 
plished. Many varieties have been improved and some new ones 
added. 

Much can be done by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society 
in having these products displayed, and some inducements must 
be made to the growers to get them to show their goods at our 
exhibitions. 

Your committee will do all in its power to bring this about and 
we are willing to take hold and assist all other departments in order 
to bring this Society up to where it belongs, the foremost in the 
land for the quality of its exhibitions. 

We believe in offering good prizes, not a large number of them, 
but of sufficient size to enable the exhibitor to make a creditable 
display. We find that the past year many collections have been' 
exhibited which were very creditable to the Society and also to the 
exhibitor. We think more attention should be given in this direc- 
tion and in our next schedule you will find that we have done so. 

Some changes have been made in the time of the exhibitions 
with an idea of holding the shows at a time when the special crops 
are in their prime or in season. We have also lessened the number 
of exhibitions by one. We offered for premiums the past year in 
our schedule about S960.00. The Society gave us $900.00 and 
we have awarded SS57.00 or 843.00 less than the appropriation. 

For the coming year by the earnest effort of your committee we 
have obtained the amount of S1200.00 for which we are very grate- 
ful, and we will do our best to make the vegetable exhibitions equal 
to those of any other department of the Society, always bearing in 
mind that, as Massachusetts in the production of vegetables stands 
first in the land, so shall the Massachusetts Horticultural Society 
stand in the character of its exhibitions. 

It is with sincere regret that we have to record in this report the 
death of a member of our committee, Joshua C. Stone, who died 
at his home in Watertown, October 2, 1905, at the age of 70 years. 

He was one of the most widely known and respected market 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON VEGETABLES. 185 

gardeners in New England and had been closely identified with 
the vegetable interests of the Society since his election as a member 
in 1S94. 

He was a member of the Boston Market Gardeners' Association 
ever since its foundation in 1886 and will always be remembered 
by the members of that organization as one of its most enthusiastic 
members in everything tending to the best interests of that society. 

He had served as a member of the Vegetable Committee of the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society for the past six years and 
was ever a help to his fellow members; his wide experience and 
geniality making it a pleasure to serve with him. 

In his business relations he was always the soul of honor and 
may his life always serve as an example to the members of this 
Society. It is by the influence of such men as he that the market 
garden business of today stands on so high a plane. 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES AWARDED FOR VEGETABLES. 

1905. 
February 11. 

Salsify. — Twelve specimens: 

1st, Ed. Parker. S3; 2d. A. E. Hartshorn. $2. 
Radishes. — Four bunches: 

let, W. W. Rawson, S3; 2d, A. E. Hartshorn, $2; 3d, Hittinger Fruit 
Co., SI. 

I mbers. — Pair of any variety: 

1st. Walter Warburton. S3. 
Cauliflowers. — Four specimens: 

1st, F. E. Coolidge. 13; 2d, C. M. Handley, S2; 3d. W. H. Teele, SI. 
Celery. — Four roots: 

1st, Ed. Parker. S3; 2d. W. Hcusti^ A: Son, 12; 3d. W. Heustifl A Son. 
-1. 
Lettuce. — Four heads: 

1st. W. W. Rawson, 13; 2d, W. W. ftawson, 12; 3d. (',. D. Moore. >1 
Mubhrooms. — Twenty-four specimens: 

1st, H. A. Stevens Co., $3 

si by. — Two quarts. 

l<t. Hittinger Fruit Co.. S2; '2<\. Walter Warburton. SI. 



186 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Tomatoes. — Twelve specimens: 
1st, E. A. Clark, S3. 

Gratuities: — 

Mrs. A. W. Blake, Rhubarb, SI. 

Ed. Parker. Collection, SI. 

Spring Exhibition. 

March 23, 24, 25, 26. 

William J. Walker Fund. 

Kadishes. — Four bunches of Turnip Rooted: 

1st, Arthur Nixon, S3; 2d, A. E: Hartshorn, S2; 3d, W. W. Rawson, SI. 
•umbers. — Pair: 
1st. W. W. Rawson, S3; 2d, Walter Warburton, $2. 
f xdelions. — Peck: 

1st, A. E. Hartshorn, S3. 
etuce. — Four heads : 
1st. W. W. Rawson, S3; 2d, Hittinger Fruit Co., $2; 3d, W. E. Lenk, 
SI. 
Ehtjbarb. — Twelve stalks: 
1st, H. R. Kinney, S3. 
Mushrooms. — Twelve specimens: 

1st, H. R. Kinney, S3; 2d, A. W. Crockford, S2; 3d, H. A. Stevens 
Co., SI. 
rsley. — Four quarts : 
1st, Hittinger Fruit Co., S3; 2d, W. E. Lenk, $2. 

Gratuity: — 
M. W. Chadbourne, Artichokes, SI. 

April 29. 

William J. Walker Fund. 

Asparagus. — Four bunches, twelve stalks each: 

1st, Ed. Parker, S3. 
Cucumbers. — Pair of White Spine: 

1st, C. H. Metcalf, S3; 2d, Varnum Frost, S2; 3d, W. W. Rawson, $1. 
Any other variety: 
1st, E. M. Bruce, S3. 
'Spinach. — Peck: 

1st, Aaron Low, Thick Leaf, $3; 2d, Aaron Low, Victoria, S2; 3d, A. 
E. Hartshorn, SI. 



AWARDS FOR VEGETABLES. 187 

Dandelions. — Peck: 

1st, J. B. Shurtleff, Jr., S3; 2d, Hittinger Fruit Co., S2; 3d, A. E. 
Hartshorn, SI. 
Rhubarb. — Twelve stalks, open culture: 

1st, Hittinger Fruit Co., $3; 2d, J. C. Stone, S2; 3d, Ed. Parker, SI. 
Lettuce. — Four heads: 

1st. Hittinger Fruit Co., S3; 2d, W. W. Rawson, S2; 3d, W. W. Rawson, 
SI. 
Radishes. — Four bunches: 

1st, Hittinger Fruit Co., S2; 2d, Ed. Parker, SI. 

Gratuity: — 
Ed. Parker, Celery and Salsify, SI. 

Rhododendron Exhibition. 
June 3 and 4. 

Theodore Lyman Fund. 

Beets. — Twelve specimens: 

1st, J. C. Stone, $3. 
Radishes. — Four bunches: 

1st, A. E. Hartshorn, S3; 2d, Ed. Parker, $2. 
Asparagus. — Four bunches, twelve stalks each: 

1st, Ed. Parker. S3; 2d. J. C. "Stone, S2; 3d, A. E. Hartshorn. SI. 
Cucumbers. — Pair: 

1st, G. D. Moore. S3; 2d. Walter Warlmrton. $2. 
Lettuce. — Four heads: 

1st, G. D. Moore, S3; 2d, W. Heustifl & Son. $2; 3d. Walter War- 
burton. SI. 
Rhubarb. — Twelve stalks, open culture: 

1st, J. B. Shurtleff. Jr.. S3; 2d. Ed. Parker. S2; 3d. A. E. Hartshorn, 
SI. 
Spinach. — Peck : 

1st. W. J. Clemson. S2; 2d. G. D. Moore. SI 
Collection of Vegetables, not Less than four varieties, decorative arra- 
ment to be considered: 
1st. W. J. Clemson. $5; 2d, Ed. Parker 

Rose and Strawberry Exhibition. 

June 24 and 25. 

Beets. — Twelve Turnip Rooted, open culture: 

1st, w. w. Rawson, 13; 2d, W, Heustia A Son. |2; 3d, A E Hart- 
shorn. $1 



188 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Onions. — Twelve specimens: 

1st, W. W. Rawson, $3; 2d, J. J. Lyons, $2; 3d, Ed. Parker, $1. 
Cucumbers. — Four specimens: 

1st, G. D. Moore, $3; 2d, W. W. Rawson, $2; 3d, Ed. Parker, SI. 
Lettuce. — Four heads: 

1st, E. L. Lewis, Deacon, $3; 2d, W. W. Rawson, Black Seed, $2; 3d, 
E. L. Lewis, Immensity, $1. 
Peas. — Half-peck, any variety: 

1st, E. L. Lewis, $3; 2d, William Whitman, $2; 3d, I. E. Coburn, $1. 
Carrots. — Four bunches: 

1st, A. E. Hartshorn, $3; 2d, W. W. Rawson, $2. 
Cabbages. — Four specimens: 

1st, W. W. Rawson, $3; 2d, G. D. Moore, $2; 3d, W. Heustis & Son, $1. 
Collection of Vegetables, not less than si& varieties, decorative arrange- 
ment to be considered: 

1st, W. W. Rawson, $5; 2d, E. L. Lewis, $4; 3d, W. J. Clemson, 

$3. 

i 

July 8 and 9. 

Onions. — Twelve specimens: 

1st, Ed. Parker, $3; 2d, W. W. Rawson, $2; 3d, J. J. Lyons, $1. 
Squashes. — Summer, Long Warted, four specimens: 

1st, A. E. Hartshorn, $3. 
Cabbages. — Four specimens: 

1st, G. D. Moore, $3; 2d, W. W. Rawson, $2; 3d, W. Heustis & Son, $1. 
Beans. — Half-peck of Wax: 

1st, W. W. Rawson, $3; 2d, Ed. Parker, $2; 3d, W. J. Clemson, $1. 
Half-peck of Green: 

1st, G. D. Moore, $3; 2d, W. W. Rawson, $2; 3d, A. E. Hartshorn, $1. 
Peas. — Half-peck, late varieties: 

1st, E. L. Lewis, $3; 2d, Joseph Thorpe, Gradus, $2; 3d, Joseph Thorpe, 
Alderman, $1. 
Lettuce. — Four heads: 

1st, W. W. Rawson, $3; 2d, Joseph Thorpe, $2; 3d, E. L. Lewis, $1. 
Beets. — Twelve specimens: 

1st, W. W. Rawson, $3; 2d, W. Heustis & Son, $2; 3d, G. D. Moore, $1. 
Cucumbers. — Four specimens: 

1st, G. D. Moore, $3; 2d, W. W. Rawson, $2; 3d, B. Lincoln, $1. 
Collection of Vegetables, not less than six varieties, decorative arrange- 
ment to be considered: 

1st, W. W. Rawson, $5; 2d, W. J. Clemson, $4. 

July 22. 

Lettuce. — Four heads: 

1st, Joseph Thorpe, Stand well, $2; 2d, E. L. Lewis, New York, $1. 



AWARDS FOR VEGETABLES. 189 

Beans. — Four quarts, any variety: 

1st, Ed. Parker, Wardwell's Kidney Wax, $3; 2d, Mrs. L. M. Towle, 
Horticultural Wax, $2; 3d, E. L. Lewis, Stringless Greenpod, SI. 
Peas. — Four quarts, a*ny variety: 

1st, E. L. Lewis, Improved Stratagem, S3; 2d, Joseph Thorpe, Exhi- 
bition, $2; 3d, E. L. Lewis, Carter's Daisy, SI. 
Sweet Corn. — Twelve ears, any variety: 

1st, G. D. Moore, Crosby's Early, S3; 2d, E. L. Lewis, Cory, S2; 3d, 
Walter Warburton, Cory's Early, SI. 
Onions. — Twelve specimens, any variety: 

1st, Ed. Parker, Silverskin, S3; 2d, Ed. Parker, White Portugal, S2; 3d, 
E. L. Lewis, Silverskin, $1. 
Tomatoes. — Twelve specimens, open culture: 

1st, Joseph Thorpe, Earliana, $3; 2d, Walter Warburton, Earliana, 
S2; 3d, Joseph Thorpe, Early Jewell, SI. 

August 5. 

Squashes. — Marrow, three specimens: 

1st, A. E. Hartshorn, S3; 2d, E. L. Lewis, $2. 
Cabbages. — Four specimens: • 

1st, W. Heustis & Son, S3; 2d, W. Heustis & Son, 52; 3d, A. E. Hart- 
shorn, $1. 
Beans. — Horticultural, four quarts in pod: 

1st, A. E. Hartshorn, S3; 2d, E. L. Lewis, $2. 
Sweet Corn. — Twelve ears: 

1st, E. L. Lewis, S3; 2d, A. E. Hartshorn, $2; 3d, Joseph Thorpe. SI. 
Tomatoes. — Twelve specimens: 

1st, W T ..J. Clemson, S3; 2d, W. Heustis & Son, S2; 3d, Joseph Thorpe. 
$1. 
Onions. — Twelve specimens, dry: 

1st, E. L. Lewis, Danvers, S3; 2d, E. L. Lewis, Prize Taker, $2; 3d, 
E. L. Lewis. White. SI. 
Carrots. — Twelve specimens: 

1st. E. L. Lewis, $2; 2d, J. J. Lyons. $1. 

\i OUST 12. 

Carrots. — Twelve specimens: 

1st, E. L. Lewis. Chantenay, S3; 2d, Ed. Parker. Half-long, S2; 3d, 
E. L. Lewis, Intermediate, SI. 
Endive. — Four specimens: 

[st, W J. Clemson, De Ruffec, ^:<: 2d, W. J. Clemson, Batavian, 
3d, w .!. Clemson, White Curled, SI 
Sweet Corn. — Twelve ears: 

1st. A. E. Hart-horn. S:<; 2d, W. J. Clem-on. S2; 3d, E. L. Lewis, $1. 



190 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Egg Plants. — Four specimens: 

1st. Ed. Parker. S3; 2d. W. J. Clemson, S2; 3d. A. E. Hartshorn. SI. 
Tomatoes. — Twelve specimens: 

1st. W. J. Clemson. S3; 2d. Walter Warburton. $2; 3d. Ed. Parker. SI. 
Oxioxs. — Twelve specimens, dry: 

1st. J. J. Lyons. S3; 2d. Walter Warburton. S2; 3d. E. L. Lewis. SI. 
Squashes. — Marrow: 

1st. W. Heustis & Son. S3; 2d. A. E. Hartshorn. S2; 3d. P. Hurley. SI. 

Gratuity: — 
J. J. Lyons. Carrots. SI. 

August_19. 

Potatoes. — Twelve specimens of any variety: 

1st. E. L. Lewis. Early Xorthern. S3; 2d. Mrs. J. L. Gardner. Beauty. 
S2; 3d. E. L. Lewis. Hebron. SI. 
Oxioxs. — Twelve specimens: 

1st. E. L. Lewis, Danvers. S3; 2d. G. D. Moore. Danvers. $2; 3d. E. 
L. Lewis, Prize Taker. SI. 
Celery. — Four roots, any variety: 

1st. Joseph Thorpe. S3; 2d. P. Hurley. *S2; 3d. E. L. Lewis. SI. 
Lettuce. — Four heads : 

1st. E. L. Lewis, Immensity. S3; 2d, E. L. Lewis, Deacon. S2. 
Beaxs. — Two quarts, shelled: 

1st. E. L. Lewis. S3; 2d. Joseph Thorpe. S2; 3d. A. E. Hartshorn. SI. 
Sweet Corx. — Twelve ears of any variety: 

1st. Ed. Parker. S3; 2d. A. E. Hartshorn. S2; 3d. E. L. Lewis. SI. 
Tomatoes. — Twelve specimens: 

1st. Joseph Thorpe. Jewell. S3; 2d. Joseph Thorpe, Earliana, S2; 3d, 
Wilfrid Wheeler. Stone. SI. 
Peppers. — Twelve specimens: 

1st. Ed. Parker. Chinese Giant. S3; 2d. E. L. Lewis. Chinese Giant. 
S2; 3d. Ed. Parker. Ruby King. SI. 
Collection of Vegetables, not less than four varieties, decorative arrange- 
ment to be considered: 
1st. E. L. Lewis. So. 

August 26. 

Meloxs. — Four specimens: 

1st. E. L. Lewis. Montreal. S3; 2d. E. L. Lewis. Rocky Ford, S2; 3d, 
Ed. Parker. Emerald Gem. SI. 
Cabbages. — Three of any variety, trimmed: 

1st. Ed. Parker. S3; 2d. A. E. Hartshorn. SI. 
Celery. — Four roots: 

1st. Ed. Parker. S3; 2d. P. Hurley. S2; 3d, Joseph Thorpe, SI. 



AWARDS FOR VEGETABLES. 191 

Beans. — Two quarts of Lima: 

1st, W. J. Clemson, Burpee's $3; 2d, W. J. Clemson, Dreer's, $2; 3d, 
A. E. Hartshorn, SI. 
Native Mushrooms. — Named collection of not less than five edible 
varieties : 
1st, S. S. Crosby, S3; 2d, Boston Mycological Club, $2. 
Tomatoes. — Twelve specimens: 

1st, Arthur Nixon, S3; 2d, W. J. Clemson, S2; 3d, Joseph Thorpe. SI. 
Oxioxs. — Twelve specimens: 

1st, E. L. Lewis, Danvers, S3; 2d, G. D. Moore, Prize Taker. $2; 3d, 
E. L. Lewis, Prize Taker, SI. 
Squashes: 

1st, Ed. Parker, Marrow, S3; 2d, W. Heustis & Son, Marrow. S2; 3d, 
A. E. Hartshorn. SI. 
Collection of Vegetables, not less than four varieties, decorative arrange- 
ment to be considered: 
1st, Ed. Parker, S5; 2d, E. L. Lewis, S3. 

Annual Exhibition. 

September 14, 15, 16, 17. 

Carrots. — Twelve Long Orange: 

1st, Ed. Parker, S3; 2d, E. L. Lewis. $2; 3d. H. R. Kinney. SI. 
Twelve Intermediate: 

1st, H. R. Kinney, S3; 2d, Charles Scully, S2; 3d, Ed. Parker, SI. 
Potatoes. — Twelve Hebron: 

1st, H. R. Kinney. S3; 2d. G. F. Wheeler. S2; 3d, E. L. Lewis. SI. 
Twelve Rose: 

1st, E. L. Lewis. S3. 
Twelve of any other variety: 

1st, H. R. Kinney, Somerset, S3; 2d. W. J. Clemson, Delaware. S2; 3d. 
J. G. Junier, SI. 
Salsify.— Twelve specimens: 

l>t, P. Hurley. S3; 2d, Ed. Parker. $2; 3d. W. J. Clemson. SI. 
Turnips. — Twelve Flat : 

1st, B. L. Lewis, S3; 2d, G. F. Wheeler. $2j M. T. W. Head. $1. 
Twelve Swedish: 

1st, Charles Scully. S3; 2d, Ed. Parker. $2; 3d. Joseph Thorpe, tl 
ONIONS. - Twelve Dam • 

1st, E. L. Lewis. S3; 2d. J. B. shurtletT. Jr., 12; 3d, A E Hartshorn, 
81. 
Twelve Red: 

1st, E 1. Lewis, 13; 2d, Ed. Parker. 12; 3d, A E Hartshorn, Si 



192 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Twelve White: 

1st, E. L. Lewis, $2; 2d, Ed. Parker, SI. 
Squashes. — Three Bay State: 

1st, E. L. Lewis, $3; 2d, G. F. Wheeler, $2; 3d, A. E. Hartshorn, SI. 
Three Hubbard: 

1st, A. E. Hartshorn, S3; 2d, E. L. Lewis, S2; 3d, G. F. Wheeler, SI. 
Three Hybrid Turban: 

1st, E. L. Lewis, S3; 2d, G. F. Wheeler, S2; 3d, A. E. Hartshorn, SI. 
Three Marrow: 

1st, E. L. Lewis, S3; 2d, Ed. Parker, S2; 3d, W. Heustis & Son, $1. 
Cucumbers. — Pair of White Spine: 

1st, H. A. Vickery, $4; 2d, A. E. Hartshorn, S3; 3d, W. J. Clemson, S2. 
Pair of any other variety: 

1st, A. E. Hartshorn,, S3; 2d, Joseph Thorpe, $2. 
Melons. — Four specimens: 

1st, E. L. Lewis, S3; 2d, E. L. Lewis, $2; 3d, A. E. Hartshorn, SI. 
Watermelons. — Two specimens: 

1st, Ed. Parker, S3; 2d, Ed. Parker, S2; 3d, Joseph Thorpe, $1. 
Brussels Sprouts. — Half-peck: 

1st, A. E. Hartshorn, S3; 2d, W. J. Clemson, S2; 3d, T. W. Head, SI. 
Cabbages. — Three Drumhead, trimmed: 

1st, A. E. Hartshorn, $3; 2d, T. W. Head, S2; 3d, Ed. Parker, SI. 
Three Savoy, trimmed: 

1st, A. E. Hartshorn, S3; 2d, Ed. Parker, S2; 3d, T. W. Head, SI. 
Cauliflowers. — Four specimens: 

1st, W. H. Teele, $4; 2d, DeSouza Bros., S3; 3d, C. M. Handley 
Estate, S2. 
Celery. — Best kept during the exhibition, four roots of Paris Golden: 
1st, E. L. Lewis, $5; 2d, W. Heustis & Son, S3; 3d, P. Hurley, $2. 
Any other variety: 

1st, Arthur Nixon, S5; 2d, Joseph Thorpe, S3; 3d, A. E. Hartshorn, 
S2. 
Endive. — Four specimens: 

1st, Vincent Buitta, S3; 2d, Vincent Buitta, $2; 3d, Vincent Buitta, 
SI. 
Lettuce. — Four heads: 

1st, A. E. Hartshorn, S3; 2d, E. L. Lewis, $2; 3d, T. W. Head, SI. 
Parsley. — Two quarts : 

1st, A. E. Hartshorn, S2; 2d, E. L. Lewis, SI. 
Sw t eet Corn. — Twelve ears : 

1st, A. E. Hartshorn, S3; 2d, G. F. Wheeler, S2; 3d, E. L. Lewis, $1. 
Egg Plants. — Four Round Purple: 

1st, A. E. Hartshorn, S3; 2d, Mrs C. C. Converse and Mrs. Lester 
Leland, S2; 3d, Ed. Parker, $1. 
Tomatoes. — Twelve Aristocrat: 

1st, Ed. Parker, S3; 2d, Joseph Thorpe, S2; 3d, W. J. Clemson, SI. 



AWARDS FOR VEGETABLES. 193 

Twelve Stone: 

1st, Joseph Thorpe, $3; 2d, E. L. Lewis, $2; 3d, Ed. Parker, $1. 
Twelve of any other variety : 

1st, Mrs. E. M. Gill, $3; 2d, E. L. Lewis, $2; 3d, Elliott Moore, $1. 
Peppers. — Twelve specimens of Squash: 

1st, E. L. Lewis, $3; 2d, H. R. Kinney, $2; 3d, Ed. Parker, $1. 
Any other variety: 

1st, E. L.»Lewis, $3; 2d, Ed. Parker, $2; 3d, J. B. Shurtleff, Jr., $1. 
Culinary Herbs, Green. — Collection, named: 
1st, Arthur Nixon, $3; 2d, Ed. Parker, $2. 
Collection of Vegetables, not less than ten varieties, decorative arrange- 
ment to be considered: 
1st, E. L. Lewis, $10; 2d, Vincent Buitta, $8; 3d, Ed. Parker, $5. 

Gratuities: — 

J. J. H. Gregory, Potatoes, $1. 
W. W. Rawson, Collection, $3. 



Chrysanthemum Show. 
November 9, 10, 11, 12. 

Special Prizes. 

Celery. — Eight roots, commercial grown: 

1st, Ed. Parker, a Silver Medal; 2d, E. L. Lewis, a Bronze Medal. 

Regular Prizes. 

Parsnips. — Twelve specimens of Long Smooth: 

1st, W. J. Clemson, S3; 2d, W. H. Teele, $2; 3d, A. E. Hartshorn, SI. 
Twelve specimens of Hollow Crown: 

1st, W. J. Clemson, S3; 2d, W. W. Rawson. S2; 3d. W. H. Teele. SI. 
Salsify. — Twelve specimens: 

1st, W. J. Clemson, S3; 2d, P. Hurley, S2; 3d, Vincent Buitta, SI. 
Cucumbers. — Pair: 

1st, W. W. Rawson, - 
Cabbages. — Three Red. trimmed: 

1st. A. E. Hartshorn, $3; 2d, E. L. Lewis, $2. 
Three Drumhead, trimmed: 

1st, A. E. Hartshorn. S3; 2d. Mrs. J. L. Gardner, $2. 
Three Savoy, trimmed: 

1st, Mrs. j. L. Gardner, S3; 2d, A. E. Hartshorn, S2; 3d. Ed. Parker. SI, 



194 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Brussels Sprouts. — Half-peck: 

1st, A. E. Hartshorn. S3; 2d, Mrs. J. L. Gardner, $2. 
Cauliflowers. — Four specimens : 

1st, E. R. Teele, S3; 2d, C. M. Handley, $2; 3d, E. L. Lewis, $1. 
Celery. — Four roots. Pascal, best kept: 

1st, W. Heustis & Son, So; 2d. Ed. Parker, S3; 3d, A. E. Hartshorn, 
S2; 4th, Arthur Nixon, SI. 
Any other variety: 

1st, Arthur Nixon, S5; 2d, Ed. Parker, S3; 3d. A. E. Hartshorn, $2; 
4th, W. J. Clemson, SI. 
Endive. — Four specimens: 

1st. Vincent Buitta, S3; 2d, Vincent Buitta. S2; 3d, E. L. Lewis, SI. 
Lettuce. — Four heads, best kept: 

1st. W. W. Rawson, So; 2d. Arthur Nixon. S3; 3d, A. E. Hartshorn, 
$2; 4th, G. D. Moore, SI. 
Leek. — Twelve specimens: 

1st. Mrs. Alice Warburton, S2; 2d. Ed. Parker, SI. 
Corx.— Yellow or Field, twenty-five ears, traced: 

1st, Elliott Moore. S3; 2d, A. F. Stevens. S2; 3d, E. L: Lewis, SI. 
Tomatoes. — Twelve specimens: 

1st. E. D. Jordan. S3; 2d, Ed. Parker, S2; 3d, E. L. Lewis. SI. 
Collection of Vegetables, not less than ten varieties, decorative arrange- 
ment to be considered: 
1st. E. L. Lewis. $8; 2d. Ed. Parker, So; 3d, Vincent Buitta, $4. 



WARREX W. Rawsox, } Committee 
,., TX TT > on 

Warrex H. Heustis, ) Vegetables. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON GARDENS 
FOR THE YEAR 1905. 

BY OAKES AMES, CHAIRMAN. 



During the year 1905 the Committee on Gardens received ten 
entries for the prizes of the Society. Of these entries six called 
for the inspection of gardens devoted to herbaceous flowers or 
vegetables, two for an examination of tree plantations, and two 
for visits to greenhouses. In addition to its regular work, the 
committee accepted an invitation to witness a demonstration at 
Jamaica Plain of power spraying for the destruction of the gypsy 
and brown-tail moth caterpillars. 

In January the Board of Trustees passed a vote requesting the 
committee to consider the expediency of holding in the City of 
Boston a field demonstration to stimulate interest in the extermina- 
tion of insect pests. At the same meeting it was voted that the 
committee should consider the advisability of offering prizes for 
the renewal of neglected apple orchards. In accordance with these 
suggestions a special meeting was held and the propositions of the 
Board were carefully considered. Though favorable to these prop- 
ositions, the Committee on Gardens has not found it practicable 
to carry them into effect during the present year. 

The following is a record in detail of the visits made in 190"). 

George F. Fabyan's Greenhouse, Brookline. 

The first visit was made March 7 to the estate of George V. 
Fabyan at Brookline to inspect his greenhouse devoted to the cul- 
tivation of choice plants. The greenhouse is 120 feel long by 
twenty feet wide and is partitioned into four sections. In the first 
section, palms, ferns and other foliage plants, together with many 

orchids are grown. In the second section was a display of cycla- 



196 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

men, cinerarias, azaleas, and acacias. The third and fourth sec- 
tions were devoted chiefly to roses and carnations. The visitors 
were favorably impressed by the beauty and masterly grouping 
of the plants, — clear evidence of the ability of the head-gardener, 
Mr. James Stuart. 

Spraying Demonstration by the Boston Park Depart- 
ment. 

By invitation of Mr. John A. Pettigrew, Superintendent of the 
Boston Park Department, the committee, on the afternoon of May 
16th, attended a preliminary demonstration of power spraying 
for the destruction of the gypsy and brown-tail moth caterpillars. 
This demonstration took place in the Forest Hills Parkway. A 
grove of the highest trees was chosen for the experiment, and over 
the tops of these, some of them probably sixty feet high, spray was 
easily thrown by means of a hose sprayer held by a man standing 
on the ground. With the aid of ladders, an area of from seventy 
to one hundred feet in diameter was readily drenched with spray. 
Mr. Pettigrew thinks this promises to be a most effective method 
for controlling the moth pests. Furthermore, he estimates that 
forest lands adjoining roadways can be thoroughly sprayed at a 
cost of about twenty dollars an acre. A practical demonstration 
on a much larger scale has since been held by the Massachusetts 
Society for the Promotion of Agriculture in an infested area of ten 
acres of dense woodland at the junction of Wyoming Avenue and 
the Ravine Road in the Middlesex Fells region. 

Dr. C. S. Minot's Peony Garden, Milton. 

On June 15 the committee inspected the peony garden of 
Dr. Charles S. Minot at Milton, which had been entered in 
competition for the best garden of peonies, not commercial. 
Dr. Minot had between 260 and 270 varieties under cultivation, 
arranged in color areas or squares. Among the varieties in 
bloom at the time of the committee's visit the following seemed 
especially deserving of note : Triomphe de 1' Exposition de Lille, 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE OX GARDENS. 197 

a beautiful form of light pink, introduced into Dr. Minot's col- 
lection from Holland in 1900. It is a profuse bloomer and was 
thought by the members of the committee to be the most desirable 
variety among the many excellent ones examined. Other blooms 
of a pink or pale rose color were the Coupe d' Hebe, with saucer- 
shaped outer petals, and the Charles Sedgwick Minot, a Richard- 
son seedling of much merit. Among the crimson or red varieties 
were Delachii, a French peony (deep crimson), Eclatante (bright 
rose), and the anemone-flowered Rubra (magenta), obtained from 
Mr. T. R. Watson of Plymouth. Unfortunately many plants were 
not in bloom at the time of the committee's visit, so that the com- 
plete range of varieties could not be examined. 

The Cherry Hill Ntjrseries,West Newbury. 

On June 21 the committee visited the Cherry Hill Nurseries 
of Thomas C. Thurlow & Co., at West Newbury, to inspect his 
system of evergreen hedges grown as windbreaks and shelter for 
his nursery grounds. These evergreen hedges, composed of white 
and Norway spruce trees, symmetrically trimmed, are probablv 
the most extensive in this section of the country. They range 
between 25 and 75 feet in height, and the tallest are allowed to 
grow naturally. While these hedges serve their purpose well, 
it is to be questioned whether nursery stock protected by them is 
not rendered temporarily tender and therefore subject to the rigors 
of inclement weather when transferred from the nursery to exposed 
situations. 

Mr. Thurlow informed the committee that the hedges formed 
an exceptionally welcome shelter for birds, and he was of the 
opinion that the absence of insect pests from his nursery grounds 
was in a large 4 measure the result of the encouragement of bird life 
afforded by the hedges. 

The V. s. Moseli Estate, Newburyport. 

On June 21 the members of the committee availed themselves 

of an invitation from Mr. Frederick S. Mosely to drive through \\\< 



198 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

estate on the banks of the Merrimac River previous to their visit 
to the Thurlow Nurseries. The drive was a most instructive one 
and notwithstanding a drenching rain, the committee was able to 
see some of the extensive plantings which Mr. Mosely has insti- 
tuted with a view to foresting his estate. Mr. Mosely has kept 
the old woods and has planted white pine and chestnut. 

Professor R. T. Jackson's Peony Garden, Cambridge. 

On June 22 the committee visited the peony garden of Prof. 
Robert T. Jackson at Cambridge. Prof. Jackson's garden is 
a good example for the treatment of a suburban estate of less than 
twenty thousand square feet. He had under cultivation at this 
time 125 varieties of peonies, among them 18 of the notable Rich- 
ardson seedlings. 

Vegetable Garden of the Taunton Insane Hospital. 

On July 28 the committee inspected the vegetable garden of the 
Taunton Insane Hospital, entered in competition for the prize 
offered for the best vegetable garden. 

M. F. Plant's Estate, Groton, Conn. 

On August 4 the committee visited the estate of Mr. Morton F. 
Plant, at Groton, Connecticut, entered for the Hunnewell Trien- 
nial Premium and for the prizes offered by the Society for the best 
herbaceous and vegetable gardens, and for houses of chrysanthe- 
mums. This estate is a very good example of what perseverance 
and industry may do toward the conquest of adverse conditions. 
A large part of the extensive lawn was made by excavation of solid 
ledge. The herbaceous garden contained numerous specimens 
of interesting annuals and perennials, the main part of it forming 
a border around the formal garden which lies in front of the house. 
The vegetable garden, located about half a mile from the house, 
near the farm buildings, covers nearly three acres and at the time 
of the committee's visit was devoted to a general assortment of 
vegetables. 




report of committee ox gardens. 199 

Robert Roulstox's Gardex, Roxbury. 

On August 14 a delegation of the committee inspected the garden 
of Mr. Robert Roulston, which is situated on the corner of Burrell 
and Clifton Streets, Roxbury, Mr. and Mrs. Roulston are much 
interested in the cultivation of flowering plants and with the limited 
amount of space at their disposal have obtained results deserving 
of high commendation. This garden illustrates the capabilities 
of a citv vard. 



Col. Frederick Masox's Farm, Taunton. 



On August 22 the extensive farm of Col. Frederick Mason at 
Taunton was visited. Of the seventy-four acres comprising the 
farm, twelve or fifteen are devoted to vegetables. The committee 
was very favorably impressed by the neatness of the grounds and 
the excellence of the crops. 

M. F. Plant's Chrysanthemum House, Grotox, Conn. 

In November, two members of the committee went to Groton, 
Connecticut, to inspect the chrysanthemum house of Mr. Morton 
F. Plant, which had been entered by the superintendent, Thomas 
W. Head, as a house of specimen blooms. The house entered was 
40 feet long and 20 feet wide and contained about 500 plants on 
three benches. The middle bench was planted, almost entirely, 
with the varieties Win. Duckham and Mrs. Wm. Duekham, and 
the two side benches with Merza. The plants in the center aver- 
aged about seven feet in height, while those on the sides were a 
little shorter. The Mowers were of good size and well developed, 
and most of the foliage was in good condition. 

Special Prize fob Small Estate. 

The committee wishes t<» call attention to the Special Prizes 
of $50.00 and $25.00 offered for the best-kept estates ^\' from 



200 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

one to three acres in Massachusetts. There have been no 
entries for these during the present year. 

Prizes and Gratuities have been awarded as follows: 

Special Prizes from the John A . Lowell Fund. 

For the best House of Chrysanthemums grown for specimen blooms : 

First, Morton F. Plant $40 00 

Society's Prizes. 

For the best Garden of Peonies, not commercial: 

First, Dr. Charles S. Minot 30 0a 

Second, Prof. Robert T. Jackson 20 00 

For the best Vegetable Garden: 

First, Col. Frederick Mason 30 00 

Second, Taunton Insane Hospital 20 00 

Gratuities. 

George F. Fabyan, Cultural Certificate for splendid condition of Green- 
house. 

Boston Park Department, John A. Pettigrew, Superintendent, Honorable 
Mention for spraying demonstration. 

Frederick S. Mosely, for his successful efforts in landscape forestry, Honor- 
able Mention. 

Robert Roulston, for his flower garden, Bronze Medal. 

Thomas C. Thurlow & Co., for their system of shelter belts of spruces, 
Honorable Mention. 



Oakes Ames, 

George Barker, 

Wm. N. Craig, 

A. F. Estabrook, Committee 



A. H. Fewkes, V on 



C. W. Parker, 
J. A. Pettigrew, 
Wm. P. Rich, 
H. P. Walcott, 



Gardens. 




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REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON SCHOOL GAR- 
DENS AND NATIVE PLANTS FOR THE YEAR 1905. 

BY HENRY SAXTON ADAMS, CHAIRMAN. 



The year 1905 marks a turning point in the activities of this 
committee, it being the last year that prizes will be awarded for 
Children's Herbariums and Native plants, and it has been most 
successful. In the year to come the committee will be known 
as the Committee on Children's Gardens, and all our efforts will 
be directed to the encouragement of gardening among children, 
which is more directly in line with the objects of the Society. 

During the year we offered prizes for school gardens, children's 
home gardens, children's herbariums, and native plants. The 
work now dropped is that connected with the last two and we think 
that we can carry out the purposes of the Society better by this 
change. While we regret being obliged to make the change we 
are very glad that the Trustees concur with us in the matter. Early 
in the year, very soon after our prize circular was distributed, a 
letter was printed in the Boston Transcript criticising our offering 
prizes for children's herbariums, the writer complaining that we 
were encouraging the destruction of native plants. It was thought 
wise to call together the members of the committee and to ask sev- 
eral members of the Society for the Protection of Native Plants and 
others interested, to meet with us to discuss the subject. While 
this gathering was not largely attended it resulted in a decision that 
we were not encouraging the destruction but rather helping the 
protection of native plants, and we made no change in our efforts. 
As it has now been decided to drop this work as too botanical for 
our Society, nothing further need be said. 

On looking over the results already accomplished we felt, that, 
while we had fostered the school garden movement from the very 
beginning, we were not having entries from all the gardens in the 
state and that we were not giving encouragement to more than a 



202 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

few of the older gardens. In order to bring our work before the 
public four articles were written, one on each phase of the work, and 
published in the Boston Transcript. We also sent out a large 
number of our circulars to superintendents of schools and others 
likely to be interested. The results of this canvas were most satis- 
factory as seen by the increased interest in our work and in the 
number of entries for prizes. 

In order to become better acquainted with the children's garden 
movement and that we might carry on our work more successfully 
your chairman visited nearly all the gardens entered for prizes. 
In this way it was possible for him to better understand the existing 
conditions as well as to talk with the garden workers. A number 
of other gardens were also visited; among these were the School of 
Horticulture at Hartford, Conn., and the School Gardens of Hart- 
ford and Amherst, Mass. The great lesson learned was that 
children's gardens are successfully carried on when under the 
leadership of an experienced garden director or teacher. No mat- 
ter how enthusiastically the work is undertaken, without a proper 
understanding of gardening it is usually a failure, and the move- 
ment likely to be given up. In all cases during these visits your 
chairman was cordially welcomed and usually a conference resulted 
which was helpful to both. There is a crying need for an institution 
in this state similar to that at Hartford, Conn., where school garden 
work can be taught, and it is hoped that such an institution will be 
started in this vicinity at an early date. 



Children's Garden Conference. 

With the hope of bringing together those interested in the move- 
ment a conference was planned in connection with our Children's 
Herbarium Exhibition in December and it proved a great success. 
Invitations were sent out to a number of prominent children's gar- 
den workers asking them to come and take part in the exercises. 
It was very gratifying to find that these invitations were heartily 
accepted and the success of the conference was assured. A printed 
announcement was sent out two weeks in advance and suitable 
reading notices were kindly printed by the leading papers. The 



SCHOOL GARDENS. 203 

program included an address of welcome, the announcement of 
awards for school and home gardens, and seven ten-minute ad- 
dresses covering various phases of the work. Ample opportunity 
for discussion followed. A unique feature was a model garden bed 
illustrated by a practical exercise by a boy gardener and teacher. 
The Conference was held at Horticultural Hall, Saturday, Decem- 
ber 2, at 10 o'clock. 

Your chairman called attention to the fact that our Society gave 
encouragement and financial assistance to the first school garden 
in the country, which was started in Roxbury as an experiment. 
We may therefore consider ourselves leaders in the movement. 
He briefly reviewed the present conditions, told of the aims of the 
c6mmittee, and asked for the cooperation of all interested in order 
that the work might be carried on to the best advantage. After 
announcing the awards he introduced the first speaker, Miss Esther 
F. Hallowell. She spoke in place of Miss Anne Withington who was 
unfortunately obliged to be out of town. Other addresses followed 
and nearly every side of the children's garden movement was dis- 
cussed. As many valuable points were brought out the speakers 
were asked to furnish abstracts of their addresses and these are 
given in connection with this report. 



School Gardens. 

There were twelve entries for prizes for school gardens this year 
and all but two sent in reports. This is a gain of nine over last 
year and the largest number ever entered in one year. The season 
opened up dry and some of the gardens were very discouraging in 
the beginning, but picked up later, and in most cases gave satis- 
factory returns. 

It is well to call your attention to the classes of school gardens 
which we find. ( )ne connected with the public schools and usually 
in a dormant and weedy condition during the summer, t<> be revived 
again with the opening of school in September. Another, not con- 
nected with a regular school, which begins with the opening 
spring or as early as possible without interfering with the regular 
school work of the children and continuing through the summer 



204 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

until frost. It is very difficult to manage in a public school a garden 
which will last through the summer, but in some cases, as at Fair- 
haven, this is most successfully accomplished. In other places the 
children who stay at home during the summer work in their gar- 
dens while those who go away are obliged to give them up. In 
large cities the summer school garden is very important and never 
lacks children; in many places a long waiting list is kept and any 
vacancies are readily filled. Where the children go away they often 
have a home garden at their summer home. 

The reports of the gardens sent in were very satisfactory and it 
was difficult to award the prizes. After careful deliberation it was 
decided to give besides the prizes two honorable mentions. There 
are six prizes offered next year, three for the established or large 
gardens and three for new or small gardens. The classification 
here is rather indefinite but it is our desire to give small and new 
gardens all the encouragement possible. Whatever we do we are 
very anxious to put school gardens on a permanent basis and it is 
with these ideas in mind that we are working. The reports of the 
directors of the prize gardens will be found further on. 



Children's Home Gardens. 

During 1904 we offered for the first time three prizes for home 
gardens and there were five entries. In making up the list for 1905 
great hesitancy was felt by the members of the committee as to the 
advisability of offering more than three prizes. It was decided, 
however, to try the experiment and the number was increased to 
ten. When the entries were in it was discovered that we had over 
two hundred and we found we had made no mistake. 

We visited the home gardens as far as possible and found it was 
very encouraging to the children to do so. We still feel that the 
children's home garden movement is a very important one and that 
local organizations and parents should encourage the children to 
have them. We have increased the prizes for 1906 both in number 
and in amount and call special attention to the fact that girls receive 
the same prizes as the boys. 

The two principal centers for home gardens this year were at 



children's herbariums. 205 

Ayer and Reading. Unfortunately the gardens at Aver were not 
as well kept up as might be desired, though some were very nice; 
here again the dry weather discouraged the young gardeners. In 
Reading the home gardens are encouraged by the Woman's Club 
and some very prettily gotten up reports were sent in. A larger 
number entered than were reports received which brings out an 
important point, namely, that a local organization can sift out the 
best reports from those entered for our prizes and thus save us a 
good deal of trouble; it also helps as they are often better judges 
of the gardens. We want to see a great increase in this work the 
coming year and feel that our prizes are sufficiently large to attract 
competitors. It is impossible for the committee to visit a very 
large number of home gardens, but if those which are the best in 
any locality are selected, the chances of visiting them increase 
and in this way the children are encouraged. 

Several letters from home garden prize winners follow. 



( iiildkkn's Herbariums. 

Owing to the great number of herbarium sheets exhibited 
(hiring 1904 it was necessary to limit the number acceptable 
from any one child. As a result of this better sheets were brought 
in, though fewer in number. While in 1004 there were 2316 spec- 
imens received hnt 1815 were awarded prizes. This year only 
OS',) were sent and 780 accepted. Of the 201 rejected L48 were 
improperly labeled SO that had our rules been carried out by the 
competitors comparatively few would have been rejected. We 
were also enabled to vary the amount of our awards according 
to the value of the sheets which was impossible last year owing 
to the number of sheets accepted and the lack o\' funds. 

The exhibition this year was held in the large hall, on account of 
the Children's Garden Conference in the lecture hall on Saturday 
morning. It occupied tWO-thirds of the hall and was well staged. 
An exhibit of evergreens from the Chrysanthemum show added 
greatly to the appearance of the hall. Prize cards were put on 
the exhibits at the Opening on Friday morning and we believe that 
the awards were in every way satisfactory to the children. 



206 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Photographs from school and home gardens, collections of in- 
sects, and garden reports were also put on the tables, making alto- 
gether the most interesting exhibition ever held by our committee. 
We are very glad that our last exhibition of children's herbariums 
proved so successful .and hope that our children's garden efforts 
will produce as many horticulturists as the herbarium work did 
botanists. 

Native Plants. 

The exhibits of native plants, for no apparent reason, were fewer 
during the year than last year. The exhibits themselves, how- 
ever, were good and in every way up to the standard, in some 
cases even better. It was recommended by your chairman that 
the awarding of prizes for native plants be taken away from the 
work of the committee as it is so different from the children's gar- 
den work that the committee became divided in interest, those caring 
for native plants not being interested as deeply in the children's 
garden movement. It will probably be remembered that the 
work of awarding prizes for native plants has been at various 
times part of the work of our committee and at other times 
under the jurisdiction of a special committee. Your chairman 
recommended that a new committee be appointed to take charge 
of the native plant exhibitions. It was decided, however, by the 
Trustees that the exhibits of native plants were of a botanical na- 
ture and should not be continued by the Society. While this is 
sincerely regretted in some ways it is perhaps for the best and we 
are very glad to be relieved of the work. 

Children's Exhibitions. 

Members of the committee visited the two children's garden 
exhibitions of the Worcester County Horticultural Society at Wor- 
cester during the past summer with a view of holding similar ex- 
hibitions in Boston. The exhibits were successful in every way 
and w T e were glad of the opportunity of studying the methods 
employed. Due credit should be given to Secretary Hixon of the 
Worcester Society for his efforts in this work. * 




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children's garden conference. 207 

Carrying out this idea we are offering prizes in our new circular 
for 1906 and hope to have two successful exhibitions, one in June 
and one in September. 

Looking Forward. 

Under the new name of Committee on Children's Gardens we 
have a definite line of work and with an increased appropriation 
we expect to place our Society at the head of the movement in this 
state. 

Our goal is reached when every school in Massachusetts has a 
garden and every child has a home garden. We believe that if 
this goal is ever reached the results in happier and better children 
and in improved home surroundings will amply repay all our 
efforts. We ask the hearty cooperation of all members of the 
Society and thank the Trustees for their attention to our requests. 
The field is broad, the results inspiring, and our onward move- 
ment is dependent on our energy and the money at our command. 
May both increase in the year to come. 



Abstracts of Addresses made at the Children's Garden 

Conference. 

Held at Horticultural Hall. Boston, December 2, 1905. 



s< hool Garden Work in B< anon Schools, 

BY MISS ESTHER F. HALLOWELL. B< HOOL GARDEN COMMITTEE. 

The Rice School Garden on Dartmouth Street, which was started in 
connection with the Boston Normal School in the Spring of L901, may be 

said to be the pioneer in the attempt to establish garden work in the 
congested districts of any Large city, A vacant lot near the ichoolhouse 

was secured and the ground dug up and fertilized by many loadl of >treet 
-weepings. The lot w;i< then divided into individual beds, 8 t'eet by t 



208 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

feet, which were given to children of the seventh grade. Seeds were 
planted and watered by them, and soon the heretofore barren ground 
began to be spotted with green. Support for this garden both active and 
material was given by a committee of the South End House. Later in 
the year the Twentieth Century Club of Boston helped. The following 
fall there was introduced into the Normal School an elective science 
course with practical work in the Rice Garden. 

During the summer of 1901 the Civic League Garden was established 
on the Columbus Avenue playground. Beds were allotted to the children 
in the order of application. 

In the spring of 1903, with these two gardens as examples, seven new 
ones were established by the Women's Auxiliary of the American Park 
and Outdoor Art Association. Later these committees merged into one 
School Garden Committee. 

This committee now has the supervision of nine school gardens. Five 
of these gardens are confined to very limited spaces in the school yards, 
and therefore the separate beds are much smaller than they should be 
for the best work. But in these crowded districts we are thankful for 
every inch of ground given us. The schools above referred to are the 
Lyman and James Otis of East Boston, the Hancock in the North End, 
the Winthrop and the Martin in the South End. 

The Wells (girls) and Phillips (boys) Schools, of the West End, are 
situated in one of the most congested quarters of the city. The school 
yards are large enough only for the children to stand during their recess 
periods, crowded together like penned up animals. To enable these 
children to "farm" the Boston Park Commission has been most obliging 
in giving two strips of land on the water front of the Charlesbank Park 
which have been converted into 118 beds. The Park Commission placed 
fences around the strips and plows up and fertilizes the ground each 
spring before the children go out to make preparations for planting. 

The problems of space and fertilizing which must be faced and over- 
come by the city gardeners practically disappear when we go to the 
suburbs. The two suburban schools, the Washington Allston in Allston, 
and the Blackington in East Boston are fortunate in having enough land 
to enable each child to possess a larger plot and therefore to accomplish 
more satisfactory work. The Washington Allston school has several 
fruit trees on its premises. 

In the Boston public school curriculum two hours a week are set aside 
for nature work. Through this channel, with the interest of the school 
authorities and the cooperation of the masters and teachers, the garden 
work has been introduced. It is one of the great objects of the committee 
to have the garden work bound to the school and made as important 
a part of a girl's or boy's school training as the manual work. To accom- 
plish this object with profit to the children correlation of garden work 
with school work is essential; for by this correlation not only will the 
garden become more lasting and valuable but the other school lessons 



children's garden conference. 209 

will be made alive by the contact every child has with real good earth 
and real live plants. If the garden lessons could be continued through 
the school months the children's interest in the outdoor work would be 
kept awake during that period when their gardens are sleeping under the 
snow of our New England winters. There is plenty of material for these 
lessons. 

In September the new class, preferably seventh grade, is taken out to 
examine the condition of the plants, the seeds, and the weeds in the 
garden after a summer's cultivation. In October and November the 
garden is cleared, the shrubs are pruned, the ground is dug and fertilized, 
perennials and bulbs are planted, and the garden covered for the winter. 

Planting of bulbs in the school rooms is done now also. In connection 
with the fall work the children are taken to the fruit and flower ex- 
hibitions in the city where the examples they see give unimagined pleasure 
and arouse great interest in "growing things. " During the winter months 
of December and January lessons on the soil and experiments in germi- 
nation go far to prepare the children's understanding of what they must 
do and see when the outdoor work begins. In February seeds are planted 
in window boxes so that the small tomatoes and cabbages will be ready 
to set out as soon as the weather will permit. With March come the 
catalogues, the garden plans, the buying of seed. etc. April. May. and 
June present more work than can well be done in the allotted two hours 
a week. When school closes in June many of the children for one reason 
or another are unable to attend to their beds. But as many as arc able 
continue to appear at stated hours to continue the work and the vacant 
places are filled by other children. A part of the vacation work — or 
pleasure — are the excursions to the market gardens of Arlington where 
the children arc enabled to see on a large scale what they have already 
seen on a tiny scale in their little city plots. The work done in the vaca- 
tion months is in the entire charge of a voluntary committee in coopera- 
tion with the school authorities. There has been an attempt to cooperate 
with the vacation school-. 

If a child has attended school regularly and has been able to care for 
his garden in the summer he has Been performed under hi- eve- a complete 
cycle in the vegetable life. Add to this the correlation with hi- ot 
school studies and the garden becomes a real part and a valuable part 
not onlv of his life but of the life of the world. 

In his arithmetic he can find the area of his own garden instead of an 

imaginary field; from his window box he can Btudy a right angle; in his 
manual training class he makes the window box, the markers, and some- 
times even the tools; in his geography he learns in what part of the country 
is grown the hemp, flax, and grains, Bpecimeni of which he eees in lu< 

own plot; in his drawing class he draw- a flower or -eed from hi- own 

garden instead of one brought by the teacher; in the cooking dies the 
girl cooks her own vegetables; in the language class the boys and girls 

write letter^ to the >ec« linen for catalogues or to the agricultural depart- 



210 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

merit for seeds, and keep diaries of what goes on in the garden. Thus 
the garden and all pertaining to it mean something. So many are its 
advantages that it seems to demand a place in every school. 

The necessary money for the support of the gardens was supplied in 
the beginning by a voluntary committee. More help has come each year 
from the city and ultimately the whole responsibility will rest upon the 
city. 

I have spoken somewhat of the educational value of this garden work. 
I want to say just a word about the economic value. Boston is so situ- 
ated that its suburbs are near at hand and very accessible ; that is, Boston 
has special facilities for an outward movement. It will therefore be of 
the greatest service to the city if, by teaching the children to be interested 
in the cultivation of the soil, the congested districts be relieved. 



School Gardens as a Preparation for College. 

BY F. A. WAUGH, PROFESSOR OF HORTICULTURE AND LANDSCAPE GARDEN- 
ING, MASSACHUSETTS AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE, AMHERST, MASS. 

The following points were brought out: 

(1) School garden work is many sided and bears on many things. Its 
value in the preparation for college is only one of these things and not the 
most important. 

(2) Preparation for college is usually considered the business of the 
secondary schools and academies. However, college preparation consists 
of everything a student goes through up to the time of college entrance. 

(3) Too much thought is sometimes given to preparation for college, 
especially in the high schools. The high school curricula are sometimes 
designed as though all high school students would enter college, while as a 
matter of fact a very small proportion of them do. 

(4) Nevertheless, preparation for college is confessedly inadequate. 
There is great complaint that students come to college insufficiently pre- 
pared. If this complaint has good foundation when made by the classical 
colleges, it must be doubly true when made by the technical and agricul- 
tural colleges, because high schools and academies do very little in prepar- 
ing their pupils for agricultural courses. 

(5) The work of the school garden to some extent meets this confessed 
deficiency. It leads more directly toward the work of the technical and 
agricultural colleges because it deals with the materials of those courses. 
At the same time it strengthens the pupils' work in precisely those elements 
where it is confessed to be weak from the standpoint of general training, 
namely, in initiative and in independence of thinking. This is because the 
school garden deals with concrete subjects and phenomena instead of with 
abstract ideas and mere words. 



children's garden conference. 211 

(6) The present speaker confesses to a strong prejudice in favor of that 
sort of college training which is based upon the sciences rather than upon 
the classics, so called. He believes the mind secures a better drill in deal- 
ing with concrete things and phenomena than in dealing with abstract 
ideas; that it learns to reason more rapidly and accurately by following 
from effect back to cause in the study of natural phenomena than in learn- 
ing by rote some artificial language; and that the training of the judg- 
ment which necessarily goes with this practical activity is of paramount 
importance in all the work of life. From these premises it is very easy to 
reason that school garden training is valuable to pupils by introducing 
them to a better sort of college course than they might otherwise elect. 



The School Garden as a Factor in Village Improvement. 

BY PHILIP EMERSON, PRINCIPAL COBBET GRAMMAR SCHOOL, LYNN, MASS. 

The Massachusetts Commission on Trade Schools has found that chil- 
dren who leave school for work early are of little value to employers 
because they lack the initiative and sense of responsibility that were once 
developed amid the manifold occupations of the farm home. The school 
garden may aid effectively in securing these qualities. The school should 
inspire, instruct, and train the children by means of a model school garden^ 
and then the children should apply their knowledge and skill in improv- 
ing their home grounds and caring for their own gardens there. 

When the child of a Russian immigrant laboriously sifts the trodden 
soil of a tenement back yard, plants corn and flowers in place of stones 
and tin cans, and guards the growing plants until the corn appears on the 
table of his proud parents and vines cover the old fence and tumbling out- 
buildings, then something worth while has been accomplished in his edu- 
cation; he will have developed initiative and a sense of responsibility. 

Home gardens in whose care the children have stimulus and advice, by 
means of the school garden, are better than individual gardens at school 
where assignment and direction are the rule. Independent work at the 
right point is best. Prizes, perhaps of hardy plants, and due recognition 
of merit are essential. The school garden should be a center for civic 
improvement. Hardy perennial flowering plants may be propagated at 
school from seeds, divisions, and cuttings, for sale to citizens of a city or 
town. The children are given training in their care, and a great variety 
of the best hardy plants may be very cheaply introduced into a community, 
the school incidentally receiving a considerable revenue from their sale. 
In the Cobbet gardens a single hardy chrysanthemum secured in the spring 
of 1904 has now multiplied to over 250 plants that will he distributed in 
the spring of 1906. We have dozens of varieties of seedlings in cold frames. 



212 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

A city school garden should cany garden work throughout the year, by 
means of cold frames, hotbeds, window gardens, mushroom beds in the 
cellar, and ere long by a school greenhouse. Such intensive garden work 
is the appropriate training for city conditions where land is valuable and 
children have time to spare. What school garden development most 
needs is instruction for teachers. The Massachusetts Agricultural College 
should publish leaflets and arrange extension courses for teachers. There 
should be a practical class in gardening open to teachers in one or more 
places of eastern Massachusetts. There are failures and much waste in 
the work now because of the inability of teachers to grow plants with full 
success. 



Children's Gardens erom Frost to Frost. 

BY HERBERT D. HEMEXWAY, DIRECTOR SCHOOL OF HORTICULTURE. HART- 
FORD. COXX. 

Three things fix a man's value in the world. His knowledge or what he 
knows, his ability or what he can do. his character or what he is. The 
school should help in developing all three, and the school garden is per- 
haps the most potent factor in developing the man. It increases his 
knowledge and his ability to do things and develops his character. 

The school garden can be correlated with all other things taught in the 
class room. It takes away the drudgery of the school life. Children 
having some outdoor work in the garden, generally, if not always, develop 
more rapidly mentally as well as physically and morally. 

The school gardens at the Hartford School of Horticulture begin for the 
first year in May; the second year in March; the third year in February; 
and the fourth and fifth years in January: and continue until October. 
The children come into the class room, where they receive their notebooks, 
and write down from dictation or copy from the blackboard definite direc- 
tions; then with the instructor and their seeds they pass into the tool room, 
where they receive their tools, and then into the garden, passing by obser- 
vation plots of all of our common agricultural and market garden crops, 
flowers, and fruits. 

There are now about five hundred different kinds of things growing at 
the School of Horticulture; all distinctly labeled with the common Eng- 
lish name-. 

While an agricultural failure may not be an educational failure, we 
should try to have the school gardens succeed, and have results from an 
agricultural and horticultural standpoint. The moral value of success 
is very- great and wherever possible the gardens should be conducted right 
through the summer so that they may never become overgrown with weeds. 



CHILDREN'' S GARDEX COXFEREXCE. 213 

In this way it will keep the boys occupied or otherwise they would be on 
the street learning nothing that was good and often sowing the seed of 
future crime. The gardens should begin early, as soon as the frost is out 
of the ground, the land should be thoroughly prepared, and they should 
continue right through the summer. We should have the gardens from 
frost to frost, and the best possible results not only from a horticultural 
standpoint but from the development of body and character. It also has 
a money value. The children learn something of industry and are able to 
work about the city, and take care of lawns and make themselves useful, 
thereby increasing the earning power of the family. 



School Gardex Work ix Cleveland, Ohio. 

BY MISS LOUISE KLEIX MILLER. CURATOR OF SCHOOL GARDENS. 

Miss Miller told of the work which had been done by the Home Garden- 
ing Association, in conjunction with the Board of Education, in inaugurat- 
ing school gardening in Cleveland and spoke very enthusiastically of the 
work which had been accomplished and which they expect to do in the 
future. Cleveland aspires to be the most beautiful city in the country 
and it is expected that the school gardening work will do much to bring 
about this condition. The following abstract will give a good idea of 
some phases of the work at the present time. 

The school garden work in Cleveland has now passed far beyond the 
experimental stage. Up to this year all the time devoted to the garden 
work has been out of school hours, but it is now planned to make the prac- 
tical operations of the garden correlate with other branches of study. 

The study of soil formation; the relation of heat and moisture to soil; 
the capillarity of soil; the weather record; the relation of plants and ani- 
mals to soil are all fundamental to the study of geography. 

A child who has laid out his garden with a tape measure, drawn it to 
scale, and dug the soil, has a definite knowledge of lines, area ajid volumes. 
The weighing and measuring of his products and its estimate in money 
value, give a more vital significance to the study of compound denominate 
numbers than any artificial device. The opportunity of doing rational 
nature study in the garden is too apparent to need comment. 

The school garden work already accomplished has made Cleveland well 
and favorably known in all parts of the country where progressive work 
is appreciated. 

The school garden movement was first inaugurated in 1904 by the estab- 
lishment of four gardens, the expense being assumed jointly by the Home 
Gardening Association and the Board of Education. This year the Hoard 
of Education assumed entire control and established eicht gardens in dif- 



214 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ferent parts of the city. Owing to the lateness of the season and the un- 
prepared condition of the soil, planting was not begun in some instances 
until the last of June and there were many difficulties to overcome. 

The object is to make the school grounds and gardens radiating centers 
for civic improvement. 



Children's Garden Exhibitions. 

BY ADIN A. HIXON, WORCESTER, MASS. 

The first exhibition of children's school gardens that I remember was a 
little more than 50 years ago. At that time I attended school in Dedham, 
and Mr. Richardson, afterward editor of the Boston Congregationalist, 
was the teacher of the school. We had a large school yard of about an 
acre or an acre and a half, and it was at Mr. Richardson's suggestion that 
we had a garden. The boys had a large yard to play in with room for a 
ball ground next to the schoolhouse, and a chestnut and oak grove on the 
other side. The girls also had a large yard where there were plenty of 
shade trees, although these were not too thick to admit the sun in the 
morning. Their yard was separated from adjoining property by a high 
board fence and the teacher suggested that we make a garden alongside 
of this. 

The fence was some 200 feet long and we made a garden about 100 feet 
long and four or five feet wide. It was Mr. Richardson's idea that the 
boys should make the garden and we set to work filling it with various 
plants that the children brought from their homes. The boys did all the 
digging, wheeled away the stones, and brought the dressing in wheel- 
barrows. 

The boys at that school took much pride in this garden and cared for 
it faithfully that year and the next. What became of it after that I don't 
know as I left school the next year. Not only did the boys take good care 
of the garden but they began to take some pride in the school yard, carted 
away the stones and cleaned it up generally. 

While I am a believer in school gardens in certain ways, I do not believe 
in a society like the Worcester County Horticultural Society offering prizes 
for school gardens until they are endorsed by the school committee, or that 
that body at least gives its consent to them. 

The first school in Worcester to arouse interest among the pupils was 
the Upsala street school, where Principal Miss Mary C. Henry interested 
her pupils and teachers to an unusual degree. The teachers at this school 
gave the pupils of several grades seeds of the bachelor's button, nastur- 
tiums, and petunias, which they were allowed to take home and plant. 
Just before the close of school they were requested to bring the products 



children's garden conference. 215 

of their gardens to school and prizes were awarded. Over 250 specimens 
were brought in and prizes of from 25 to 50 cents given. The effect of 
these gardens on the neighborhood was wonderful, as neighbors became 
interested in the work of the children, and gradually turned to it them- 
selves, thus changing the whole appearance of the neighborhood. 

Then the Dartmouth street school did something similar in giving out 
seed to the children. Before the close of school I went up there and talked 
in three different rooms, where the grades where doubled up. The teachers 
had the children bring their crops to school and there was an exhibition in 
the school corridor, where the flowers and vegetables had been arranged 
on long tables. I questioned the children to see if they knew the names 
of the different specimens and asked how they grew the things. The 
classes came up one at a time and we had sort of an object lesson. Several 
times after this various exhibits of the best were taken and sent to the 
Worcester County Horticultural Society's exhibitions, where they were 
given prizes of money, which was used in embellishing the school rooms. 

The Worcester County Horticultural Society had considered various 
propositions for encouraging children but they never amounted to any- 
thing until this year, when the society appropriated $50 for two children's 
exhibitions. A schedule of premiums was made and sent to the various 
school children and others interested in the work throughout Worcester 
county, offering $1, 80 cents, 60 cents, 40 cents, and 20 cent premiums 
for the best collection of vegetables and for the best collection of flowers 
grown from seed, and prizes for various specimens of vegetables and dif- 
ferent kinds of flowers of 50 cents, 40 cents, 30 cents, 20 cents, and 10 cents. 

Any child under 14 years of age was entitled to exhibit; the work from 
the planting to the harvesting of the crop to have been done by the child 
itself. We had two exhibitions, one in July and one in August, which 
resulted in our having 35 exhibitors at one time and 37 at the other. While 
nothing had been said regarding gratuities, the committee decided to give 
a gratuity of 10 cents for every exhibit which did not take a prize. The 
enthusiasm and interest shown by the children was simply marvelous. 
One of our most earnest workers was Roger Newton Perry who took your 
first prize for home gardens. He was one of our largest exhibitors and 
did some splendid work. 

A feature of the exhibitions was that the children were paid their pre- 
miums on the spot. I believe that when you tell a child you '11 do some- 
thing, in doing it, and right away, too. Immediately after the show we 
paid the children just what wo owed them and every child was happy 
because everyone got something. I received several Letters from some 
of our young exhibitors afterwards, thanking me for the good time the 
society had given them. 

These exhibitions were so successful and were received so favorably 
that the society has appropriated double the amount of money to have 
similar exhibitions next year. 



216 massachusetts horticultural society. 

School Garden Xotes. 

BY FRANK If. MARSH, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, FAIRHAVEN, MASS. 

After listening with you to the many interesting phases of the work 
with children's gardens which have been presented by the speakers this 
morning. I shall not attempt to add anything new. but I am constrained 
to ask you. for a moment, by way of review, to consider one or two points 
that may be open to discussion. First : children's gardens should not 
be begun without careful plans and preparation on the part of the director. 
I am firmly convinced after several years' experience that the garden 
movement, in its most sane aspects, is the best method of nature study 
that has yet appeared. It should not be taken up in a headlong manner 
as the result of a bit of temporary enthusiasm which has seized some one 
who has not counted the cost in labor, thought, and planning necessary 
to reach an ultimate goal which may be of sufficient worth to pay for the 
undertaking. 

I have. now. in mind a city which of all cities in the state would be 
greatly improved by the children's garden idea; but in which a hastily 
conceived and poorly completed attempt at school gardening brought 
about failure, with the natural result that the whole idea has been sadly 
discounted and put in the background for many years. Do not injure 
the cause by starting with only surface knowledge and enthusiasm. Plan 
wisely and try to realize the highest aim of the movement. 

This leads me to criticise some of the aims and purposes set forth in 
the papers this morning. Some of these aims and purposes have been 
devised to controvert the claims and criticism of the unthinking who 
look upon the work as a "fad" which to the public is a horrible but in- 
definite something. I want to urge one and all not to allow children's 
gardening in any of its forms to be taken up in such a way as to be looked 
upon as a "fad". Make it a success and the result will make the doubtful 
critic sorry that he had not deeper insight into the movement before he 
passed his hasty judgment. 

It is not necessary to go very far afield to find an excuse for the garden 
idea for children. I fear that a tendency has been too often shown to 
make the movement too pedagogical; too cut and dried. Do not kill the 
enthusiasm of the young gardener by making him feel that his garden 
work is for the sake of helping his arithmetic, his language, or his nature 
study. It is well to correlate, but do it indirectly or it will, I fear, react 
unfavorably if we continually try to defend the school garden by illustrating 
how it may be used for the sake of numbers, language, science, etc. If 
the idea of children's gardens has not sufficient merit and value to stand 
upon its own feet it had better fall before it climbs any higher. 



children's garden conference. 217 

I like to put the matter the other way, and this, perhaps, is what our 
friends mean, i. e., to correlate the subjects of science, language, and 
numbers with gardening in such a way that these subjects may serve as 
aids to gardening and be used as means or instruments for the sake of the 
more real thing, the garden. It is not necessary to apologize for the 
children's garden by showing how the idea may be correlated with all the 
rest of the curriculum. As I have before said, I fear that any such cut 
and dried treatment may take away the very naturalness and life of the 
movement and put out of sight the real kernel and highest purpose of 
the garden idea. 

Another claim is often made that through the gardening a business 
instinct is developed. Examples of bright boys selling products, cornering 
the market, getting control of the other boys' crops, etc., are set forth 
as results. It is not denied that thrift may be developed, but it is not 
necessary to use the school or home garden to teach the bright Yankee 
boy how to do a commercial trick. There is enough of this spirit in the 
air to make it sufficiently contagious. 

The real aim, it seems to me, is to create a love for the beautiful plant 
and shrub and to show the boy how to make a small plot of earth or yard 
serve as an economic aid to the home not only in supplying vegetables 
but also flowers and beautiful surroundings. Children's gardens are not 
for the sake of the school or the subjects in the curriculum, but for the 
more important institution, the home, and for the sake of the children 
themselves. We aim to develop patriotic citizens, but if a man loves his 
home it is not difficult to arouse his patriot spirit in time of war. It is 
a higher type of patriotism which makes a boy love his home enough to 
have a desire to make it beautiful and wholesome within and without. 
Teach a boy or girl how to make a back yard beautiful and fruitful, how 
to make and keep a fresh and even lawn with its boundary of shrubbery, 
and you will have aroused a new interest in the home and with it a cor- 
responding love therefor. 

A community made up of such individuals and such homes will be 
wholesome and beautiful. The character of any place depends so much 
upon its homes that any movement that tends toward their improvement 
will be worth the cosl . 

My word of warning, then, is to be certain that children's gardens are 
never introduced until sufficient preparation i> made to assure permanent 
success. Do not make the idea too pedagogical thus diverting attention 
and interest from the real and living aim which it seems to me is to interest 
the child in the possibilities and beauties of nature through a knowledge 
of vegetable and plant life; and. finally, utilizing this interest in beauti- 
fying the home and its surroundings. 

These experiences will not only react upon the character of the town 
but also upon the life and character of the individual boy and girl. 



218 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Ten Minutes in a Boy's Garden. 

BY MISS ELIZABETH S. HILL, DIRECTOR OF CHILDREN'S GARDENS AT BROOK- 
LINE AND GROTON, MASS. 

Property: 

Garden Tools, Garden Line, 

Overalls, Jumper, Hat, 

Model Garden. 

Dramatis Personae: 

E. S. Hill, Garden Director, 

Daniel Needham, Garden Worker. 

Scene: 
A Boy's Garden, 15 feet X 5 feet. 

{Enter Garden Director.) 

Garden Director: "I wonder where Daniel is; he is always so punc- 
tual." 
(Enter Daniel.) 

Garden Director: "Good morning, Daniel." 

Daniel (taking off hat): "Good morning, Miss Hill." 
(Looking garden over.) 

Garden Director: "How does your garden grow?" 

Daniel: "It grows all right. See how nice the rain made it look!" 

Garden Director: "Yes, 'twas just what it needed. Artificial water- 
ing never does so much good as the rain. Did you see anything on your 
way?" 

Daniel: "Oh, yes! I saw a little pink moth on an evening primrose. 
I could hardly tell it from the flower." 

Garden Director: "That is what is called 'protective coloration'. 
The evening primrose is a night blooming flower; the pink moth comes 
at that time to sip its nectar. In the morning, the flower closes, fading 
to a pink color, enclosing the little pink moth. It takes pretty sharp eyes 
to tell whether it is a moth or a petal. " 

Daniel: "I saw a handsome bird, all yellow but wings, tail and cap 
black. It went dipping through the air, singing, 'che che che che, che 
che che che'." 

Garden Director: "That was the goldfinch. He is a handsome bird, 
a great friend of the gardener. He is a weed seed eater, and one third 
of his food is injurious insects. They stay in flocks all winter, turn an 
olive brown color, and don their yellow dress when the dandelions begin 
to bloom. " 
(Both looking garden over, Daniel hoeing a little.) 



Tl 




TEN MINUTES IN A BOY's GARDEN. 219 

Daniel: "There aren't many weeds in the garden, are there? Had 1 
better hoe it?" 

Garden Director: "It is just as well to do so, as it makes the soil more 
porous, letting in sun, air, and water. Many German gardeners never 
use fertilizers, but keep the land thoroughly hoed. Have you written 
in your note book the amount of vegetables you expect to raise in your 
garden this year?" 
{Daniel opens note book.) 

Daniel: "Yes, Ma'am." (Reads.) 

"6 sunflowers, 24 ears of corn, 50 tomatoes, 15 quarts string beans, 52 
beets, 2 pecks beet greens, 250 radishes, 34 heads of lettuce, 1 peck small 
lettuce, 66 turnips, 2 pecks turnip greens, 3 cabbages, \ bushel spinach, 
many flowers." 

Daniel (looking up): "Do you want me to read what I did in the 
garden Tuesday? " 

Garden Director: "Yes, do." 

Daniel (reading): "Tuesday, July 28. Hoed corn. Thinned the 
beets. Took 1 peck of beet greens. Pulled 2 dozen radishes. 2 heads 
of lettuce, and picked some flowers. Sold one half on the way home. 
Ate the rest. I saw a dragon fly come out of his skin. He was clinging 
to the bridge. He was soft and flabby when he came out, but grew 
stiffer and stiffer, and at last flew away. He eats mosquitoes." (Daniel 
closes his note book and continues his hoeing.) 

Garden Director: "I am glad you saw that dragon fly; it is one of the 
most wonderful sights you will ever see. What have you done with most 
of your garden stuff?" 

Daniel: "What we haven't eaten. I've given away or sold. They 
say our beets are sweeter than those they buy at the market." 

Garden Director: "Good enough!" 
(Daniel finishes hoeing.) 

Garden Director: "Now you've hoed it all over, we'll transplant the 
lettuce, so the plants will be one foot apart, one foot from main row. and 
six inches from edge, — five plants transplanted." 

(Daniel takes garden line and jruasurcs 1 ft. from row of lettuce, wakes 
small holes every foot, transplants as he talks. Grabs and catches a beetle.) 
"Oh, see this beetle! it is the ground beetle, isn't it? Well, if I hadn't 
come to the garden, I shouldn't have known it. and should very likely 
have killed it. Now I know it is a friend that eats wire worms which 
destroy corn and other vegetal >les. " 

Garden Director: "Yes, he'i a very useful little creature. We'll let 
him go now." 

Daniel (puts down beetle)'. "See him run!" 

Garden Director: "Why do you suppose he mo quickly, while 

the June beetle goes so slowly 

Daniel: "Why. his food is animal, so he has to move lively to catch it. 
The June beetle eats vegetable, ^o does n't have to hurry." 



220 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Garden Director: "That's just the reason." 

Daniel (finishes transplanting his first head of lettuce. Looks at tomatoes). 
"Miss Hill, what kind of insects are these on the tomato plants? They 
jump like everything." 

Garden Director (examining leaves): "These are flea beetles. We 
must put on some lime. What kind of mouth parts do they have, if they 
are beetles?" 

Daniel (thinking a moment}: "Biting mouth parts." 

Garden Director: "Would you put on something to choke them or 
something for them to eat?" 

Daniel: "Something to eat, like lime, Paris green, or Bug Death." 

Garden Director: "What did we use to kill the aphids on the lettuce?" 

Daniel: "We used hot soap suds (takes out a lettuce plant and examines 
it) to choke them, as they have sucking mouth parts, and it has killed 
them as there are none on it now." (Puts lettuce into ground.) 

Garden Director: "So it has. Pat the earth round them good and 
hard." 

(Daniel takes another to transplant.) 

Garden Director: "I am going to give you a regular examination to- 
day. Now tell me about fertilizers. Why do we use them?" 

Daniel: "Because there are certain foods plants cannot easily get from 
the soil." 

Garden Director: "Yes, and some soil hasn't the proper food, so we 
have to supply it. Let us go straight through the garden, and see what 
each plant neects." (Both look at sunflowers.) 

Daniel: "Sunflowers need nitrogen for the growth of leaves and stem. 
Corn, nitrogen for quick stocky growth, and potash and phosphorus for the 
maturity and growth of fruit. Tomato plants also need potash and phos- 
phorus for the growth of fruit." 

Garden Director: "How did you raise these tomato plants?" 

Daniel: "I planted the seed in the house in March, in a twelve-inch 
square box, in two inches of rich soil. When a few inches high, I thinned 
them to three inches apart. They grew like everything, and I put them 
out the first of June." 

Garden Director: "You raised some very nice plants. What kind of 
food do beans need?" 

Daniel: "Phosphorus and potash for maturing fruit. Beets and rad- 
ishes need potash for the growth of the roots, and lettuce needs nitrogen 
for the growth of the leaves." (Transplants fourth plant.) 

Garden Director: "You remember that pretty well. How did we 
find what phosphates the land needed?" 

Daniel: "By experimenting with pure fertilizers." (Takes out fifth 
plant. Looking up.) I saw a crow pulling corn this morning." 

Garden Director: "I know the crows pull corn. What is the rhyme 
we say when we plant corn?" 



TEX MINUTES IN A BOY's GARDEN. 221 

Daniel: "One for the blackbird, one for the crow, 
Two for the cutworm, and two to grow.'' 

Garden Director: "How many are allowed for the crow?" 

Daniel: "One." 

Garden Director: "How many for the cutworm?" 

Daniel: "Two." 

Garden Director: "Which is worse, the crow or cutworms?" 

Daniel: "Cutworm." 

Garden Director: "The crow eats thousands of cutworms, so he is a 
friend as well as a foe." 

Daniel (putting in last head of lettuce). "There! this is the last one." 

Garden Director: "You've transplanted them very neatly. Next 
week you may take out all the radishes, and transplant three cabbages 
into their place. Why do you suppose we put cabbages in the place of 
radishes?" 

Daniel: "I don't know." 

Garden Director: "Because the second crop should be totally unlike 
the first. Cabbages are grown for their leaves, and need a different food 
from the radishes, which are grown for their roots. What shall we plant 
in place of beans?" 

Daniel: "Might plant spinach, because spinach is grown for leaves, 
and beans for fruit, and use a different food.'* 

Garden Director: "Yes, and do you remember that we inoculated the 
beans with nitrogen collecting bacteria, and nitrogen is what spinach 
needs? We will put in spinach seed today, two feet from the beets, cover 
thinly, and pat down well." 

(Daniel measures two feet from beets, takes line, stretches it, steps on it so 
that tfie row may be straight, puts in tin seed, and corns about one-half inch.) 

Garden Director: "Later, turnips may take the place of lettuce, as 
they need different food. That will give a good rotation of crops." 

(Daniel picks uj) tools.) 

Garden Director: "The judges were in the garden yesterday. They 
say your garden is all right; that it shows care, neatness, and a good knowl- 
edge of gardening." 

Daniel: "Well, 1 'm clad they like it. but 1 'm not working for a prize, 
but because I like to have a little garden of my own." 

Garden Director: "That's the true garden spirit. You've dene well 
today. Don't forget to clean your tool-. Good-bye, Daniel." 

Daniel {doffing hat): "Good-bye, Mi- Hill." 

Exit. 



222 massachusetts horticultural society. 

Report of the Cobbet School Garden, Lynn, Mass. 

BY PHILIP EMERSON, PRINCIPAL. 

First Prize, 1905. 



We herein make report upon the Cobbet School gardens for the year 
1905 now drawing to a close ; and we are happy that we can report nota- 
ble advances in the development of our plans., Photographs of the garden 
and papers illustrating the relation of the gardens to ordinary school work 
accompany the report. 

The garden continues to expand. The past spring the last of the two 
hundred dollars' worth of soil was placed in generously deep trenches along 
remaining borders of the yards. The great pile of stones, gravel, and ashes 
excavated by the boys to make room for soil is soon to be removed by the 
city. This autumn the garden has spread beyond the school bounds. A 
large propagating bed for hardy perennial flowering plants has been made 
and planted in one neighbor's yard next the boys' playground, while an 
eighth-acre of sod in the yard adjoining the girls' playground is about to 
be manured and ploughed for use in individual plots next spring. 

Training in garden work continues to broaden until it is now active at 
all seasons. During the past summer the garden was thoroughly cul- 
tivated and weeded throughout the vacation season under the principal's 
immediate supervision. Seeds have been planted during every month 
from Apiil to October and every bed has been constantly occupied. The 
harvest commenced in May and will not be fully marketed until December. 
When the season opened a two-sash cold frame was in use. This Septem- 
ber the School Committee built the frames for ten more sash, while the 
sash themselves were bought with receipts from the sale of school garden 
products. The frames are now full of seedlings of hardy* perennials (over 
sixty varieties) and of salad crops that will mature at Christmas. In the 
school basement a mushroom bed is being started under the guidance of a 
successful amateur and this will continue the harvest until slips and seed- 
lings for another year's gardens fill the class room windows. 

Our school gardens are respected as never before. Hostile criticism 
has ceased and the interest and approval of citizens is more marked. 
Moreover, while many flowers and vegetables were stolen last year, there 
have been almost no depredations during the present season, although 
the products have been more tempting. Past perseverance has been 
rewarded and the value of patient continuance in well doing has been 
effectively taught the pupils. 



MASS. HORT. SOC, 1905 



PLATE 5 







Hardy Perennials: Cobbett School Garden. 



THE COBBET SCHOOL GARDEN. 223 

The school garden plant is becoming a paying investment from a mone- 
tary standpoint as well as educationally. During the three years preced- 
ing this we have solicited gifts of money, tools, plants, and seeds, and 
have incurred a heavy debt for soil. This year we have paid for supplies 
costing over thirty dollars with receipts from the sale of garden products 
at ordinary market prices, and plan to apply a considerable balance to- 
ward cancelling our debt for soil. Last year some three dollars was re- 
ceived from the incidental sale of products; the sales of hardy plants, 
bulbs, cutflowers. and vegetables this season bid fair to amount to nearly 
fifty dollars although the sales are still distinctly incidental to the main 
educational purpose of the gardens. We believe it to be clearly desirable 
that a school garden should become self-supporting in order that it may 
give the broadest and most practical training to the pupils. 

Progress has been made in every department of the garden. A brief 
account follows of the several phases of our work: typical beds of vege- 
tables and herbs, large plots of native plants, beds for bulbs and annual 
flowers, a space for commercial plants for geographical specimens, vines 
for school decoration, an "old-fashioned" garden of hardy perennials, 
and cold frames and beds for multiplying plants for prize distribution and 
sale in our city. 

Every one of the seventeen classes was given the care of one or more 
plots this spring. Unabated enthusiasm in spading, manuring, and seed- 
ing was shown. Indeed, the soil of many beds was sifted this year in the 
desire of every group of boys and girls to do as thorough work as their 
fellows could. When harvests commenced there was keen rivalry to 
purchase portions of the products, and fancy prices might have been 
secured had we thought it wise. A great variety of vegetables has been 
raised that the children may come to know them and the culture they 
need. We have sold several kinds of lettuce and radishes; string, shell. 
and lima beans; tomatoes and strawberry tomatoes; Swiss chard and 
peppergrass; sage and other herbs; sweet corn, potatoes, beets, kohlrabi, 
onions and scullions; curled chervil, squashes, and rhubarb. Turnips, 
parsnips, salsify, and carrots are now ready to be harvested and sold. 
Spinach, kale, endive and corn salad are still growing thriftily in open 
beds and cold frames. There have been a few failures: the crop of cab- 
bages, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower is much inferior to that of last 
year because the bed they are growing in is shaded by a tree and its mois- 
ture and fertility are Bapped l>y tree roots this season, Only one of the 
dwarf sieve beans germinated; okra was planted too late for a good crop; 
a second planting of sweet corn did not quite attain maturity before severe 
frosts came. The strawberry bed ami the row of bush fruits are now 
thriving. Somewhat less space ha-- been given to vegetables than last 
year, but more varied and better products have been raised. 

The garden of native plants has been maintained and its development 

along established lines continued. We find that the sunken tubs for 



224 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

swamp and pond plants serve to keep the soil about them moist also. Such 
shrubs as willows and button bush have been planted near them, along 
with moisture-loving herbs and sedges. In one tub there is a clump of cat- 
o-nine-tails and tall bog rushes with the lance-leaved white violet, marsh 
marigold and like flowers growing luxuriantly about its base. Some of 
the plants that are not native to Lynn which were added last year, like the 
mandrake and twisted stalk, are doing well, and a handsome western 
rudbeckia is spreading like a weed near the little pond. The new bed 
devoted to ferns is being gradually developed with special care that soil 
and drainage be right. Press of other garden work still precludes the 
accurate mapping of the wild garden beds with their nearly three hundred 
native species of shrubs, vines, herbs, grasses, sedges, and ferns. This 
year seeds of some of the more desirable native plants have been collected 
and a number of species are being raised from seed. It is planned to train 
the children thereby so that they may both grow native plants in home 
gardens and so that they shall lovingly protect flowers in their native 
haunts. 

Two beds were again devoted to spring flowering bulbs and to annuals. 
These give opportunity to train pupils in the proper care of the flowers 
most commonly used in home gardens. Some twenty annuals were grown 
this year. Another bed was once more used for the grains, fiber plants, 
and the like. Exhibits from these beds were awarded first prizes *by the 
Houghton Horticultural Society. We plan another year to grow many 
named varieties of one or two annuals, to impress upon the children the 
possibilities in this direction. Similarly the bed used for a variety of com- 
mercial plants hitherto, will be planted with a large range of the more 
important fodder crops. The vines on the south wall of the school house 
have been protected so that they are now mounting rapidly toward the 
eaves. Deep emplacements of soil have been made along the street front 
of the buildings, and vines are being raised from seed to be set out another 
spring. 

The most marked advance of the present year has been in the depart- 
ment of hardy perennial flowering plants. In the spring one large bed 
was devoted to divisions and seedlings, and this work has been greatly 
-extended as the season progressed. It is our aim to propagate hardy 
plants for distribution as prizes to the children having successful home 
gardens; for exchange with amateurs and with nurserymen that the variety 
of hardy plants in the school garden may be increased; and for sale to the 
citizens, both for the support of the school garden work and for the beauti- 
fying of the home grounds of the city. To further the latter purpose a 
catalogue of the hardy plants ready for sale was prepared by the use of 
illustrations and descriptions cut from trade catalogues. We have been 
too busy to press sales or even to circulate the catalogue thus far this 
autumn, but one sale of ten dollars' worth of plants has been made and 
others for smaller amounts. We believe a large field of civic usefulness 



THE COBBET SCHOOL GARDEN. 225 

is open to a school garden in this line. Our catalogue accompanies this 
report and details the scope of our plans, their method and purposes. 

The quality of our work is attested by the exchanges we have readily 
arranged, not only with citizens who have fine gardens, but also with pro- 
fessional gardeners and nurserymen. Mr. Goodwin, the florist, whose 
greenhouses adjoin the school yard noticed the Helenium and Boltonia 
in our propagating bed and asked that he might purchase several clumps 
of each sort. Two clumps of Pulmonaria saccharata maculata were formed 
by division in the spiing, and this fall they were exchanged at the well- 
known Reading Nurseries for ten species of hardy plants to the catalogue 
value of $1.50. 

While some spaces in the hardy garden were filled this year with gladioli, 
montbretias, tigridias and like bulbs, these will have to be placed in another 
bed next spring, their places being taken by a variety of hardy plants. 
Not only are new hardy plants being introduced to fill vacant places, 
inferior varieties are being removed to make space for the best obtainable 
forms. For example, most of our clumps of phlox were old-fashioned 
varieties from Lynn gardens, vigorous plants but of sober colors. By 
purchase and exchange we have secured the best to replace them and have 
also started over fifty clumps of five sorts in our new nursery bed. The 
old clumps have been divided and have been awarded to pupils in the dis- 
trict where gardens are few and where the hardiest of plants are necessary 
for the best results. Similarly some fifty clumps of bulbs of the ordinary 
show and pompon dahlias will be divided another spring for use in the 
same district. Some of the finest cactus, fancy, and decorative varieties 
have been secured to replace them. In time the superior varieties now 
being introduced in all lines will be ready for prize distribution in their 
turn. We here wish to acknowledge a generous gift of canna and iris bulbs 
from the Hunnewell estate. Wellesley, through the gardener, Mr. T. D. 
Hatfield. 

The school garden not only supplies plants for home gardens but stimu- 
lates and trains the pupils to plant individual gardens and to improve their 
home grounds. As last year, many dollars' worth of seeds were purchased 
for the children in cent packages, and we have commenced t he policy of 
buying the most popular sorts in pound lots and retailing them at cost in 
quantities to suit the children. During the present week the children of 
the building, over eight hundred in number, have written stories of their 
home gardens for the year; and if the committee desires 1 will forward all 
or a selection of hundreds or dozens of papers to you. As an example oi 
this work, which is really part and parcel of the BChool garden plan-. 1 
record the effort toward home yard improvement of two little boy- who 
were in our school last Bpring but arc now in the next ward. Their parents 
were born "within the pale 11 in Russian Poland and their home i- in a 
dreary, cheerless building in a poor quarter, while the little back yard, 
strewn with stones, broken glass and tin- about a dilapidated OUthoUSC 



226 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. ' 

would have discouraged most adults from any attempt at a garden. The 
boys got a sieve, sifted all the dirt and removed the coarse waste, just as 
some classes were doing at school with the stones in the soil of their plots. 
Sweet corn was planted, with flowering vines to clamber over the rough 
board fence and the shed. A rude fence was built to protect the bit of 
garden. Despite all discouragements a good crop of corn was raised that 
greatly pleased their parents, and the flowers were still in bloom when the 
writer visited the home in October. Such results pay. The report of 
Joseph Perkins to your committee in the children's garden competition, 
and that of Arthur Richardson enclosed herewith show the results of three 
years of school garden work as reproduced in the gardens of two ninth 
grade boys at their summer homes. Master Richardson sent the principal 
in September a basket containing remarkably fine specimens of a dozen 
sorts of vegetables that proved truly excellent on the table. 

The school garden is closely related to class room work in many ways, 
as illustrated by the drawings and written work of all grades and classes 
which we send you herewith. Thereby the school garden is enabled to 
reproduce itself in hundreds of children's gardens. Last year a definite 
series of lessons on garden soils was worked out with experiments, teaching, 
and text. This was reviewed the present season, and was followed by 
garden instruction and texts on the common root crops, evidence of 
which will be noted in the written work herewith. Several classes under- 
took a special study of weeds also. Our reports in previous years outline 
in some detail the relations of garden work to the course of study, so 
that no further statement is needed here. This autumn, however, a new 
step has been taken in advance. The girls of the eighth grade take cooking 
one session a fortnight. During these periods groups of boys from the 
same grade are regularly taken by the principal for systematic instruction 
in gardening. The work comprises class room instruction, experiments 
with plants, all forms of work with plants in the gardens, care of plants 
in the schoolhouse and cold frames, readings on gardening, related written 
work and drawing; and every boy is expected to carry on gardening at 
his home that shall parallel and apply the work and instruction taken at 
school. 

Finally the Cobbet School gardens have proved their merit by their 
influence upon the community. Among teachers and parents, as well 
as with the children, they have so renewed and increased interest in horti- 
culture that a new enthusiasm and energy have been awakened in the 
Houghton Horticultural Society at Lynn. Its present increased member- 
ship, broadened work, and improved financial condition are measurably 
due to influences springing from the garden at the Cobbet School. To 
fulfill a duty to a yet larger public, an account of "The Evolution of a 
School Garden and Its Ideals" was prepared for publication and has 
been accepted by the editors of the New England Magazine for their 
columns. 

October 28, 1905. 



MASS. HORT. SOC, 1905 



PLATE 6 




The Tomato Crop: Children's Garden Groton, Mass. 



the groton children's garden. 227 

Report of the Mill Garden, Groton, Mass. 

BY MISS ELIZABETH SEWALL HILL, DIRECTOR. 

Second Prize, 1905. 



The Mill Garden of Groton was started in 1904, under the auspices of 
the Groton Village Improvement Society. It is on private property 
loaned for the use of the children, and is prettily situated being bordered 
with pines and spruces. The lot is 180 by 42 feet and the soil is good and 
easily worked. The individual gardens are 42 by 12 feet accommodating 
fifteen workers from five to sixteen years of age. 

The children have met twice a week with an instructor; Wednesdays 
after school and Saturdays, from May 1 to September 25. Gardening is 
their pastime and they wished they might meet every day in the week. 
They kept the ground so well weeded that it was difficult to find one 
all the summer through. Everything was learned by observation and 
jotted down in a notebook. An ant was seen rubbing off its wings; a 
hellgramite was caught and studied its life through; everything of in- 
terest, and that meant everything, was noticed with enthusiasm, studied, 
and talked about. 

With the six dollars awarded last year by the Massachusetts Horti- 
cultural Society were bought a good wheelbarrow, six large iron rakes, 
and three sets of tools. The gardens were laid out by the children under 
the instruction of the director. Insects and birds were studied and beans 
were inoculated with the nitrogen bacteria sent out by the Department 
of Agriculture. The peanuts were more successful than last year although 
not a very tremendous crop has yet been raised. 

An exhibition of the garden products, in connection with the other 
gardens of the town, was held at the Town Fair in the fall. Prizes have 
been given for the best gardens, the judges marking in accordance with 
the following points: 

General condition, 
Rows out to path. 
Well-thinned vegetables, 
Nothing wasted, 
No weeds, 
Behavior. 

These children are ideal gardeners, not only in their work but in even- 
other way. They are bright, well-behaved, and appreciate evervthinc 



228 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

that is'done for them. The total product of the garden during the season 
■\vas ? as follows: 

Corn, 200. Carrots, 3500. 

Cucumbers, 30. Beets, 2500. 

Squashes. 6 winter, 60 summer. Radishes, 15.000. 

Pumpkins, 27. Lettuce, 6000. 

Melons, 12. Beet greens, 50 pecks. 

Potatoes, 24 hills. Turnip greens, 50 pecks. 

Tomatoes, 30 plants. Sweet alyssum, 180 feet. 

Beans, 30 quarts. Zinnias, 180 feet. 

Peas, 50 quarts. Cal. poppies, 180 feet. 

Peanuts, 45 plants. Petunias, 180 feet. 

Turnips, 3000. Nasturtium, 180 feet. 



Report of the Lincoln School Garden, Brookline, Mass. 

BY MISS ELIZABETH SEWALL HILL, GARDEX DIRECTOR. 

Third Prize, 1905. 



The Lincoln School garden was started in 1903 by the Brookline Edu- 
cational Society and in the present year was connected with the Lincoln 
School under the School Committee. It is situated on private property 
at the corner of Boylston and Cypress streets. It is not a desirable piece 
of land either in shape or in the character of the soil. It is deficient in 
nitrogen as was proved by the experiment with inoculated beans; no 
nodules being formed even then. It is, however, the nearest available 
plot to the school. The dimensions of this garden are 125 by 76 feet, 
•divided into 68 lots, 15 by 5 feet. 

Gardening was made a regular study and all work was done in school 
hours. During May and June at ten o'clock a class of about twenty boys 
was sent to the basement where the tools were hung in a row in sets of a 
hoe, rake, shovel, and trowel. They would take these and march up to 
the garden for one hour's work. 

During the vacation many more children wanted gardens than could 
be accommodated and 167 different children worked in them although 
•only one-half owned a garden. 

Material for study in the class room was taken from the gardens, plants 
were potted and taken home, and some were placed in the school rooms. 
The dry weather for several weeks caused much anxiety and the soil was 
like powder. The seeds could not germinate but by constant working 
;and watering they got through with very little harm. 



THE BROOKLINE SCHOOL GARDENS. 229 

There were many visitors to the gardens: parents, friends, teachers, and 
others especially interested in the work. 

An exhibition of children's garden products was held in the hall of the 
school, most of the work of arrangement being done by the children 
themselves. Ten tables averaging fifteen feet in length were closely 
packed with the exhibits and if more tables had been available they 
would have been used to advantage. In two days about four hundred 
people inspected the exhibit. Thirty-two prizes consisting of new fifty 
and twenty-five cent pieces were awarded for the best flowers and vege- 
tables, nine of which were won by children connected with the garden 
of the Lincoln School. 



Report of the Sewall School Gardex, Brooklixe, Mass. 

BY MISS ELIZABETH SEWALL HILL, GARDEX DIRECTOR. 

Honorary Mention. 1905. 



In 1903 the Sewall School garden was started by the Brookline Edu- 
cational Society but is now under the direction of the School Board, the 
town contributing about one-half of the cost of maintenance. 

It is situated on private grounds opposite the school building and is 
137 by 50 feet in size. It is flat, easy to lay out, and every child in the 
school, 168 in all, had a garden. In the garden season the teacher took 
her whole class out and helped in the planting. 

At the garden exhibition these gardens received nine prizes; each 
child picked, arranged, and carried his own flowers and vegetables. Thou- 
sands of flowers were picked every day; some sent to sick friends; some 
to adorn the class room; and some to take home. 

These children are always eager for their garden work and have been 
faithful, helpful, and well behaved. There was a great gain in good 
behavior in the schools this year and it was attributed by the teachers 
to the garden work. 



230 massachusetts horticultural society. 

Report of the Fairhaven School Gardens. 

BY ANNA BAILEY TROWBRIDGE. 

Honorary Mention, 1905. 



The year 1905 brings to a close the most successful season in the history 
of the school gardens of Fairhaven, Massachusetts. 

Established three years ago as an experiment, these gardens have now 
become a part of the education of the boys and girls in the sixth and seventh 
grammar grades; the increasing interest of the children with the attendant 
gratifying results seems to warrant the maintenance of this work as a per- 
manent feature in the school curriculum of the future. 

Some changes were made this season which tended to improve the con- 
ditions of the gardens as a whole. Each child was granted two plots of 
ground fifteen feet long by four feet wide, with a division between each 
bed two feet in width; this gave each boy and girl more soil to cultivate, 
with a double reward of vegetables and flowers over returns of previous 
seasons. Last year the luxuriant growth of flowers, as the summer ad- 
vanced, rendered some of the paths quite impassable, so this season this 
difficulty was obviated by laying out all general paths three feet in width. 

Early in the spring, after the ground had been ploughed and harrowed, 
the young gardeners staked off their lots and prepared the soil for the 
reception of the seed. The method of planting, by a rope, was the same 
as last year, and on the 10th of May the first row of boys and girls had 
finished depositing their seeds and were busy cleaning up the surroundings 
of their little plots. While these children had been occupied with their 
planting, the little tillers of the soil in the second and third rows had not 
been idle; gardens had been spaded, fertilized and raked, and eyes were 
eager to catch glimpses of a first radish leaf or bla.de of corn. On the 17th 
of May the last of the sixty beds was sown, and the first row of gardens 
showed signs of germination. 

One half of each garden plot, as shown in the accompanying drawing, 
was devoted to such vegetables as corn, lettuce, peas, beans, beets, carrots 
and radishes, while the other half, as the season advanced, was aglow with 
nasturtiums (dwarf), zinnias, verbenas, phlox, ageratum, marigolds, sweet 
alyssum, etc. 

The work on the gardens, as in the past, was carried on outside of school 
hours, so on Saturday mornings or after school at night, could be found a 
group of earnest workers, busy weeding, transplanting, hoeing or raking 
as conditions required. Through the summer vacation the little farms 
were visited regularly by their owners, tended carefully, and baskets of 



MASS. HORT. SOC, 1905 



PLATE J 



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East Walk 



-- radishes — 

Corn 
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— lettuce 

-carrots 

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beets 

beans 

-z+nnias — 
-mignonette--- 
-Aasfucti umb— 
---"Verbenas-- 
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Individual R/pi/s 
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fair(iav/en School Gardens 



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THE FAIRHAVEN SCHOOL GARDEN. 231 

fresh vegetables were carried home, either to sell to numerous patrons, or 
to garnish the family table. 

While friends have enjoyed the fragrance of the great variety of flowers, 
many an invalid's room has been brightened by the glow of a bunch of 
nasturtiums or stately zinnias. 

Note books containing descriptions of how the children prepared the 
soil, method of planting, dates of sowing and harvesting have been dili- 
gently kept by the boys and girls. One little pupil writes, "On July 12, 
1905, I took thirteen good sized heads of lettuce, seven turnips, about one 
quart of peas, and also picked a large bouquet of candytuft and bachelor's 
buttons." Other books relate similar experiences. 

The native ferns, which were brought to the school gardens last spring, 
pushed out from the soil strong and vigorous this year, in spite of the 
sunny corner in which they were located. Partly to conceal the outlines 
■of an old fence and partly to shade the fern corner some of the native 
shrubs, such as varieties of viburnum, common elder and others which 
the boys brought from the neighboring woods, were planted. This wild 
garden, which now contains nine varieties of our common ferns and a few 
.shrubs, is at present only a nucleus which we hope will be added to as the 
years go on. 

Throughout the entire season this garden spot has attracted many 
visitors — strangers as well as friends — whose words of commendation 
were expressed for the order, neatness, and regularity which prevailed, 
as well as for the beauty and luxuriance. 

The true worth and value of these school gardens have been demonstrated 
perhaps, this year, more than ever before. 

In the spring of 1905 the Fairhaven Improvement Society offered prizes 
to boys and girls who would maintain flower gardens at their homes 
during the summer months. As a result of this offer eighty little people 
entered the competition. Many of these children had been nature students 
in the school gardens and, with the knowledge and experience there 
gained, were enabled to better understand the best method and most 
artistic manner of beautifying the home grounds, and whatever adds to 
the attractiveness of home environment tends to make each and every 
community a "Village Beautiful." 

Thus the influence of the Fairhaven school gardens has already become 
far reaching. 



232 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Children's Home Garden Reports. 



BY ROGER NEWTON PERRY, WORCESTER, MASS. 

(11 years old.) First Prize, 1905. 

My papa let me have a little land, 44 by 25 feet. He let me use the 
horse and plow to begin my garden. This was April 1. 

Last fall the ground was covered with horse manure. I plowed this 
in, then took my spade, rake, and hoe and made the ground smooth. 
This took me a long time for I got tired after working a while. 

I made me a hotbed out of an old window and frame, 2 by 3 feet, putting 
horse manure into it first and then dirt. Grandpa gave me my seeds. 

April 22 I sowed cabbage, lettuce, and tomato seed in my hotbed. 
April 19 sowed sweet peas two inches deep, and radishes one-half inch. 
April 24 sowed Gradus peas two and one-half inches deep and two rows 
of beets one inch deep. April 29 planted corn, six kernels in a hill, and 
sowed parsley, parsnip, and turnip seeds two and one-half inches deep. 

May 4 planted potatoes. I cut my potatoes leaving two eyes on a 
piece and planted one piece in a hill. May 15 set cabbage and lettuce 
raised in my hotbed and planted, in hills, my pole beans. I put a pole 
six feet high to each hill. 

June 6 sold my radishes and thinned my beets. June 15 chickens got 
out and ate my lettuce up. Oh! but I was mad. June 29 ate first beet 
from my garden. 

July 25 dug trench a foot deep, put in three inches manure, covered 
over four inches of dirt, and set in celery plants that grandpa gave me. 
I banked it with dirt to the leaves when it was six inches high; as fast as 
it grew I kept it banked. 

My papa bought the cornstalks for the horses. I raised my vegetables 
to sell and not for exhibition. I have made $9.91 on my garden and put 
this money in the bank. I hope the others have done as well. 

October 16, 1905, 




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children's home gardens. 233 

My Home Garden at Hamilton. 

BY ARTHUR F. RICHARDSON, NINTH GRADE, COBBETT SCHOOL, LYNN. 

Second Prize, 1905. 

Last spring, on April 19, my father bought a cottage in the country. 

The first thing I did was to try to rid the long narrow strip we were to 
use as a garden of witch grass and stones. After hiring a man to plough, 
harrow, and furrow, I took the tufts that had been thrown one side, 
shook all the soil out, buried some deep and some I carried to another 
part of the grounds, leaving them upturned to rot. My father bought 
me a quarter of a cord of old stable manure which I put in each row or 
hill just before planting. Over this put a little soil, the seeds, more 
soil, and almost at the top. a little dry fertilizer. 

About half way, I dug a trench taking out all the loam and gravel 
about three feet down, rilled up the trench with the very numerous stones 
I took out. sifted ashes in between, and brought several wheelbarrow 
loads of gravel from a pit near by; making a fine solid walk through the 
centre of the garden. 

May 1 I planted one row of low growing Excelsior peas that had been 
soaked an hour, using a line with a stick at either end so that the row 
would be straight. The following Saturday some were, up, but not 
finding them thick enough to suit me I pushed down some more peas 
in the same row. Also planted lettuce, cucumbers. Black Wax. and 
Six Weeks beans. 

I enriched and raked a long bed for the school flower seed-, beets, and 
lettuce. This bed I made very fine, working: in the manure and fertilizer 
with my hands. Planted the seeds in short rows the width of a board 
apart. The board I also used to make my rows straight. Directly in 
front of the pump I planted sweet peas so that they might catch all the 
waste water. Several times during the summer I dug in wood ashes about 
the roofs, producing a great quantity of flowers. 

The beets, kohlrabi, and four kind- of tomato plant- were given me. 
I was careful to dip their roots in water before transplanting using only 
the dry fertilizer for the tomatoes which I set about a foot and a half apart. 
I did not support them except with a hay mulch after the fruit began to 
turn. Some one suggested planting squashes in the ccntor of each hill in 
the first row of corn, as there was a large empty field for them to run in. 
This proved wise, for we matured and ripened nineteen handsome squashes 
as well as had the usual amount of corn in that row. 

I continued planting and hoeing for several Saturdays. If being my 
first carden I was determined no weeds should hurt the looks or take the 



234 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

goodness from the soil, but at first it seemed as if witch grass and stones 
grew faster than crops. The small striped yellow bug that appeared on 
the cucumbers and squashes I powdered every morning early, with bug 
death. I found this made them grow as well. Cutworms troubled the 
peas and flowers. Those I hunted and killed. 

In June an avalanche of rose bugs attacked us, doing great damage to 
everything. We picked them off by hundreds. After a few days they 
disappeared leaving the foliage of the beans a sorry sight. I made a mis- 
take planting sunflowers with pole beans as the sunflowers took all the 
richness from the soil. July 1 we ate our first products of the garden, 
half a peck of peas, from then on every day we had some vegetables from 
the garden, picking the last string beans on October 1, from a late planting. 

I used a coarse rake to hoe the peas with at first. When they reached 
maturity I pulled up the vines, spread them on top of the compost heap, 
turning it all frequently during the summer. The poorest land I used for 
the potatoes. Next year I shall plant less corn and more potatoes because 
they did well this year with so very little attention. 

I shall also plant chard as soon as I pull up the pea vines. 



BY FRANK E. GRIFFIN, AYER, MASS. 

Third Prize, 1905. 

My garden was 18 by 48 feet. First I had it plowed and then furrowed; 
then I fixed beds for the lettuce and turnips and put some fertilizer on the 
soil and mixed it in well; then I put four or five seeds in a hill or I scattered 
them along in the beds; then I raked the seeds into the soil and fertilizer. 
My beds and hills were about four or five inches above my paths. 

I planted my garden on the 30th of May; being so dry it did n't come 
up until about three weeks after, and my cucumbers had to be planted 
again. I had a little difficulty in keeping the weeds out because they 
seemed to want to grow better then they should. 

I had to transplant my lettuce, marigolds, and asters, and I also trans- 
planted my poppies as I got the envelopes which the seeds were in mixed. 
I had five dozen of corn, twenty heads of lettuce, twenty-four cucumbers, 
one-half bushel turnips, and one bushel tomatoes. 

My flowers did n't need much care except a little weeding and watering 
now and then. They were in the shade in the afternoon and got the morn- 
ing sun. 

October 28, 1905. 



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children's home gardens. 235 

BY JOSEPH MANNING PERKINS, LYNN, MASS. 

(15 years of age.) 

My garden is at Middleton, Mass. I go there every summer so I have 
a good chance to care for my garden. This year I kept a diary and put 
in it a full account of the work I did in my garden. 

About the first of April I plowed the ground with a hand plow. After- 
ward I leveled it off with a rake, picked out all the stones and roots and 
made a stone border between the garden and the road. 

I planted my peas, lettuce, radishes, and sage on April 8, 1905. I was 
careful not to plant them too thick or too deep. I watered the whole 
garden with the hose. In two weeks my peas were an inch high. On 
Saturday, May 6 our woods got afire and when the neighbors came to help 
put it out they walked over part of my garden. After the fire was out I 
hoed the earth around the peas and thinned the lettuce and radishes. 
Some of my radishes were ready to eat by May 20. My peas were ready 
to eat by the first of July and I had about a peck from my garden. 

The limited space I could have prevented me from planting corn or 
potatoes. I had all the radishes and lettuce we could use. I had ninety- 
six healthy sage plants and they yielded sage enough to make twenty-five 
or thirty large bunches which I shall sell at Thanksgiving time at five cents 
a bunch. 

My folks have promised me a larger garden next spring where I shall 
plant all kinds of vegetables. 

October 28, 1905. 



My Garden- 

BY FRANK A. WOODS, GROTON, MASS. 

(Nine years of age.) 

I want to tell you about my two gardens. My home garden is twenty 
feet long and fifteen feet wide. The rows are four feet long ami eight 
inches apart; this is planted with flowers such M two kinds of golden 
glow, hardy phlox (pink and white), rosebushes, pansies, wallflowi 
balsams, verbenas, asters, snapdragons, nasturtiums, morning gloi 
and a few geraniums. The remainder i> planted with BostOD marrow 
squashes of which I raised 350 pounds. 

My school garden is twenty feet long and sixteen feet wide; this I had 
planted with radishes, parsnips, carrot-, turnips, pumpkins, summer 
squashes, Hubbard squashes, muskmelons, watermelons, cucumbei 
pole beans, lettuce, onion- and tomatoes. These row- are eight 

inches apart. 



236 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Prizes and Gratuities Awarded, 1905. 



SCHOOL GARDENS. 

Cobbett School, Lynn, Mass., first prize 

Mill Garden. Groton, Mass.. second prize 

Lincoln School, Brookline, Mass., third prize 

Fairhaven Schools, Fairhaven, Mass., Honorary Mention 

Sewall School, Brookline, Mass., Honorary Mention. 



$12 00 

10 00 

8 00 



HOME GARDENS. 

Roger N. Perry, Worcester, first prize . 
Arthur F. Richardson, Lynn, second prize 
Frank E. Griffin, Ayer, third prize 
Henry L. Brown. Ayer. fourth prize 
Joseph M. Perkins, Lynn, fifth prize . 
Harold H. Woods, Groton, sixth prize 
Harold White, Reading, seventh prize 
Harold Danforth, Reading, eighth prize 
Frank A. Woods, Groton, ninth prize . 
John A. Loring, Reading, tenth prize . 



So 00 



4 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


1 00 


50 


50 


50 


50 



CHILDREN S HERBARIUMS. 

Ruth H. Bird, 24 flowering plants 

Edna F. Bowles, flowering plants 

Lilla Brodie, 38 flowering plants .... 

Edna Chaffin, flowering plants, leaf sprays, and ferns 

Una Chaffin, flowering plants and ferns 

Austin W. Cheever, flowering plants, grasses, and sedges 

Ruth W. Fisher, flowering plants and ferns 

M. Isabel Floyd, flowering plants 

Helen E. James, flowering plants 

Agnes Johnson, flowering plants . . . 

Lois A. Leavitt, flowering plants and ferns . 

Lincoln School, Brookline, collection of insects . 

Slanyd Markoe, ferns . . 

Gladys A. Mason, flowering plants 

Sewall School, Brookline, collection of .garden weeds 

Frances L. Webb, flowering plants 

Irving N. Whittier, flowering plants . 

Barbara Williams, flowering plants 

Louise F. Zirngiebel, ferns ..... 



S 



50 
50 
1 14 
8 30 
5 75 
53 
85 
50 
32 
50 
55 
00 
95 
85 
50 
48 
47 
78 
10 



AWARDS OF PRIZES. 237 

NATIVE PLANTS AND FERNS. 

April 29. 

native plants. — Collection of 40 bottles of named species and varieties, 
one bottle of each: 
1st, Mrs. Arthur Clark, So; 2d, Miss Isabelle C. Shattuck, S4. 

June 3-4. 
native plants. — Collection of 40 bottles of named species and varieties, 
one bottle of each: 
1st. Mrs. Arthur Clark, So; 2d. Grade S, Franklin School, East Wey- 
mouth, $4. 

June 24-25. 
native plants. — Collection of 40 bottles of named species and varieties, 
one bottle of each: 
1st. Miss Isabelle C. Shattuck. So; 2d. Mrs. Arthur Clark, S4. 

July 8-9. 
native plants. — Collection of 40 bottles of named species and varieties, 
one bottle of each: 
1st. Miss Isabelle C. Shattuck. So; 2d. Mrs. Arthur Clark. S4. 

July 22. 
native ferns. — Collection of named species and varieties: 
1st. Miss Isabelle C. Shattuck, $5; 2d, Chester C. Kingman, $4. 

Gratuity: 
Geo. E. Davenport, Display of ferns not entered for prize. S3. 

August 12. 
native plants. — Collection of 40 bottles of named species and varieties, 
one bottle of each: 
1st. Miss Isabelle C. Shattuck. $5; 2d. Chester C. Kingman, $4. 

September 14-17. 
native plants. — Collection of 40 bottles of named species and variet 
one bottle of each: 
1st. Chester C. Kingman, Reading. 15. 

The amount appropriated for the committee during the year 

was 8225.00 and the amount expended for prizes and gratuities, 
•'.».. 57, leaving a balan* !• 

Henry. Saxton Ai>vm>. 
Charles W. Jxnks, 

W. E. C. Rich, 

\\'m. r. Rich, 

Miss Mary Rodman. 



on School Qardent 
and Satire Plants. 



REPORT OF THE DELEGATE TO THE STATE BOARD 
OF AGRICULTURE FOR THE YEAR 1905. 



The work of the Board of Agriculture during the past year has 
been conducted with vigor and with seeming profit to the state. 

The annual summer meeting was held at Lowell on the grounds 
of the Middlesex North Agricultural Society on Tuesday, July 25th, 
and an admirable programme was arranged by the Secretary of 
the Board. Prof. Waugh illustrated and explained the prepara- 
tion of Bordeaux Mixture for the prevention of fungous diseases 
and also showed various kinds of fruit packages, explaining the 
advantages of each. 

P. M. Harwood, agent of the Dairy Bureau, demonstrated the 
working of the Babcock tester, testing samples of milk that were 
brought to him for the purpose; he also explained the sanitary 
handling of milk and its importance. If the farmer is expected 
to carry out all the careful details which he suggested, the consumer 
being benefited should demand that the producer receive his just 
reward. 

Mr. W. D. Rudd demonstrated the most approved modern 
methods of killing and preparing poultry for the Boston market. 

Prof. Wm. H. Caldwell, Secretary of the American Guernsey 
Cattle Club, gave a running lecture on the points of a dairy cow 
and how to select one, illustrated from animals of the dairy and 
beef types that were before him. 

This was followed by an address by lion. X. J. Batchelder, 
Ex-Governor of New Hampshire, and several other-. 

At the close of the meeting, the Board and others in attendance 
were invited to visit the famous (\ I. Hood farm to inspect its herds 
of Jersey cows and Berkshire pigs; all the arrangements <>t" the 
Stables are excellent and well worthy a visit. 

The attendance at this meeting was very large. The usual crop 
reports have been published commencing with the month of May; 
special articles have been appended to these report-, as follow-: 



240 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

May. The management of Mowings, by Prof. Wm. P. Brooks, 
Amherst, Mass. 

June. How to supplement a short Hay Crop, by Prof. Chs. S. 
Phelps, Sup 't. Grassland Farms, Chapinville, Conn. 

July. Bush Fruits, by Prof. Fred S. Card, Prof, of Horticulture, 
R. I. College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. 

August. Poultry Housing, by John H. Robinson, Editor of 
Farm Poultry, Boston, Mass. 

September. Swine Growing, by A. A. Southwick, Farm Sup 't., 
State Insane Asylum, Taunton, Mass. 

October. Clean Milk, by P. M. Harwood, Gen'l. Agent, State 
Dairy Bureau. 

There have also been issued the following Nature Leaflets, with 
illustrations : 

Leaflet 28. The Garden Toad, by A. H. Kirkland. 
" 29. School Gardens. 

" 30. Planting and care of the School Garden. 
" 31. Crops for the School Garden. 
" 32. Results of School Gardening. 

These, from 29 to 32 inclusive, were by H. D. Hemenway, Direc- 
tor School of Horticulture, Hartford, Conn. 

The public winter meeting of the Board was held at Worcester, 
December, 5, 6, 7, at Horticultural Hall. An excellent list of 
lectures was furnished, as follows: 

Market Gardening, by Henry M. Howard, West Newton, was 
admirable, giving in careful detail this important branch of horti- 
cultural industry. He also emphasized the importance of strict 
accounts, keeping exact memoranda of expenses and profits, to 
determine what crops were most desirable to grow. 

The Soil; importance of its character for the culture of fruit, 
by Geo. T. Powell, Pres't. of the Agricultural Experts Ass'n, New 
York City, was an excellent paper, and if its recommendations 
were followed, the apple crop would be greatly improved. The 
keynote of the paper was fertilization, and good cultivation to pre- 
vent off-years; the fertilization to keep up the high tone of the 
orchard, and add color to the fruit. In the course of his lecture 
he cited the case of an old orchard planted by his father, fifty-seven 
years ago. These trees were planted in sod and bearing crops 



REPORT OF DELEGATE TO STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 241 

regularly in which was a large percentage of inferior fruit. For 
several years it has been under high tillage with crimson and red 
clover sown annually at the rate of fifteen lbs. seed to the acre, in 
June or early July, and ploughed in each spring, with the result 
that the soil has steadily improved, and the crops of 1904 and 1905 
have never been excelled in quantity or quality and have never 
sold for so high value. 

Agricultural or Technical Education by Dr. W. E. Stone, Pres 't. 
Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana. 

Dairy Precept and Dairy Practice, by Dr. Joseph L. Hills, 
Director of Agricultural Experiment Station, Burlington, Vermont. 

A campaign for Rural Progress, by Kenyon L. Butterfield, M. 
A., Pres't. R. I. College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, King- 
ston, R. I. The high reputation of the author is a guarantee of 
the excellence of this paper. 

The relation of Nitrogen to fertility, by Dr. C. D. Woods, Direc- 
tor Agricultural Experiment Station, Orono, Maine. This was 
the closing lecture and of special interest to practical cultivators. 

In the afternoon Mr. Chs. W. Wood invited the Board to visit 
his place, Crescent Farm, in Shrewsbury. Mr. Wood is President 
of the New England Holstein-Friesian Ass'n. In his large barn 
were seen fine specimens of this class of stock, which are very large 
producers of milk. Mr. Wood described his method of feeding 
and care of his stock, the appearance of which proved his success. 

William H. Spooxer, 

Delegate. 
December 30, 1905. 



REPORT OF THE INSPECTOR TO THE STATE BOARI> 
OF AGRICULTURE FOR THE YEAR 1905. 



To the State Board of Agriculture, 

Gentlemen : — I have endeavored to keep myself reasonably 
familiar with the affairs of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society 
during the year 1905, and feel sure that the management is deserv- 
ing of praise for the excellent work that it has conducted in its 
efforts in behalf of bettering our horticulture, so far as the personal 
aims and money at command will allow. 

The $600 bounty which the society has received from the State 
has certainly been put to uses of a high order. So much more 
money, received from endowments (not nearly as much as they 
could wisely handle) has been expended than the $600, upon 
excellent lines of awards by premiums, by medals, certificates of 
merit, many lectures, out-of-door exhibitions in practical forms 
of work, etc, etc., that I, as your Inspector, have only words of 
praise for the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

Their hall exhibitions have been of varying size, as the manage- 
ment chose to have them, and they have been many. Some have 
filled their large and beautiful building, and have been of so exquisite 
an order that they must have proved a delight to many, at the same 
time that they were sources of much instruction to those who go- 
there to learn. 

The society's library and its handsome surroundings have both 
been improved during the past year. 

The liberality and energy of their president has been marked., 
and happily he is just reelected for the coming year. 

Every encouragement that this Board can give to the Massachu- 
setts Horticultural Society will be deserved. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Francis Henry Appleton, 

Inspector. 

29, November 1905. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE OX LECTURES AND 
PUBLICATIONS FOR THE YEAR 1905. 

BY J. WOODWARD MANNING, CHAIRMAN. 



The following lectures were given during the year: 

January 14. Some Recently Introduced Weeds. By Merritt 
L. Fernald of Cambridge, Mass. 

January 21. Forest Planting for Profit in Massachusetts. By 
Theodore F. Borst of Boston, Mass. 

January 28. General Discussion on Fruit. Opened by E. 
W. Wood of W r est Newton, Mass. 

February 4. Findings of an orchard Survey in Western New 
York, with Stereopticon illustrations. By Prof. John Craig, 
Ithaca, N. Y. 

February 11. Dwarf Fruit Trees: their uses, propagation, and 
management. By Prof. F. A. Waugh, Amherst, Mass. 

February 18. Bacteria as Fertilizers, with Stereopticon Illus- 
trations. By Dr. George T. Moore, Washington, D. C. 

February 25. General Discussion on Flowers. Opened by 
J. Woodward Manning of Reading, Mass. 

March 4. Some Aspects of Hardy Flower Culture. By A. 
Herrington of Madison, N. J. 

March 11. The Return to Nature. By Miss Maud Summers 
of Cambridge, Mass. 

March 18. General Discussion on Vegetables. < Opened by 
W. W. Rawson of Arlington, Mass. 

During these lectures the attendance has noticeably increased 
and on the occasion of Dr. Geo. T. Moore'- address the capacity 
of the Lecture Hall was taxed to its limits. The inauguration of 
a series of Discussions seemed to meet with approval and renewed 
interest, and your committee has felt justified in extending this 
factor in the programme of lectures for the ensuing year. 



246 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Your committee further reports the publication of part II of the 
Transactions of the Society for 1904 and part I for 1905; the sched- 
ule of Prizes for the year 1906; and a preliminary Schedule sent 
out in advance of the regular Schedule of Prizes to enable compe- 
titors to make proper preparation for the earlier exhibitions of the 
year. The Report of the Committee on School Gardens has been 
in large demand during the year and this has been met by the 
issuance of separates of this report. 

Respectfully submitted, 



J. Woodward Manning, 
James H. Bowditch, 
John A. Pettigrew, 
Edward B. Wilder, 
E. W. Wood, 



^ Committee*. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY AND LIBRARIAN 
FOR THE YEAR 1905. 



The Secretary and Librarian respectfully presents the following 
report for the year 1905: 

The broadening of interest in the exhibitions of the Society on the 
part of the commercial growers and of the various associations 
devoted to special lines of floricultural productions has been a 
noteworthy feature of the work of the last two years. All of these 
have received a cordial welcome and their cooperation has been 
greatly appreciated. 

The Society should be broad enough in its aims to include all 
who are engaged in the work of extending and developing the hor- 
ticultural education of the community. It should give the hand of 
fellowship to the amateur, the professional, and the commercial 
elements, all of whom should find in our halls a generous encour- 
agement. 

While the "Flower Show" still continues to be our leading 
method for the advancement of horticulture in the community and 
is probably as potent an influence in sustaining this interest as any 
that at present can be devised, it may be, in order to maintain the 
leadership of the Society in horticultural matters, that some addi- 
tional features of a practical nature may well be adopted in the 
new years which await us. 

In no period of our history has there been a wider interest in 
general horticulture than at present and the inclination towards 
the rural and suburban life is very pronounced. In the moulding 
of this tendency the horticultural societies of the country have been 
a strong factor and, perhaps, in this direction their influence can 
be still further increased. 

In accordance with the vote of the Society at the annual meeting 
of 1904 an amendment to the Charter was approved by the Legis- 
lature of the State in February. This amendment authorizes the 



248 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Society to choose its Treasurer and Secretary in such manner as its 
By-laws may from time to time provide. 

In the early years of the Society these two offices were elective, 
but from the year 1876 until 1903, by a doubtful interpretation of 
the Charter, they were filled by appointment by the executive 
management. This latter method having been declared by emi- 
nent counsel as contrary to the requirement of the Charter it was 
necessary in framing the new By-laws of 1904 to return to the 
former usage until the Charter could be so amended as to allow 
of the appointment of the Treasurer and Secretary by the Board of 
Trustees. 

This change in the Charter necessitated several amendments 
to the By-laws which were approved by the Society at the last 
annual meeting, together with an amendment authorizing the Board 
of Trustees to appropriate an amount sufficient to cover the annual 
appropriations for prizes and gratuities. 

The publications for the year and the dates of issue are as follows : 
February 3. Schedule of Prizes and Exhibitions, 56 pages. 
October 18. Transactions, 1905, Part I, pages 1-105. 
November 3. Transaction, 1904, Part II, pages 203-374 and 
plates 15-23. 

By the John C. Chaffin bequest, received the present year, the 
income of $1000.00 will be annually devoted to the furtherance of 
his special interest in roses. 

The many miscellaneous inquiries for information on horti- 
cultural subjects have received the interested attention of the 
Secretary and have been answered to the best of his ability. In 
this connection the Secretary is pleased to acknowledge the assist- 
ance received from the chairmen and members of the various 
committees of the Society as well as from its valuable library. 

The Library. 

At the suggestion of the Library Committee especial attention 
has been given during the present year to the arrangement of further 
exchanges of publications with horticultural societies and scienti- 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY AND LIBRARIAN. 249 

fic and educational institutions of this country and of Europe. 
Continued effort also has been made to secure by purchase com- 
plete sets of such horticultural periodicals as may yet be wanting 
in the library. 

The result has been satisfactory and encourages further endeavor 
in this direction. The following foreign and American periodi- 
cal publications have been added during the year: 

Annales de la Societe horticole, vigneronne, et forestiere de Y 
Aube, Annees 1S66-1904. 

Annales de la Societe d' Horticulture de la Haute Garonne. 
Volumes 47-51, 1900-1904. 

Bulletin de la Societe d' Horticulture et de Viticulture d' Epernay. 
Volumes 1-31, 1S73-1904. 

Bulletin de la Societe d' Horticulture de Geneve. 1903-1905. 

L' Horticulture Moderne. Bourg-La-Reine, 1905. 

The Journal of the Board of Agriculture. London. Volume 
12, 1905. 

Rosen Zeitung. Volumes 1-19. 1SS6-1904. 

Mollers Deutsche Gartner-Zeitung. Volumes 1-1."), lsSG-1900. 

The Farmers' Register. Richmond and Petersburg. Va. Vol- 
umes 1-10, 1833-1842. 

In June an exchange of duplicate material with the Library of 
the University of Wisconsin resulted in tin* acquisition of 63 annual 
reports of horticultural and agricultural societies and 54 miscella- 
neous volumes and pamphlets. All were desirable additions n> 
the library, many of them being early reports now difficult to obtain, 
and fill many gaps in OUT collection. 

A hundred or more miscellaneous volumes which have been 
laid aside for a number of years by reason of damage, incomplete- 
ness, or awaiting additional parts have been repaired, completed, 

and bound a^ far as practicable, and all restored to the library 
sheh 
An unusually large proportion of the Library Appropriation has 

been devoted this year to binding. SO that all current periodicals 
are now hound up to date. 

The number of accessions including bound volumes and pam- 
phlets has been 1236; rather more than the average of recent years. 
Progress has been made in the reclassification i>i the library and i 



250 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

new system of arrangement adopted which it is hoped to complete 
in the ensuing year. 

By the continued liberality of the publishers of the various horti- 
cultural periodicals and agricultural papers our reading tables are 
kept well supplied and these privileges are made use of to a con- 
siderable extent by our members. 

Other noteworthy gifts to the library during the year have been 
made by the following named persons whose generous interest is 
greatly appreciated. 

February 7 Nathaniel T. Kidder, Esq. presented a case of books 
and pamphlets. Of especial interest in the lot were J. A. Barral, 
Dictionnaire d' Agriculture in four volumes, 1886-1892, and Chal- 
vin et Compagnie's Catalogue. Grenoble, 1789. Many of the 
others are valuable as duplicates. 

August 15 Hon. Aaron Low presented a large number of agricul- 
tural and experiment station reports and bulletins among which 
were found several important additions. 

October 7 a gift to the library of $50.00 was received from Miss 
Caroline L. W. French to be expended for books. 

In December five handsome oak reading tables for the alcoves 
of the library were presented by the same prominent and interested 
member of the Society whose gift last year was so acceptable. We 
wish he had permitted his name to be mentioned in this connection. 

The library is undoubtedly the largest and most valuable collec- 
tion of horticulture literature in America, but there are yet many 
deficiencies to be filled which will require the continued liberal 
support of the Society. 

William P. Rich, 

Secretary and Librarian. 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER FOR THE YEAR 1905. 



Massachusetts Horticultural Society, in account current with 
Charles E. Richardson, December 31st, 1905. 



Dr. 
To amount paid Sundries charged to Real Estate 

" for Exhibition Ware 

" " Library, appropriated by 

Society S400 00 

" from Income of John S. Farlow 

Fund 93 17 

" Income of J. D. Williams 

French Fund ... 255 18 



" for Interest on funds for prizes and other 
funds credited opposite .... 

" " Heating 1,636 56 

" " Lighting 1,331 29 

" " Water Rates .... 29 40 

" " Labor 1,872 65 

" " Stationery, Printing and 

Postage 

" " Insurance 

" " Incidentals 

" " Repairs 

" " Committee on Lecture- and 
Publications .... 
" " Salaries, Treasurer, Secre- 
tary and Assistants 
" " Salaries Committee on 
Plants and Flower- 

" " Salaries Committee on 
Fruits 

" " Salaries Committee on Veg- 
etables 

" " Salaries Committee on 
I'ri 

" " Tax on Real I South 

Boston 

11 " Electric Power 



S901 17 
180 60 



748 35 
2,101 61 



1,§87 - 




1 is 19 




512 80 




623 18 




210 00 




8,712 00 




346 00 




138 96 




192 00 




1 00 




160 J<> 






1 2 7S5 23 



252 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



For Prizes awarded in 1904, viz. 



Prizes for Plants and Flowers .... 

" Fruit 

" Vegetables 

" " Gardens and Greenhouses 

" School Gardens and Native Plants 
H. H. Hunnewell, Prizes for Rhododendrons 
Miss Sarah B. Fay Special Prize 

Gardeners' and Florists' Club " 
M. A. Patten 
Peter Fisher 
William Nicholson " " 



Balance of Cash December 30th, 1905 



3,470 00 

958 00 

904 92 

310 00 

225 00 

105 00 

50 00 

40 00 

10 00 

10 00 

10 00 



6,092 92 

22,809 88 
12,992 9a 

$35,802 78. 



Cr. 
By Balance of account rendered December 30, 1904 
" Received from Building use of Halls . . 1,248 29 
" Annual Exhibitions $2,247 50 
Less Expenses, 1,105 38 



$12,388 80 



Admissions and Assessments 


1,142 12 
1,810 00 


Mount Auburn Cemetery 


1,918 24 


State Bounty .... 


600 00 


Sales of Transactions 


17 00 


Interest on Bonds $9,665 00 




" Stock 1,200 00 




" Bank 




Balances, 210 72 






11,075 72 




Executor of J. C. Chaffin, 




Estate for prizes 


1,000 00 


Chicago, Burlington and 




Quincy R. R. Co. for 




Matured Bond 


1,000 00 


Sale of 150 rights General 




Electric Stock 


1,336 00 



Amounts carried forward 



$21,147 37 $12,388 80 



REPORT 


OF THE TREASURER. 


253 


Amounts brought forward 






$21,147 37 


$12,388 80 


" Miss Caroline L. W 


r . French, 






for Books 








50 00 




" " Mrs. Anna C. Ames 


, for Spe- 






rial Prize 








65 00 




" Boston Co- 


operative Flower 






Market 












" " Music Hall Place, for Special 






Prize 








40 00 




" " Peter Fisher, foi 


• Special 






Prize 








10 00 




Interest credited funds < 


marged 


opposite 






Samuel Appleton Fund 


$50 


00 






John A. Lowell 


it 


50 


00 






Theodore Lyman 


K 


550 


00 






Josiah Bradlee 


ti 


50 


00 






Benjamin V. French 


tt 


25 


00 






H. H. Hunnewell 


it 


200 


00 






W. J. Walker 


tt 


117 


72 






Levi Whitcomb 


it 


25 


00 






Benjamin B. Davis 


a 


25 


00 






Marshall P. Wilder 


it 


50 


00 






John Lewis Russell 


tt 


50 


00 






Francis Brown Hayes 


a 


500 


00 






Henry A. Gane 


it 


50 


00 






John S. Farlow 


tt 


100 


00 






J. D. Williams French 


it 


200 


00 






Benjamin H. Pierce 


tt 


32 


00 






John C. Chaffin 


tt 


26 


89 


2.101 61 












23.413 98 



802 7s 



Approved: 

Walter Hinm w kll. 
GeOROI F. F IBYAN, 
Ai. mm B I ESTABROOX. 



Charles E Rich lrdson, 

Treasurer, 



Finance 
Committee. 



254 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Assets. 

Real Estate $517,882 03 

Furniture and Exhibition Ware .... 9,537 51 

Library 43,232 98 

Stereotype Plates and Copies of History . 243 50 
2,000, Kansas City, Clinton & Springfield 

R. R. Bonds 1,980 00 

10,000, Lake Shore & Michigan Southern 

R R. Bonds 10,415 25 

21,000, City of Newton, Bonds . . . 24,228 75 
50,000, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe R. R. 

bonds 44,693 25 

50,000, Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, " Ne- 
braska Extension" R. R. Bonds . . 50,012 50 
10,000, Chicago & West Michigan R. R. Bonds 9,987 50 
25,000, Kansas City, Fort Scott & Memphis 

Consols 27,523 75 

50,000, Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, "Illi- 
nois Division" R. R. Bonds .... 51,62500 
8,000, Boston & Maine R. R. Bonds . . 8,710 00 
5,000, West End Street Railway Bonds . 5,162 50 
150 Shares, General Electric Co, Stock . 9,680 70 
W. A. Hayes & A. P. Loring, Trustees . . 3,488 76 
Cash 12,992 90 



$831,396 88 





Liabilities. 


Samuel Appleton 


• 
Fund, $1,000 00 


John A. Lowell 


1,000 00 


Theodore Lyman 


11,000 00 


Josiah Bradlee 


1,000 00 


Benjamin V. French 


500 00 


H. H. Hunnewell 


4,000 00 


W. J. Walker 


2,354 43 


Levi W. Whitcomb 


500 00 



Amounts carried forward $21,354 43 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER. 255 



Amounts brought forward $21,354 43 

500 00 



Benjamin B. Davis 
Marshall P. Wilder 
John Lewis Russell 
Francis Brown Hayes 
Henry A. Gane 
John S. Farlow 
J. D. Williams French 
Benjamin H. Pierce 
John C. Chaffin 



v 1,000 00 
1,000 00 

10.000 00 
1.050 00 
2,506 88 
5,088 97 
800 00 
1.026 89 



$44,327 17 

Prizes Awarded in 1905, Payable in 1906 6.506 00 

Gift of Miss Caroline L. W. French for books 50 00 

Mrs. Anna C. Ames, Special Prize ... 65 00 
Boston Co-operative Flower Market 

Music Hall Place, Special Prize .... 40 00 

Gardeners' & Florists' Club, Special Prize . 10 00 



50.99S 17 

Surplus 780.39S 71 



SS3 1.396 88 



Charles E. Richardson, 

Treasurer. 

Membership of Massachusetts Horticultural Society, 
December 30th. 1905. 

Life Membership per last report 674 

Added in 1905 45 

Commuted from Annual 1 



Deceased 20 

Annual members per last report 1 73 

Added in 1905 ...... 10 

Reinstated .2 

Resigned . . 1 

Commuted to Life 1 

Dropped for nonpayment of ment tor two 

years . 8 

Deceased 7 



720 

Too 

185 



12 



173 

Present membership ^7 ; 



256 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Income from Membership. 

45 New Life Members @ $30 1,350 00 

1 Commuted to Life @ $20 20 00 

10 New Annual Members @ $10 100 00 

2 Reinstated @ $4 8 00 

Assessments 332 00 



$1,810 00 



Charles E. Richardson, 

Treasurer. 



Auditor's Certificate. 

28 State Street, Boston, March 30th, 1906. 
To the Finance Committee of the 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society, 
Gentlemen: — In compliance with your request I have made a thorough 
audit of the books and general accounting affairs of the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society for the year which ended with the 31st day of Decem- 
ber, 1905, and herewith submit to you my report of the same. 

Report. 

I proved the correctness of the ledger, journal, and cash book and the 
small books tributary to the cash book, and saw that all balances were 
correctly carried forward. I examined and checked the vouchers and 
warrants representing the disbursements during the year and found the 
amount of cash required by the cash book upon the first day of January, 
1905, to have been on hand, and also examined the securities of the 
Society and found that they were in all details in accordance with the 
requirements of the records. I traced all postings from the journal and 
cash book into the ledger and certify that the balance sheet taken from the 
ledger as of the 31st day of December, 1905, is a correct abstract and that 
the Treasurer's statement of the assets and liabilities of the Society upon 
said date is true to the best of my knowledge and belief. 

In short, I satisfied myself that the work in connection with the account- 
ing affairs of the Society was being conscientiously and honestly performed, 
and that the books and papers of the Society were in their usual excellent 
condition. 

Yours very respectfully, 

Andrew Stewart, 

Examiner of Accounts. 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER. 



257 



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258 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The Massachusetts Horticultural Society 

To the Proprietors of the Cemetery of Mount Auburn. Dr. 
To cost of filling up and improving land at Mount Auburn for the year 
ending December 31, 1905. The Massachusetts Horticultural Society 
being charged for its proportion of same. 

Glen Avenue. 

169.2 days, man $380 71 

65 . 9 days, man and horse 247 12 

12 days, man and two horses 63 00 

$690 83 

One-fourth of $690 83 is $172 70 

James C. Scorgie, 

Supt. of the Cemetery of Mount Auburn. 



Mount Auburn, December 30th, 1905. 
I certify the foregoing to be a true copy of improvements for the year 
1905 as rendered by the Superintendent. 

John L. Dill, 

Treasurer. 



THE ANNUAL MEETING, NOVEMBER IS, 1905. 



ANNUAL MEETING FOR THE YEAR 1905. 



The Annual Meeting of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society 
for the year 1905 was held at Horticultural Hall, Boston, on Satur- 
day, November 18, at twelve o'clock, noon. 

The meeting was called in accordance with the By-laws for the 
transaction of business and for the election of officers, namely: 
a President, a Vice-President, a Treasurer, a Secretary, a Delegate 
to the State Board of Agriculture, a Trustee for two years, four 
Trustees for three years, and a Nominating Committee. Also 
several amendments to the By-laws were to be voted upon by the 
Society. A printed notice of the meeting had been mailed to the 
address of every member of the Society as it appeared upon the 
records of the Secretary. 

President Estabrook presided and there were thirty members 
present at the opening of the meeting. 

The President appointed Edward B. Wilder, J. Allen Crosby, 
and William P. Rich a committee to receive, assort, and count 
the ballots, and to report the number. He then announced the 
polls open until four o'clock. 

The record of the Annual Meeting, November 19, 1904, was 
read and approved. 

The President presented a recommendation from the Board of 
Trustees for the appropriation of I67CKX00 for prizes and gratuities 
for the year 1906. The recommendation was unanimously adopted. 

The following named srentlemen, recommended by the Board 
of Trustees, were elected Corresponding Members of the Society: 

M. Maurice L. de Vilmorin, Paris. France, 
M. Philippe L. de Vilmorin. Paris, France. 
Mr. James Herbert Yeitch. Chelsea, England, 
all proposed by Professor Charles S. Sargent. 

The President appointed William II. Spooner a- presiding 
officer for the remainder of the meeting and announced a re 

until four o'clock. 



262 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



At four o'clock the President, pro tern., declared the polls closed,, 
and the ballot committee proceeded to assort and count the votes, 
its chairman, Mr. Wilder, reporting the result of the ballot to the 
meeting. 

The President, pro tern., declared the following named persons 
to be the duly elected officers of the Society for the year 1906: 



President, 
Vice-President 

(for two years), 
Treasurer, 
Secretary, 
Trustees, 

(for three years), 



Trustee, 

(for two years), 
Nominating Committee, 



Arthur F. Estabrook. 
Walter Hunnewell. 

Charles E. Richardson. 
William P. Rich. 
Oakes Ames. 
Charles F. Curtis. 
William H. Elliott. 
Arthur H. Fewkes. 
John Lawrence. 

James H. Bowditch. 
Robert Cameron. 
T. D. Hatfield. 
Charles W. Parker. 
William H. Spooner. 



He also declared that the eight proposed amendments to the 
By-laws had all received the necessary two-thirds vote in their 
favor and were adopted. 1 

The meeting was then adjourned. 

William P. Rich, 

Secretary. 



1 For a record of the amendments adopted see pages 116, 117, 120. 



NECROLOGY, 1905. 



NECROLOGY, 1905. 



Charles H. Souther died at his home in Jamaica Plain, Massa- 
chusetts, January 4, 1905. 

He became a member of the Society in 1895 and was a frequent 
exhibitor of plants and flowers at its exhibitions. 

Hon. William Claflin, a member of the Society since 1867, 
died in Newtonville, Massachusetts, January 5, 1905, at the age 
of eighty-seven. 

Mr. Claflin was born in Milford, Massachusetts, March 6, 1818. 
He was engaged for many years in the wholesale boot and shoe 
business in Saint Louis and Boston, and was actively interested 
in public affairs, serving several terms in the Legislature of Massa- 
chusetts between the years 1848 and 1860, and was elected Governor 
of the state in 1869. He served also two terms as representative 
to Congress in 1876 and 1878. 

He possessed a beautiful estate at Newtonville, where he made 
his summer home, and took much pride in its horticultural adorn- 
ment. 

Lucius G. Pratt died at his home in West Newton, Massa- 
chusetts, February 6, 1905, at the age of eighty years. He became 
a member of the Society in 1871. 

Mr. Pratt was born in Brattleboro, Vermont, May 3, 1824. He 

was actively engaged in business in Boston for many years, retiring 
in 1870. In the later years of his life he devoted himself to the 
management of various financial enterprises and was also actively 
interested in the affairs of his town and as a trustee of charitable 
institutions. 

George W. Weld of Newport, Rhode Island, a member of 
the Society since 1883, died February 14, 1905. 

^^'ALTER Russell of Arlington, Massachusetts, joined the 

Society in 1862 and from that date to the year of bis death was 



*266 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

actively engaged in its work. He was a member of the Committee 
on Vegetables from 1867 to 1883 and from 1895 to 1904, a service 
of twenty-seven years, and was also a member of the Committee 
of Arrangements for several years. 

He was a constant contributor to the exhibitions of the Society 
of fruits and vegetables irom his extensive farm in Arlington, and 
with his practical experience his services as a judge were of great 
value to the Society and were much appreciated by his fellow mem- 
bers on the committee. 

Mr. Russell was born in Charlestown, Massachusetts, September 
10, 1831, and died at his home in Arlington, February 21, 1905, 
at the age of seventy-four years. 

Hon. George Sewall Boutwell, an Honorary Member of 
the Society since 1851, died at his home in Groton, Massachusetts, 
February 27, 1905. 

Mr. Boutwell was born in Brookline, Massachusetts, January 
28, 1818, and from a humble beginning, by the strength of his 
character and the force of his mental ability, was called to high 
offices in the service of his state and nation. He was Governor 
of Massachusetts in 1851 and 1852; was appointed Secretary of 
the Treasury by President Grant in 1869; and was elected to the 
Senate of the United States in 1873, continuing until 1877. 

Always interested in agricultural matters he rendered efficient 
aid in the establishment of the Massachusetts State Board of 
Agriculture which was organized during his administration as 
Governor. 

Henry Ranford Reed, a member of the Society since 1899, 
died in New York, March 14, 1905. 

Mr. Reed was born in Chelmsford, Massachusetts, August 23, 
1837. He came to Boston at the age of eighteen years and entered 
into the grocery business, afterward becoming identified with the 
firm of Nash, Spaulding & Co., sugar refiners, of which firm he 
was the senior partner at the time of his death. 

J. Philip Rinn was elected to membership in the Society in 
1882. He was born in Germany, August 21, 1837, and died in 
Boston, March 17, 1905. 



NECROLOGY, 1905. 267 

Mr. Rinn was a prominent architect of Boston, and among his 
creations in this vicinity are the Goddard Chapel Building of Tufts 
College and the residence of Francis B. Hayes at Lexington, a 
former president of this Society. 

William Paul, a Corresponding Member of the Society since 
1875, died at his home at Waltham Cross, Herts, England, March 
31, 1905. 

Mr. Paul was born June 16, 1822, at Church-gate, Cheshnut, 
England, where his father had established a garden in 1806. He 
succeeded to his father's business in 1847 and afterward removed 
to Herts, where he established in 1860 the celebrated Waltham 
Cross Nurseries, extending the business enormously. He was 
especially interested in roses and among the novelties he introduced 
the Magna Charta is the best known in this country. 

To the world at large Mr. Paul was fully as well known as an 
author and writer on horticultural subjects. He published books 
on rose culture and on general gardening and was an interesting 
and instructive contributor to the horticultural press. 

William Sturgis Hooper Lothrop of Boston died in Ponce, 
Porto Rico, April 5, 1905, at the age of thirty-four years. He 
was elected a member of the Society in 1896. 

John Parker, formerly of Roxbury, Massachusetts, died in 
Newtonville, April 16, 1905, at the age of eighty-nine years. He 
became a member of the Society in 1S(>4. 

Mr. Parker was born in Charlestown, Massachusetts, December 
4, 1815. On the death of his father when he was seven years old 
he went to live with a farmer in South Heading (now Wakefield), 
where he remained until he was fourteen. lie then entered the 
home of Samuel Williams of Roxbury as an apprentice to learn the 
gilder's trade, and was in the employ of Williams & Everett over 
sixty years. 

While steadily attending to his business he spent many hours 
in his garden, raising fruits and flowers, and exhibited at Horti- 
cultural Hall many of his choicest productions. He took many 
prizes for his dahlias which he was especially fond of cultivating 



268 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

and remarked once that he had raised them for over fifty years. 
He grew also and exhibited gladioli and pelargoniums as well as 
other garden flowers and was always very careful to keep his stock 
pure and choice. 

He attended every exhibition of the Society when his health 
permitted and wanted to visit the Spring Exhibition just three 
weeks before his death and dressed to go, but he was not strong 
enough to do it and gave it up, much to his disappointment. 

Much could be written of his love for his plants and flowers, his 
care in cultivating, and the pleasure he took in sharing with others. 
His was a beautiful, Christian life and it is a pleasure to think that 
he can gratify his every desire for the beautiful in the Heavenly life 
to which he has passed. 

By Mrs. Henrietta M. Parker. 

Henry Hill Goodell, President of the Massachusetts Agri- 
cultural College at Amherst, died April 23, 1905. He was elected 
a Corresponding Member of the Society in 1900. 

Dr. Goodell was born in Constantinople, Turkey, May 20, 1839. 
He served in the War of the Rebellion in 1862-63, and on his 
return took up the profession of teaching, and in 1886 was appointed 
President of the Agricultural College, holding this position until 
his death. In January, 1904, he gave a lecture before the Society 
on "Trees, Flowers, and Fruits of the East." 

Joseph Jefferson, an Honorary Member of the Society since 
1895, died at Palm Beach, Florida, April 23, 1905. 

Mr. Jefferson was born in Philadelphia, February 20, 1829. 
Widely known through his histrionic attainments Mr. Jefferson 
was much interested in horticulture and was a lover of the beautiful 
in nature as well as in art. 

Warren Fenno, who died in Revere, Massachusetts, April 
27, 1905, had been identified with the Society since 1877. 

He was born in Revere, December 2, 1854, and always made 
his home there, becoming actively interested in later years in all 
matters pertaining to the affairs of his native town. He was the 
Town Clerk for many years and was an authority on the local 



NECROLOGY, 1905. 269 

history of this locality. He was a fruit grower on a large scale 
for this part of the country and was a constant exhibitor of the 
products of his orchards at the exhibitions of the Society, taking 
many prizes as evidence of his skill and horticultural knowledge. 

He had been a member of the Committee on Fruits since 1880, 
a period of twenty-five years, the present year as chairman, and 
was elected a Trustee of the Society at the last annual election. 

Hon. John Ware Fletcher, who was elected a member of 
the Society in 1871, died in Boston, April 27, 1905. 

He was born in Norridgewock, Maine, in 1824, and at an early 
age started in business in Bangor, later removing to Boston where 
he was engaged in the insurance business for many years. He 
was a captain in the army in the early years of the Civil War and 
was twice elected Mayor of Chelsea, Massachusetts, 1871-72. 

Hon. Robert W. Furnas of Brownville, Nebraska, a Corre- 
sponding Member of the Society since 1875, died June 1, 1905. 
He was President of the Nebraska State Horticultural Society 
from 1877 to 1883 and was Governor of the state in 1873-74. 
He came to Nebraska from Ohio in 1855 and was a pioneer in the 
development of the horticultural and agricultural interests of the 
great Northwest. 

Joshua Montgomery Sears of Boston, a member of the Society 
since 1881, died at his summer home in Southboro, Massachusetts, 
June 2, 1905. Mr. Sears was born in Yarmouth, Massachusetts, 
December 25, 1854. 

In addition to many other interests he took pleasure in horti- 
cultural matters, and the exhibitions of the Society were frequently 
enriched by the choice and rare productions of his greenhouses 
and gardens at Southboro. 

Robert Charles Winthrop, Jr. died at his home in Boston, 
June 5, 1905, at the age of seventy-one years. Mr. Winthrop 
became a member of the Society in 1890. He was the son of the 
late Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, an early Honorary Member of the 
Society. 



270 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Francis Wesley Hunt was elected a member of the Society 
in 1892. Mr. Hunt was born in Readfield, Maine, July 26, 1833, 
and died at his home in Melrose, Massachusetts, June 24, 1905. 
He descended from a family of agriculturists, and no doubt his 
interest in all things pertaining to this Society was the natural 
outcome of his early surroundings. 

He was interested in his fruit trees and his garden and never a 
season went by but he had many hundred aster plants, which 
were without doubt his favorite flower. He took great pride in 
keeping his home place always attractive, adorning it with many 
plants and shrubs. 

By Francis A. Hunt. 

Michael Sullivan died at his home in Revere, Massachusetts, 
July 4, 1905, at the age of sixty-five years. 

Mr. Sullivan joined the Society in 1899. He was born in Ireland 
in 1840 and came to this country when a boy, making his home 
in Revere and engaging in the market gardening business which 
he followed successfully the rest of his life. He was prominent 
in the affairs of his town, serving as a member or chairman of the 
board of selectmen for a number of vears. He was a member of 
the Committee on Vegetables for the years 1902, f903, and 1904, 
the last year as its chairman, and was a Trustee of the Society in 
1904. 

Horace B. Taylor, an old-time Boston merchant, and a mem- 
ber of the Society since 1860, died in Boston, July 17, 1905, in his 
ninetieth year. 

Mr. Taylor was born in Newfane, Vermont, August 25, 1815, 
coming early in life to Boston to engage in business pursuits; and 
for many years the firm of Foster & Taylor was prominently identi- 
fied with the business interests of the city. 

Leander M. Haskins of Rockport, Massachusetts, died at 
his home in that town, August 1, 1905, at the age of sixty-four. 
He became a member of the Society in 1904. 

Mr. Haskins was a graduate of Dartmouth College in the Class 
of 1862 and later entered into business in Boston in which he was 
very successful. He owned a fine estate at Rockport and was 
much interested in its horticultural improvement. 



NECROLOGY, 1905. 271 

Rhodes Lockwood of Boston, a member of the Society since 
1883, died August 3, 1905, at the age of sixty-five. 

Mr. Lockwood was born in Charlestown, Massachusetts, in 
1839. He was connected with the Davidson Rubber Company 
for many years. He had a fine estate in East Lexington where 
he made his summer home. 

Frederick C. Moseley of Dorchester, Massachusetts, died 
August 9, 1905. He became a member of the Society in 1900. 

Hon. Timothy Thompson Sawyer, a member of the Society 
since 1854, died at his summer home in Magnolia, Massachusetts, 
September 4, 1905, at the age of eighty-eight years. 

Mr. Sawyer was born in Charlestown, Massachusetts, January 
7, 1817, and was for many years engaged in business in Boston. 
He was Mayor of Charlestown in 1855, 1856, and 1857, State 
Representative in 1857, and Senator in 1858. He filled also many 
other offices of trust of a public and private nature. He was much 
interested in the antiquities of his native city and was a recognized 
authority in matters concerning its history. 

Francis Howard Peabody of Boston died at his summer home 
in Beverly, Massachusetts, September 22, 1905, at the age of 
seventy-four. He was elected a member of the Society in 18! 

Mr. Peabody was born in Springfield, Massachusetts, October 
9, 1831. He came to Boston at the age of sixteen and entered 
the banking office of John E. Thayer & Brother, to which firm 
he and his partners succeeded in 1865, under the name of Kidder, 
Peabody & Co., establishing a business of world-wide reputation. 

He was a patron of tin 1 fine arts and the natural sciences, and 
his helpful interest was often manifested in a practical and sub- 
stantial manner. 

Edwin F. Locke died in Amherst, New Hampshire, Octoh 

190."). He joined the Society in 1901. 

Mr. Locke was born in Charlestown, Massachusetts, January 
9, 1847. Early in life he went to work for his father in Paneuil 

Hall Market, Boston, and for forty year-, up to the time of his 



272 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

death, was associated with the firm of Isaac Locke & Company 
in the fruit and produce business. 

John Capex of Boston, another of the older members of the 
Society, died October 7, 1905, at the age of eighty-seven years. 
He was admitted a member in 1865. He was born in Sterling 
Massachusetts, September 8, 1818. 

Calvin W. Smith of Grantville, Massachusetts, a member of 
the Society since 1880, died October 21, 1905. 

Joshua C. Stone who died in Watertown, Massachusetts, 
October 22, 1905, was elected a member of the Society in 1894. 

Mr. Stone was born in Watertown, May 8, 1835, and lived there 
all his life. He was a well-known market gardener and was much 
interested in the work of the Society, serving as a member of the 
Committee on Vegetables from 1899 to the time of his death. He 
took a prominent part in the meetings for the discussion of horti- 
cultural subjects and from his broad experience in practical work 
added much to the value of these gatherings. 

Rev. H. Hoxywood D'Ombraix, a Corresponding Member 
of the Society since 1875, died at Ashford, Kent, England, October 
23, 1905, in his eighty-eighth year. 

Mr. D'Ombrain was born in Canterbury, England, May 10, 
1818. In addition to his duties as a clergyman he was devoted 
to horticultural pursuits, and not only grew plants successfully 
but wrote about them interestingly and instructively. He was 
one of the founders of the National Rose Society and was for many 
years editor of the Rosarian's Year Book. He was also editor of 
the Floral Magazine during its existence. 

Denys Zirxgiebel died at his home in Xeedham, Massachusetts, 
November 16, 1905, at the age of seventy-seven. He had been a 
member of the Society since 1862. 

Mr. Zirngiebel was born in Neufchatel, Switzerland, in 1829, 
and came to this country in 1855 where he soon after took charge 
of the Botanical Garden of Harvard University at Cambridge, 
and in 1864 established himself in business at Needham. 



NECROLOGY, 1905. 273 

He was an expert horticulturist and a frequent exhibitor of his 
productions at the exhibitions of the Society. He was a member 
of the Committee on Plants and Flowers in 1866. 

Mr. Zirngiebel was greatly interested in the carnation and was 
one of the earliest cultivators of the new creations of the French 
horticulturist, Alegatiere, which were introduced into the United 
States about the year 1871. The most prominent among these 
were the Alegatiere, red, La Purite, deep pink, and Mine. Carle, 
white. These were the best of their class at that time but were 
soon superseded by American raised seedlings. 

Sometime during the 70's he introduced from France several 
new strains of pansies; the Bugnot, Cassier, and Trimardeau 
varieties. He was also one of the first to introduce the so-called 
French cannas and did much to popularize them, and was un- 
doubtedly the first to import the Italian or Dammann varieties. 

All new and improved varieties of plants were of great interest 
to him and many were tested at the earliest opportunity. A great 
many varieties of less importance than these mentioned, but all 
useful in their way, were first grown in the vicinity of Boston by 
him. He took great interest in asters, also, and was a pioneer in 
growing them in large quantities for the market. The strain 
known as Zirngiebel's White was of his own originating. 

By Arthur H. Fewkes. 

Francis Skinner, a member of the Society since 1864, died at 
his home in Boston, November 24, 1905. He was graduated 
from Harvard in the Class of L862 and was a prominent merchant 
in Boston in the dry goods commission business. He was inter- 
ested In the fine arts and in horticulture, and for many years was 
a regular exhibitor of the products of his gardens and greenhouses 
at the exhibitions of the Society. 

Edward Atkinson, a member of the Society since 1865, died 
at his home in Brookline, Massachusetts, December 11. L905, 

at the age of sei enty-nine. 

Mr. Atkinson was born in Brookline, February KK L827. 11< 
was greatly interested in matter- of social and political economy 
and was a frequent contributor to the literature i^i these subjt 



274 • MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Frederick William Burbidge, m. a., Curator of Trinity- 
College Botanical Garden, died in Dublin, Ireland, December 24, 
1905. He was elected a Corresponding Member of the Society in 
1898. 

Mr. Burbidge was born in Wymeswold, Leicestershire, England, 
March 21, 1847, and from boyhood was interested in natural his- 
tory studies. After several years experience at the Kew Gardens 
he was appointed Curator of the Dublin Garden, a position he filled 
for twenty-six years. 

In 1877 and 1878 he traveled in Borneo and other islands of the 
East Indian Archipelago in a search for botanical and horticultural 
novelties. The account of this eastern journey is interestingly 
recorded in his Gardens of the Sun, published in 1880. He wrote 
also several other books, the last being The Book of the Scented 
Garden, published the present year. He was an accomplished 
artist, botanist, and horticulturist, as well as an author, and made 
many valuable contributions to scientific and horticultural litera- 
ture. 



OFFICERS, COMMITTEES, AND MEMBERS, 1905 



;tss;ubusctts horticultural $orictn. 



OFFICERS AND STANDING COMMITTEES 
FOR 1905. 



President. 
ARTHUR F. ESTABROOK, of Boston. 

Vice-Presidents. 

WALTER HUNNEWELL, of Boston. 
ROBERT T. JACKSON, of Cambridge. 

Treasurer. 
CHARLES E. RICHARDSON, of Brookline. 

Secretary. 
WILLIAM P. RICH, of Chelsea.* 

Trustees. 

OAKES AMES, of North Easton. 

WILLIAM N. CRAIG, of North Easton. 

GEORGE F. FABYAN. of Brookline. 

JOHN K. M. L. FARQUHAR. of Boston. 

WARREN FEN NO. OF Revere. 

ARTHUR H. FEWKES. of Newton Highlands. 

ARTHUR D. HILL, of Boston. 

J. WOODWARD MANNING, of Read: 

CHARLES W. PARKER, of BOSTON. 

JOHN A. PETTIGREW. of Boston. 

CHARLES S. SARGENT, of Brookline. 

WILLIAM H. SPOON ER. of Jamaica Plain. 

Nominating Committee. 

•OBADIAH B. HADWEN. JOHN LAWREN4 1 

OF Worcester. ok QbOTOK. 

HENRY S. HUNNEWELL, HENRY P. WALCOTT. 

of WxiXBBl of Cambrip 

JAMES WHEELER, of Brookline. 

♦Communications to the Secretary, on tin 1 business of the Society, should be ad« 
•dressed to him at Horticultural Hall. Boston. 



278 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



COMMITTEES FOR 1905. 



Finance Committee. 

WALTER HUNNEWELL, Chairman. 
ARTHUR F. ESTABROOK, GEORGE F. FABYAN. 

Committee on Prizes and Exhibitions. 

J. K. M. L. FARQUHAR, Chairman. 
WILLIAM N. CRAIG, ARTHUR H. FEWKES, JOHN A. PETTIGREW, 

WARREN W. RAWSON, WILLIAM H. SPOONER. 

Committee on Plants and Flowers. 

ARTHUR H. FEWKES, Chairman. 
ROBERT CAMERON, WILLIAM N. CRAIG, WILLIAM NICHOLSON, 

JAMES WHEELER. 

Committee on Fruits. 

WARREN FENNO, Chairman. 
CHARLES F. CURTIS, J. WILLARD HILL. 

Committee on Vegetables. 

WARREN W. RAWSON, Chairman. 
WARREN H. HEUSTIS, JOSHUA C. STONE.. 

Committee on Gardens. 

OAKES AMES, Chairman. 

GEORGE BARKER, WILLIAM N. CRAIG, ARTHUR F. ESTABROOK, 

ARTHUR H. FEWKES, CHARLES W. PARKER, JOHN A. PETTIGREW, 

WILLIAM P. RICH, HENRY P. WALCOTT. 

Library Committee. 

CHARLES S. SARGENT, Chairman. 
T. OTIS FULLER, SAMUEL HENSHAW, CHARLES W. JENKS,. 

HENRY P. WALCOTT. 

Committee on Lectures and Publication. 

J. WOODWARD MANNING, Chairman. 
JAMES H. BOWDITCH, ROBERT T. JACKSON, EDWARD B. WILDER,. 

E. W. WOOD. 

Committee on School Gardens and Native Plants. 

HENRY SAXTON ADAMS, Chairman. 
CHARLES W. JENKS, WM. E. C. RICH, WM. P. RICH„ 

MISS MARY RODMAN. 



MEMBERS OF THE MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL 

SOCIETY, 1905. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 



Members and correspondents of the Society and all other persons who may 
know of deaths, changes of residence, or other circumstances showing that the 
following lists are inaccurate in any particular, will confer a favor by promptly 
communicating to the Secretary the needed corrections. 



Clarence H. Clark, Ex-President of the Pennsylvania Horticultural 

Society, Philadelphia. 
Sir Trevor Lawrence, President of the Royal Horticultural Society, 

London. 
Joseph Maxwell, Rio Janeiro, Brazil. 
Donald G. Mitchell, New Haven, Conn. 
Baron R. Von Osten Sacken, Heidelberg, Germany. 
Samuel B. Parsons, Flushing, N. Y. 
Dr. Henry S. Pritchett, President of the Massachusetts Institute of 

Technology, Boston. 
George W. Smith, Boston. 
Albert Viger, President of the National Society of Horticulture of France, 

Paris. 
Hon. James Wilson, Secretary of Agriculture. Washington, D. C. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 



£douard Andre, Editor-in-chief of the Revue Horticole, Paris. Fran< 
George Francis Atkinson, Professor of Botany in Cornell University, 

Ithaca. X. V. 
Professor L. H. BAILEY, Director of College of Agriculture. Cornell 

University. Ithaca. X. V. 
John Gilbert Baker, F, R, 8., F. L. S., Kew, England. 
Charles Baltet. President da la Sorictr Horticole. Vigneronne, et Fores- 

tiere de 1' Aube, Troves, France. 



280 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Peter Barr, London, England. 

Napoleon Baumann, Bolwiller, Alsace. 

D. W. Beadle, 307 Givens St., Toronto, Ontario. 

Professor William J. Beal, Agricultural College, Michigan. 

Prosper J. Berckmans, Ex-President of the American Pomological Soci- 
ety, Augusta, Georgia. 

Charles E. Bessey, Ph. D., Professor of Botany in the Industrial College 
of the University of Nebraska, Lincoln. 

Dr. Ch. Bolle, Berlin, Prussia. 

Col. Gustavus B. Brackett, Pomologist to the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Washington, D. C 

Alexander Burton, United States Consul at Cadiz, Spain, Phila- 
delphia. 

Sir W. T. Thiselton Dyer, K. C. M. G., F. R. S., Director of the Royal 
Botanic Gardens, Kew, England. 

Parker Earle, President of the American Horticultural Society, Ros- 
well, N. M. 

George Ellwanger, Rochester, N. Y. 

H. J. Elwes, F. R. S., Colesborne, Cheltenham, England. 

William G. Farlow, M. D., Professor of Cryptogamic Botany, Harvard 
University, Cambridge. 

B. E. Fernow, Forestry School, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Beverly T. Galloway, Horticulturist and Superintendent of Gardens 
and Grounds of the United States Department of Agriculture, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Charles A. Goessmann, Ph. D., L. L. D., Chemist of the Hatch Experi- 
ment Station of the Massachusetts Agricultural College, Amherst. 

George L. Goodale, M. D., Professor of Botany, Harvard University, 
Cambridge. 

Obadiah B. Hadwen, President of the Worcester County Horticultural 
Society, Worcester. 

Professor Byron D. Halsted, Botanist and Horticulturist at the New 
Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, New Brunswick, N. J. 

Professor Carl Hansen, of the Royal College of Agriculture, Copen- 
hagen, Denmark. 

J. H. Hart, Superintendent of the Botanic Garden, Trinidad. 

Dr. F. M. Hexamer, Editor of the American Agriculturist, New York. 

J. W. Hoffmann, Colored State University, Orangeburg, S. C. 

J. C. Holding, Ex-Treasurer and Secretary of the Cape of Good Hope 
Agricultural Society, Cape Town, Africa. 

Sir Joseph Hooker, K. C. S. I., The Camp, Sunningdale, England. 

Sir George King, K. C. I. E., M. B., LL. D., F. R. S., Calcutta. 

Professor William R. Lazenby, Department of Horticulture and 
Forestry; Secretary College of Agriculture and Domestic Science, 
Ohio State University, Columbus, O. 

Max Leichtlin, Baden-Baden, Germany. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 281 

Victor Lemoixe, Nancy, France. 

Dr. Peter MacOwax, Government Botanist, Cape Town Herbarium, 

Cape Town, Africa. 
Dr. Maxwell T. Masters, Editor of the Gardeners' Chronicle, London. 
George Maw, Benthal, Kinley, Surrey, England. 
T. C. Maxwell. Geneva, X. Y. 
F. W. Moore. A. L. S., Curator of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin, 

Dublin, Ireland. 
Sir Daniel Morris. C. M. G., D. Sc, M.A.. F. L. S., Imperial Commis- 
sioner of Agriculture. Barbados. 
George Xicholsox, Kew, England. 
Peter Noyik, Secretary of the Norwegian Horticultural Society, Chris- 

tiania. 
Professor D. P. Pexhallow, Director of the Botanic Garden, Montreal. 

Canada. 
P. T. Quixx. Xewark. X. J. 
Cavaliere Exrico, Ragusa, Palermo, Sicily. 
D. Redmoxd, St. Xicholas, Florida. 
S. Reyxolds, M. D.. Schenectady. X. Y. ' 
Bexjamix Lixcolx Robixsox, Ph. D., Curator of the Gray Herbarium 

of Harvard University. Cambridge. 
William Robixsox, Editor of Gardening Illustrated, London. 
William Salway, Superintendent of Spring Grove Cemetery, Cincinnati. 

O. 
Edgar Saxders, Chicago, 111. 
William R. Smith, Superintendent of the Botanic Garden, Washington. 

D. C. 
Robert W. Starr, Port William. X. S. 

William Trelease. Director of the Missouri Botanic Garden. St. Louis. 
Dr. Melchior Treub, Director of the Botanic Garden, Buitenzorg. Java. 
H. J. Veitch. Chelsea. England. 
James Herbert Veitch. Chelsea. England. 
Maurice L. de Vilmohix. Paris. France. 
Philippe L. de Vilmorin. Paris. France. 

William Watson. Curator of Royal Gardens, Kew. England. 
Professor L. Wittmack. Secretary of the Royal Prussian Horticultural 

Societv. Berlin. Prussia. 



282 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



LIFE MEMBERS. 



Adams, Mrs. Charles Francis, South 
Lincoln. 

Adams, Henry Saxton, Wellesley. 

Alger. Rev. R. F., Dorchester. 

Allen, Hon. Charles H., Lowell. 

Allen. Thomas, Boston. 

Ames, F. Lothrop, North Easton. 

Ames. John S.. North Easton. 

Ames, Miss Mary S., North Easton. 

Ames, Oakes, North Easton. 

Ames. Oliver, North Easton. 

Ames, Mrs. Oliver. Sr., North East- 
on. 

Ames, Preston Adams, Washington, 
D. C. 

Ames, Miss Susan E., North Easton. 

Amory, C. W., Boston. 

Amory, Frederick, Boston. 

Anderson, Larz, Brookline. 

Andrews. Charles L., Milton. 

Andros, Milton, San Francisco, Cal. 

Appleton, Hon. Francis H., Boston. 

Arnold. Mrs. George Francis, 
Brookline. 

Ash, John, Promfret Centre, Conn. 

Atkins, Edwin F., Belmont. 

Ayer, James B., Boston. 

Backer, Clarence A., Melrose. 
Badger, Walter D., Cambridge. 
Bailey, Jason S., West Roxbury. 
Bailey. Robert M.. Dedham. 
Baker, Clifton P., Dedham. 
Baker, James E., South Lincoln. 
Balch, Joseph, Dedham. 
Banfield, Francis L.. M. D., Wor- 
cester. 



Barber, J. Wesley, Newton. 

Barker, George, Swampscott. 

Barnard, George E., Ipswich. 

Barnard, Robert M., Everett. 

Barnes, Walter S., Boston. 

Barney, Arthur F., Dorchester. 

Barney, Levi C, Boston. 

Barry, John Marshall, Boston. 

Barry, William C, Rochester, N. Y. 

Bartlett, Francis, Beverly. 

Bartlett, Miss Mary F., Boston. 

Bates, Miss Mary D., Ipswich. 

Baylies, Walter C, Taunton. 

Beal, Leander, Swampscott. 

Beal, Thomas P.. Boston. 

Becker, Frederick C, Cambridge. 

Beckford, Daniel R., Jr., Dedham. 

Beebe, E., Pierson, Boston. 

Beebe, Franklin H., Boston. 

Beebe, J. Arthur, Boston. 

Bemis, Frank B., Beverly. 

Bigelow, Albert S., Cohasset. 
Bigelow, Joseph S., Cohasset. 
Bigelow, Dr. William Sturgis, Bos- 
ton. 
Black, George N., Manchester. 
Blake. Miss Anne. Brookline. 
Blake, Mrs. Arthur W., Brookline. 
Blake, Edward D.. Boston. 
Blake, Francis, Weston. 
Blake, Frederick A., Rochdale. 
Blake, Thomas D., Brookline. 
Blanchard, John W.. West Newton. 
Bliss. William. Boston. 
Boardman, Miss Eliza D., Boston. 
Boardman, Samuel M., Hyde Park. 
Boardman, T. Dennie, Manchester. 



LIFE MEMBERS. 



283 



Bolles. William P., M. D., Roxbuiy. 

Bosler, Frank C. Carlisle. Penn. 

Bowditch, Charles P., Jamaica 
Plain. 

Bowditch, Ernest W., Milton. 

Bowditch, James H., Brookline. 

Bowditch, Nathaniel I., Framing- 
ham. 

Bowditch. William E.. Roxbury. 

Bowker. William H.. Boston. 

Brackett, Cephas H.. Brighton. 

Breck, Joseph Francis, Allston. 

Bremer. Mrs. John L.. Manchester. 

Bresee, Albert. Hubbardton. Yt. 

Brewer, Francis W., Hingham. 

Brewster. William. Cambridge. 

Briggs. William S.. Lincoln. 

Brigham. William T.. Honolulu. 
Hawaii. 

Brooks. Henry. Lincoln. 

Brooks. J. Henry. Boston. 

Brooks, Lawrence. Groton. 

Brooks, Peter C. Boston. 

Brooks, Shepherd, Boston. 

Brown. Edward J.. Weston. 

Brown, George Barnard. Brook- 
line. 

Brown, John M.. Belmont. 

Brown, Samuel X.. Boston. 

Burlen, William H.. Boston. 

Burnett. Harry. Southborough. 

Burnham. John A.. Wenham. 

Buswell. Frank E., Brooklyn. N Y 

Butler. Aaron. Wakefield. 

Butler. Edward K . Jamaica Plain. 

But trick. Stedman, Concord. 

Cabot, Dr. Arthur T Boston. 
Cabot. < reorge 1 j . Boston. 
Cain-. William, South Boston. 
Calder, Augustus P., Brockton. 
Cameron, Robert, Cambridgi 
( lampbell, Francis, ( fembridge 

( 'arr. Hon. John. Ro\hr, 

•unci. Boston. 



Carter, Charles X.. Xeedham. 

Carter, Miss Maria E.. Woburn. 

Cartwright, George. Dedham. 

Casas, W. B. de las. Maiden. 

Chadbourne, Marshall W., East 
Watertown. 

Chamberlain, Chauncy W.. Boston. 

Chapman. John L.. Mount Auburn. 

Chase, Daniel E.. Somerville. 

Cheney. Mr>. Elizabeth S.. Wellesley. 

Choate, Charles F.. Southborough. 

Christie. William, Everett. 

Clapp. Edward B.. South Boston. 

Clapp, James H.. South Boston. 

Clapp, William C. South Boston. 

Clark, Benjamin C, Boston. 

(lark. B. Preston, Cohasset. 

Clark. Bliss Eleanor J.. Pomfret 
Centre. Conn. 

Clark. J. Warren. Mfflis. 

Clarke. Miss Cora H.. Boston. 

Clarke. Eliot C. Boston. 

dough, Mieajah Pratt. Lynn. 

Cobb, John ('.. Milton. 

( 'oburn. Isaac E., Everett. 

Codman, .lame- M . Brookline. 
Miss Mary Alma. Boston. 

Coffin, Abraham P.. Winchester. 
well. Edward P.. Jr.. Cam- 
bridge. 

( ole. Edward E., Boston. 

Collamore, Miss Helen. Boston. 

Colton, Samuel H.. Worcester. 

Comley, Morris I Lexington. 

Converse, < lol. H. E., Maiden. 

( loolidgi 1 1 rold J., Boston. 

Coolidge, Joshua, Mount Auburn. 

Coolidge, J Randolph, Chestnut 
11.11 

( oolidge lln J Randolph 
nut Hill. 

( toolidge, I »n, Jr., Boston 

ttle, Henry C Boston. 
Thomas A .1 1 

< ov. Samuel I Boston, 



284 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



Craig, William Nicol, North Easton. 
Crane, Zenas, Dalton. 
Crawford, Dr. Sarah M., Roxbury. 
Crocker, Hon. George G., Boston. 
Crocker, Miss S. H., Boston. 
Crosby, George E., West Medford. 
Cross, Alfred Richard, Nantasket. 
Crowell, Randall H., Watertown. 
Curtis, Charles F., Jamaica Plain. 
Curtis, Charles P., Swampscott. 
Curtis, Charles P., Jr., Boston. 
Cushing, Livingston, Weston. 
Cushing, Robert M., Boston. 
Cutler, Judge Samuel R., Revere. 
Cutting, Gen. Walter, Pittsfield. 

Daggett, Henry C, Boston. 
Dalton, Charles H., Beverly. 
Daly, John C, Roxbury. 
Damon, Frederick W., Arlington. 
Dana, Charles B., Wellesley. 
Daniels, Dr. Edwin A., Boston. 
Davenport, Albert M., Watertown. 
Davenport, George E., Medford. 
Davis, Arthur E., Wellesley. 
Davis, Mrs. Arthur E., Wellesley. 
Davis, Edward L., Worcester. 
Davis, L. Shannon, Brookline. 
Dawson, Jackson T., Jamaica Plain. 
Day, Frank A., Newton. 
Day, Henry B., West Newton. 
Dee, Thomas W., Cambridge. 
Denny, Clarence H., Boston. 
Denton, Eben, Dorchester. 
Dexter, George, Beverly. 
Dexter, Gordon, Beverly Farms. 
Dexter, Philip, Beverly. 
Dike, Charles C, Stoneham. 
Doane, Edgar Howard, Wenham. 
Dodd, Henry W., Boston. 
Doliber, Thomas, Brookline. 
Donald, William, Cold Spring Har- 
bor, N. Y. 
Donaldson, James, Roxbury. 
Dorr, George, Dorchester. 



Dove, George W. W., Andover. 

Dowse, William B. H., West New- 
ton. 

Draper, Hon. Eben S., Hopedale. 

Draper, George A., Hopedale. 

Dreer, William F., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Dumaresq, Herbert, Chestnut Hill. 

Duncan, The Hon. Mrs. George, 
Nahant. 

Duncan, James L., New York, N. Y. 

Dunlap, James H., Nashua, N. H. 

Durfee, George B., Fall River. 

Dutcher, Frank J., Hopedale. 

D wight, Theodore F., Kendal Green. 

Dyer, Herbert H., Arlington. 

Eaton, Horace, Cambridge. 
Edgar, William W., Waverley. 
Eldredge, H. Fisher, Boston. 
Elliot, Mrs. John W., Boston. 
Elliott, William H., Brighton. 
Ellsworth, J. Lewis, Worcester. 
Endicott, William, Boston. 
Endicott, William, Jr., Boston. 
Endicott, William C, Jr., Danvers. 
Estabrook, Arthur F., Boston. 
Estabrook, Mrs. Arthur F., Boston. 
Ewell, Warren, Dorchester. 

Fabyan, George F., Brookline. 

Fairchild, Charles, New York, N. Y. 

Falconer, William, Pittsburg, Pa. 

Farlow, Lewis H., Cambridge. 

Farns worth, Mrs. William, Dedham. 

Farquhar, James F. M., Roslindale. 

Farquhar, John K. M. L., Roxbury. 

Farquhar, Robert, North Cam- 
bridge. 

Faxon, John, Quincy. 

Fay, H. H., Woods Hole. 

Fay, Joseph S., Jr., Woods Hole. 

Fenno, L. Carteret, Boston. 

Fessenden, George B., Allston. 

Fewkes, Arthur H., Newton High- 
lands. 



LIFE MEMBERS. 



285 



Finlayson, Kenneth, Jamaica Plain. 
Fisher, Peter, Ellis. 
Fletcher, George V., Belmont. 
Fletcher, J. Henry, Belmont. 
Foster, Charles H. W., Needham. 
Foster, Francis C, Cambridge. 
Fottler, John, Jr., Dorchester. 
Fowle, George W., Jamaica Plain. 
French, Miss Caroline L. W., Boston. 
French, Mrs. Susan E., North Ea-t- 

on. 
French, S. Waldo, Xewtonville. 
French, W. Clifford, Newton. 
Frohock, Roscoe R.. Maiden. 
Frost, Harold L., Arlington. 
Frost, Irving B., Belmont. 
Frost, Varnum, Arlington. 

Gardner, Mrs. Augustus P., Hamil- 
ton. 

Gardner, George A., Boston. 

Gardner, George P., Boston. 

Gardner, John L., Boston. 

Gardner, Mrs. John L.. Brookline. 

Gardner, William Amory. Groton. 

Garratt, Allan V.. Holliston. 

Gaston, William A., Boston. 

Gibbs, Woleott. M. D.. Newport. 
R. I. 

Gill. George B.. Medford. 

Gillard. William. Dorchester. 

Gilson, F. Howard. Wellesley Hill-. 

Goddard, Joseph, Sharon. 

Goodale, Dr. Joseph 1... Boston. 

Goodell. L. W., I) wight. 

Gowing, Mr- Clara E., Kendal 
( rreen. 

Grandin, J. Livingston, Bo-ton. 

Gray. Mr-. John I Boston 
Greenough. Mr-. Charles P., Brook- 
line. 

gory, I Ion. James J. H . Marble- 
head. 
v. Edward s.. Bo-ton. 

Hadwen, Obadiah B., Worcester. 

Hale. James 1 1 . Byfield. 

Hall. Edwin A . Cambridgeport, 



Hall. George A., Chelsea. 

Hall, Jackson E., Cambridge. 

Hall, Osborn B., Maiden. 

Hall. William F., Brookline. 

Hammond, George W., Boston. 

Harding, George W.. Arlington. 

Harding, Louis B., Chestnut Hill. 

Hardy, F. D., Cambridgeport. 

Hardy. Mi— Susan White. Boston. 

Hargraves, William J.. Jamaica 
Plain. 

Harris, Charles. Cambridge. 

Harris, Thaddeus William, A. M.. 
Keene, N. H. 

Hartshorn. Arthur E.. Worcester. 

Harwood. George Fred, Newton. 

Haskell. Edwin B., Auburndale. 

Hastings, Levi W.. Brookline. 

Hatch. Edward, Bo-ton. 

Haven. Franklin. Boston. 

Hawkcn. Mrs. Thomas, Rockland. 
Me. 

Hay ward. George P.. Chestnut Hill. 

Hellier, Charles E., Boston. 

Hemenway. Augustus, Canton. 

Qemenway, Mrs. Augustus, Can- 
ton. 

Hen-haw. Joseph P. B., Boston. 

Senshaw, Samuel, Cambridge. 

Beurlin, Julius, South Braintree. 

Bewett, Mi- Mary ('.. Canton. 
Higgin-on. Francis L., Boston. 
Eligginson, Mr-. Henry I... Bo-ton 
Hilbourn. A. J., Boston. 
Hill. John. Stoneham. 
Hittinger, .Jacob. Mt . Auburn. 
Sodgkins, .John E., Portsmouth, 

X H 
Hoitt, H«»n Charles W., Nashua, 

\ H 
Bolbrook, E. Everett, Bo-ton. 
Hollander. Louis Preston, Boston. 
HoUingsworth, Amor I... Milton. 
HollingBworth, Z I . Bo-ton. 
Holli-. ( reorge w Ulstoo 
Bolmes, 1 )dward .1 . Boston. 

Holt. ( in-tavn Imont. 



286 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Holt, Mrs. Stephen A., Cambridge. 

Holt, William W., Norway, Maine. 

Hooper, Mrs. Robert C, Boston. 

Hooper, William, Manchester. 

Horner, Mrs. Charlotte N. S., 
Georgetown. 

Horsford, Miss Kate, Cambridge. 

Hosmer, Oscar, Wenham. 

Hovey, Charles H., South Pasa- 
dena, Cal. 

Hovey, Stillman S., Woburn. 

Howard, Henry M., West Newton. 

Howard, Joseph W., Somerville. 

Hoyt, William J., Manchester, N. H. 

Hubbard, Charles Wells, Weston. 

Hubbard, James C, Everett. 

Humphrey, George W., Dedham. 

Hunnewell, Henry Sargent, Welles- 
ley. 

Hunnewell, Walter, Wellesley. 

Hunt, Dudley F., Reading. 

Hunt, Franklin, Charlestown, N. 
H. 

Hunt, William H., Concord. 

Hutchins, Rev. Charles Lewis, Con- 
cord. 

Jack, John George, Jamaica Plain. 
Jackson, Charles L., Cambridge. 
Jackson, Robert T., Cambridge. 
James, Ellerton, Milton. 
James, Mrs. Ellerton, Milton. 
James, George Abbot, Nahant. 
Janvrin. William S., Revere. 
Jeffries, William A., Boston. 
Jenks, Charles W., Bedford. 
Johanssohn, Emil, Brookline. 
Johnson, Arthur S., Boston. 
Johnson, J. Frank, Maiden. 
Jones, Jerome, Brookline. 
Jones, Dr. Mary E., Boston. 
Jordan, Eben D., Boston. 
Jordan, Henry G., Brookline. 
Jose, Edwin H., Cambridgeport. 

Kellen, William V., Marion. 
Kelley, George B., Jamaica Plain. 



Kendall, D. S., Woodstock, Ont. 
Kendall, Edward, Cambridgeport. 
Kendall, Joseph R., San Francisco, 

Cal. 
Kendall, Dr. Walter G., Atlantic. 
Kendrick, Mrs. H. P., Boston. 
Kennedy, George G., M. D., Milton. 
Kent, John, Chestnut Hill. 
Keyes, Mrs. Emma Mayer, Boston. 
Keyes, John M. Concord. 
Kidder, Charles A., Southborough. 
Kidder, Nathaniel T., Milton. 
Kimball, David P., Boston. 
King, D. W T ebster, Boston. 
Kingman, Abner A., Wakefield. 
Kingman, C. D., Middleborough. 
Kinney, H. R., Worcester. 
Kirkland, Archie Howard, Reading. 
Knapp, Walter H., Newtonville. 

Lamb, Horatio A., Milton. 

Lancaster, Charles B., Boston. 

Lane, Gardiner M., Boston. 

Lanier, Charles, Lenox. 

Lawrence, Amory A., Boston. 

Lawrence, Amos A., New York, 
N. Y. 

Lawrence, James, Groton. 

Lawrence, Jorm, Groton. 

Lawrence, Samuel C, Medford. 

Lawrence, Rt. Rev. William, Bos- 
ton. 

Learned, Charles A., Arlington. 

Lee, Daniel D., Jamaica Plain. 

Lee, Francis H., Salem. 

Lee, George C, Newton. 

Leeson, Hon. Joseph R., Newton 
Centre. 

Leighton, George B., Monadnock, 
N. H. 

Lemme, Frederick, Charlestown. 

Leonard, George H., Boston. 

Leuchars, Robert B., Dorchester. 

Libby, Charles W., Medford. 

Lincoln, George, Hingham. 

Lincoln, Col. Solomon, Boston. 



LIFE MEMBERS. 



287 



Lindsey, N. Allen, Marblehead. 
Little, James L., Brookline. 
Little, John Mason, Swampscott. 
Locke, Isaac H., Belmont. 
Lodge, Richard W., Boston. 
Loftus. John P., Dorchester. 
Loomis, Elihu G., Bedford. 
Loring, Augustus P., Beverly. 
Loring, David, Boston. 
Loring, Mrs. William Caleb, Bev- 
erly. 
Low, George D., Boston. 
Lowell, Abbott Lawrence, Boston. 
Lowell, Miss Amy, Brookline. 
Lowell. James A., Chestnut Hill. 
Lowell, John, Newton. 
Lowell, Miss Lucy, Boston. 
Luke, Otis H., Brookline. 
Lumb, William. Boston. 
Lunt. William W., Hingham. 
Lyman, George H., Wareham. 
Lyman, Mrs. Theodore. Brookline. 

Mabbett, George, Plymouth. 
McCarty, Timothy, Providence, R. 

I. 
Mackie, George, M. D., Attleboro. 
Mc William, George, Whitinsville. 
Mahoney, John, Boston. 
Mallett, E. B., Jr., Freeport, Me. 
Mm mi, James F., Ipswich. 
Manning, J. Woodward, Heading. 
Manning, Mrs. Lydia B., Reading. 
Manning, Warren H., Brookline. 
Marble, Benjamin C, Manchester. 
Marshall. Frederick F., Everett. 
Marston, Howard. Boston. 

Mason, Miss Ellen F.. Boston. 

Mason, Col. Frederick. Taunton. 
Mathison, Fred R., Waltham 
Matthews, Nathan, .Jr.. Boston. 
Melvin, George, South Framing- 
ham. 
Melvin, James C, Weal Newton. 
Meredith, .1. Morris, Topsfield. 
Merriam, Charles, Boston. 
Merriam, Herbert. Weston. 



Metivier, James, Cambridge. 
Milmore, Mrs. Joseph, Washington, 

D. C. 
Minot, Charles S., Milton. 
Mitton, Edward J., Brookline. 
Mixter, George, Boston. 
Monteith, David, Hyde Park, Vt. 
Montgomeiy, Alexander, Xatick. 
Montgomery, Alexander. Jr., Na- 

tick. 
Moore, George D., Arlington. 
Moore, John H., Concord. 
Morgan, George H., New York, 

N. Y. 
Morse, John T., Jr., Boston. 
Morse, Robert M., Jamaica Plain. 
Morton. James H., Mattapan. 
Moseley, Charles H., Roxbury. 
Motley, E. Preble, Boston. 
Mudge, George A., Portsmouth. 

X. H. 
Murdock, Albert L.. Boston. 
Murray, Peter, Fairhaven. 
Mutch, John. Xewtonville. 

Xevins. Mrs. David, Methuen. 
Newman, John R.. AYinchester. 
Newton, Rev. William W.. Pftts- 

field. 
Nickerson, Mrs, George A.. Ded- 

ham. 
Norton, Charles W.. Allston. 
Norton, Edward E., Boston. 

Oakman, Hiram A.. North Marsh- 

lield. 
Olmsteadj Frederick Law. Jr.. 

Brookline. 
Olmstead, John C, Brookline. 
Orpet, Edward 0.,^South Lai 

ter. 

Page, Mr-. Henrietta, Bo-ton. 
Paige, Clifton H . Mattapan. 

Parker. Charles W., Bo-ton. 

Parkman, Henry, Boston. 

ona .I-',' .»\. 

ten, Marcellua A . Iewksbury. 



288 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Paul, Alfred W., Dighton. 

Peabody, Frank E., Boston. 

Peabody, George A., Danvers. 

Peabody, John E., Salem. 

Peabody, S. Endicott, Salem. 

Peck, William G., Arlington. 

Peirce, Miss Marion W., Topsfield. 

Perry, George W., Maiden. 

Perry, Oliver Hazard, Lowell. 

Pfaff, Col. Charles, South Framing- 
ham. 

Phillips, John C, North Beverly. 

Phillips, Mrs. John C, North Bev- 
erly. 

Phillips, William, North Beverly. 

Pickman, Dudley L., Boston. 

Pickman, Mrs. Ellen R., Boston. 

Pierce, Dean, Brookline. 

Pierce, George Francis, Neponset. 

Pierce, Wallace L., Boston. 

Pierson, Frank R., Tarrytown, 
N. Y. 

Pond, Preston, Winchester. 

Pope, Col. Albert A., Cohasset. 

Porter, Alexander S., Boston. 

Porter, James C, Wollaston. 

Prang, Louis, New York, N. Y. 

Pratt, Laban, Dorchester. 

Pratt, Robert M., Boston. 

Prendergast, J. M., Boston. 

Prescott, Eben C, New York, N. 
Y. 

Presson, Alfred, Gloucester. 

Preston, Howard Willis, Provi- 
dence, R. I. 

Pringle, Cyrus G., Burlington, Vt. 

Proctor, T. E., Boston. 

Putnam, George, Manchester. 

Putnam, George J., Brookline. 

Putnam, Joshua H., Newton Cen- 
tre. 

Quinby, Hosea M., M. D., Worces- 
ter. 

Raddin, Everett W., North Cam- 
bridge. 



Rand, Harry S., North Cambridge. 

Rawson, Herbert W., Arlington. 

Rawson, Warren W., Arlington. 

Ray, James F., Franklin. 

Raymond, Walter, Boston. 

Read, Charles A., Manchester. 

Reardon, Edmund, Cambridgeport. 

Reardon, John B., Boston. 

Remick, Frank W., West Newton. 

Rice, George C, Worcester. 

Rich, William P., Chelsea. 

Richards, John J., Brookline. 

Richardson, Charles E., Brookline. 

Richardson, Dr. William L., Bos- 
ton. 

Riggs, William Allan, Jamaica 
Plain. 

Ripley, Charles, Dorchester. 

Ripley, Ebed L., Hingham Centre. 

Robb, Russell, Concord. 

Robinson, John, Salem. 

Robinson, Joseph B., Dorchester. 

Rodman, Miss Mary, Concord. 

Roffe, Albert H., Newton Centre. 

Rogers, H. H., Fairhaven. 

Rogers, Mrs. Jacob C, Peabody. 

Roland, Thomas, Nahant. 

Roth well, James E., Brookline. 

Roy, David Frank, Maiden. 

Ruddick, William H., M. D., 
South Boston. 

Russell, George, Woburn. 

Russell, James S., Milton. 

Salisbury, William C. G., Brook- 
line. 

Saltonstall, Richard M., Chestnut 
Hill. 

Sanford, Oliver S., Roxbury. 

Sanger, Mrs. George P., Boston. 

Sargent, Andrew Robeson, Brook- 
line. 

Sargent, Charles S., Brookline. 

Sargent, Mrs. Charles S., Brookline. 

Sargent, Charles Sprague, Jr., 
Brookline. 



LIFE MEMBERS. 



289 



Sargent, Mrs. Francis WV, Wel- 
lesley. 

Sawtelle, Eli A., Amherst, N. H. 

Scorgie, James C, Cambridge. 

Scott, Charles, Newton. 

Sears, Miss Clara E., Boston. 

Sears, Miss Emily E., Boston. 

Sears, Dr. Henry F., Boston. 

Sears, Mrs. J. Montgomery, Bos- 
ton. 

Shaler, Nathaniel S., Cambridge. 

Sharp, Miss Helen, Boston. 

Shaw, Christopher C, Milford, N. 
H. 

Shaw, Francis, Wayland. 

Shaw, Mrs. Robert G., Wellesley. 

Shorey, John L., Lynn. 

Shuman, Hon. A., Roxbury. 

Shurtleff, Josiah B.. Jr., Revere. 

Sias, Charles D., Wen ham. 

Siebrecht, H. A., New Rochelle, 
N. Y. 

Simpkins, Mi<s Mabel. Yarmouth. 

Skinner, Francis, Dedham. 

Sleeper, Henry Davis, Boston. 

Smiley, Daniel, Lake Mohonk, N. 
Y. 

Smith, Archibald, Oxford, Eng- 
land. 

Smith, Charles H., Newton High- 
lands. 

Smith, Charles S., Lincoln. 

Smith, Edward X.. San Francisco, 
Cal. 

Smith. Thomas Page, Waltham. 

Snow. Eugene A.. Boston. 

Sohier, Col. William !>.. Beverly. 

Spaulding, Edward, Weston. 

Spooner. William II.. Jamaica 
Plain. 

Sprague, Isaac, Wellesley Hill-. 

Springall, George, Maiden. 

Stearns, Charles II . Brookline. 
rns, Frank W., Newton. 
in. an. Henry R .. M D . Ros- 
Lindale. 



Stevens, Hon. Moses T., Andover. 
Stewart, William J., Winchester. 
Stone, Charles A., Newton. 
Stone, Charles W., Boston. 
Stone, Prof. George E., Amherst. 
Stone, George F., Chestnut Hill. 
Storrow, James J.. Boston. 
Stratton, Charles E., Boston. 
Strong, William C, Waban. 
Sturgis, Richard Clipston, Boston. 
Swain, Charles E., Roxbury. 
Sweet, Everell F., Maiden. 
Sylvester, Edmund Q., Hanover. 

Taylor, Charles H., Boston. 

Temple, Felker L., Boston. 

Tenney, C. H., Methuen. 

Thatcher, William, Brookline. 

Thayer, Mrs. Alice R., Boston. 

Thayer, Bayard, South Lancaster. 

Thayer, Mrs. Bayard, South Lan- 
caster. 

Thayer, Eugene V. R., South Lan- 
der. 

Thayer, Mrs. Eugene V. R., South 
Lancaster. 

Thayer, Henry J.. Boston. 

Thayer. John E., South Lancas- 
ter. 

Thayer, Mrs. John E., South Lan- 
caster. 

Thayer, Nathaniel, Lancaster. 

Thayer. Mr-. Nathaniel. Lancaster. 

Thayer 9 V*. R., Bo-ton. 

Thiemann. Hermann. ( Iwasso, Mich. 

Thomas, W. B., Manchester. 

ThurloW, Thomas ('.. West New- 
bury. 

Tilton, Stephen W.. Brookline 
Tolman, Benjamin, Concord. 
Tolman, Miss Harriet s .. Boston. 
Top] an, Roland W., Maiden. 
Tonev. Elbridge, Dorchester. 
Torrey, Everett, Chaiiestown. 
Tower, Miss Ellen May, Lexington. 
Tower, Mrs. Helen M Cambridge. 



290 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Travis, Charles B., Brighton. 
Trepess, Samuel J., Glencove, L. 

I., N. Y. 
Tucker, Lawrence, Boston. 

Underwood, Loring, Belmont. 

Vander-Woerd, Charles, Waltham. 
Vaughan, William Warren, Boston. 
Vinal, Miss Mary L., Somerville. 
Vining, R. William E., Hingham. 

Wakefield, E. H., Cambridge. 

Walcott, Henry P., M. D., Cam- 
bridge. 

Waldo, C. Sidney, Jamaica Plain. 

Wales, George O., Braintree. 

Walsh, Michael H., Woods Hole. 

Waltham, George C, Dorchester. 

Walton, Daniel G., Wakefield. 

Warburton, Chatterton, Fall Riv- 
er. 

Ward, Francis Jackson, Roxbury. 

Ward, John, Newton Centre. 

Ware, Benjamin P., Clifton. 

Ware, Miss Mary L., Boston. 

Warren, Samuel D., Dedham. 

Washburn, Andrew, Hyde Park. 

Watson, Benjamin M., Jamaica 
Plain. 

Watson, C. Herbert, Brookline. 

Watson, Thomas A., East Brain- 
tree. 

Watts, Isaac, Waverley. 

Webster, Edwin S., Chestnut Hill. 

Webster, Frank G., Boston. 

Webster, Hollis, Cambridge. 

Webster, Laurence J., Holderness, 
N. H. 

Welch, David, Dorchester. 

Welch, Edward J., Dorchester. 

Weld, Christopher Minot, Read- 
ville. 

Weld, Richard H., Boston. 

Weld, Gen. Stephen M., Dedham. 

West, Mrs. Maria L., Neponset. 



Wheeler, Frank, Concord. 

Wheeler, James, Brookline. 

Wheeler, Wilfrid, Concord. 

Wheelwright, A. C, Brookline. 

Wheelwright, Edmund M., Boston. 

Whitcomb, William B., Medford. 

White, Mrs. Charles T., Boston. 

White, Francis A., Brookline. 

White, George R., Boston. 

White, Joseph H., Brookline. 

Whitman, William, Brookline. 

Whitney, Arthur E., Winchester. 

Whitney, Ellerton P., Milton. 

Whitney, Henry M., Cohasset. 

Whittier, George E., Groton. 

Whittier, William Benjamin, South 
Framingham. 

Wigglesworth, George, Milton. 

Wilbur, George B., Woods Hole. 

Wilde, Mrs. Albion D., West Rox- 
bury. 

Wilder, Edward Baker, Dorchester. 

Wilder, Henry A., Maiden. 

Willcutt, Levi L., Brookline. 

Williams, Miss Adelia Coffin, Rox- 
bury. 

Williams, Benjamin B., Boston. 

Williams, George Percy, Boston. 

Williams, Henry Bigelow, Boston. 

Williams, John Davis, Boston. 

Williams, Mrs. J. Bertram, Cam- 
bridge. 

Williams, Mrs. Moses, Brookline. 

Williams, Philander, Taunton. 

Wilson, Col. Henry W., Boston. 

Wilson, William Power, Boston. 

Winsor, Robert, Weston. 

Wood, William K., West Newton. 

Woodberry, Miss E. Gertrude, Cam- 
bridge. 

Woodbury, John, Lynn. 

Wright, George C, West Acton. 

Wright, John G., Brookline. 

Wyman, Oliver B., Shrewsbury. 

Wyman. Windsor H., North Abing- 
ton. 



ANNUAL MEMBERS. 



291 



ANNUAL MEMBERS. 



Allen, Mrs. Sallie R.. Wilmington. 
Alles, William H., Watertown. 
Anderson, George M., Milton. 
Atkinson. Miss Caroline P., Brook- 
line. 
Ayres, Miss Helen F., Medford. 

Bangs. Francis R., Boston. 

Barker, John G.. .South Bend, Ind. 

Barr, John. South Natick. 

Bayley, S. King. Westwood. 

Bigelow. Arthur J., Eastlake, Wor- 
cester. 

Bigelow, Mrs. Nancy J., South- 
borough. 

Bird, John L.. Dorchester. 

Blackmur, Paul R.. Quincy. 

Plomberg, ('ail. North Easton. 

Bolton. Sabin, North Easton. 

Borst, Theodore I". Brookline. 

Bradley, Miss Abby A.. Bingham. 

Breck, Charles H . Newton. 

Breed. Edward W., Clinton. 

Billiard, John C . Cambridj 
Carpenter. Prank < v Boston. 

Chandler, Alfred D., Brookline. 

Chase, Joseph 8., Maiden, 
child. Stephen, Kendal Green, 
Chubbuck, [saac Y., Roxbury. 
Clapp, Henry I... Roxbury 
Clark. Arthur, East Weymouth. 

Clark. John, Watertown. 
Clark. John W . North H.idley. 
( lark, Joseph, Manchester. 
Clark, Theodore M . Boston. 
Clinkaberry, Henry T . Ne? | 
R 1 



Collins, Frank S.. Maiden. 
Cotter, Lawrence, Danville, Pa. 
Crosby, J. Allen, Jamaica Plain. 
Curtis. Joseph H., Boston. 
Curtis, Louville, Tyngsborough. 

Davis. Frederick S., West Rox- 
bury. 
Derby. William H., Revere. 
Dolbear. Mrs. Alice J.. College Hill. 
Dorr, George B., Boston. 
Doyle. William E., Cambridge. 
Duffley, Daniel, Brookline. 
Duncan. John W.. West Roxbury. 

Eustis, William Tracy. Brookline. 

os, Frank H.. Maiden. 
Ewell, Marshall F.. Marshfield Hills. 

Farlow, Mrs. William < r.,Cambri 
Finlayson, Duncan. Jamaica Plain. 
Fisher, Sewell, Boston. 

Harry E., Wollaston. 
Fitsgerald, Desmond, Brookline. 
Forbes, William H., Jamaica Plain. 
Francis, i U \ >rge I ' M 1 > . Wor- 
cester. 

■■man. MlSfl Harriet ton. 

Fold. Maurice. Bo-ton. 

Fuller. T. < Kis, Needham. 

Gardner, John Hays, Cambridg 
( iarthley. James, Fairhaves 
Gill, Mn l" M . Medford 
Grew, Henry Sturgis, Boston, 

Belmont. 
Cuba. 

v. Thou 



292 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Hall, Stacy, Boston. 

Hallstram, Charles W., West Som- 
erville. 

Ham, Fernald E., Burlington. 

Harrison, C. S., York, Nebraska. 

Hartwell, Samuel, Lincoln. 

Hatfield, T. D., Wellesley. 

Hawes, Cyrus Alger, Brookline. 

Head, Thomas W., Groton, Conn. 

Herff, B. van, New York, N. Y. 

Heustis, Warren H., Belmont. 

Hildreth, Miss Ella F., Westford. 

Hill, Arthur Dehon, Boston. 

Hill, J. Willard, Belmont, 

Hollingsworth, Miss Rose, Boston. 

Hollis, George, South Weymouth. 

Houghton, George S., Reading. 

Hovey, Charles L., Waban. 

Howden, Thomas, Whitinsville. 

Hubbard, Allen, Newton Centre. 

Hubbard, F. Tracy, Cambridge. 

Huston, Miss Katharine W., Ja- 
maica Plain. 

Illenberger, Henry, Lake Geneva, 
Wisconsin. 

Jack, Dr. Frederick L., Boston. 
James, Robert Kent, Newton Cen- 
tre. 
Jameson, G. W., East Lexington. 
Johnston, Robert, Lexington. 

Keith, Mrs. Mary R., Washington, 

D. C. 
Kelsey, Harlan P., Salem. 
Kemp, William S., Brookline. 
Kennard, Frederic H., Brookline. 
Kimball, Richard D., Waban. 
Knott, N. W. T., Waban. 

Lancaster, Mrs. E. M., Roxbury. 
Lawson, Joshua, Brookline. 
Leuthy, A., Roslindale. 
Lewis, E. L., Taunton. 
Lincoln, Miss Agnes W., Medford. 



Lomax, George H., Somerville. 
Loring, Mrs. Thacher, Brookline. 
Loring, William C, Beverly. 
Lothrop, Thornton K., Boston. 
Low, Hon. Aaron, Hingham. 
Lumsden, David, Waverly. 

McLaren, Anthony, Westwood. 

MacMulkin, Edward, Boston. 

Manda, W. A., South Orange, N. J. 

Manning, A. Chandler, Reading. 

Meriam, Horatio C, D. M. D., Sa- 
lem. 

Metcalf, Dr. Ben H., Winthrop. 

Milman, William, Roxbury. 

Moody, Abner J., Lexington. 

Morgan, George M., Boston. 

Morrison, William, Dedham. 

Moseley, Frederick Strong, New- 
buryport. 

Munson, Prof. W. M., Orono, Me. 

Newton, John F., Roxbury. 
Nicholson, William, Framingham. 
Nicol, James, Quincy. 
Nixon, J. Arthur, Taunton. 
Norton, Michael H., Boston. 
Norton, Patrick, Dorchester. 

Oakes, F. L., Newton. 

Parker, Walter S., Reading. 
Pettigrew, John A., Jamaica Plain. 
Pierce, Mrs. F. A., Brookline. 
Pray, James Sturgis, Cambridge. 
Pritchard, John, Madbury, N. H. 
Purdie, George A., Ormond, Florida. 

Rea, Charles H., Norwood. 
Rea, Frederic J., Norwood. 
Rich, Miss Ruth G., Dorchester. 
Rich, William E. C, Roxbury. 
Richards, Mrs. P. D., West Med- 
ford. 
Robb, Peter B., Whitinsville. 
Robinson, Walter A., Arlington. 



ANNUAL MEMBERS. 



293 



Ross. Charles W., Xewtonville. 
Ross. Hemy Wilson. Xewtonville. 
Ross. Walter D.. Worcester. 

Sander, Charles. Brookline. 

Saunders. Miss Mary T.. Salem. 

Scott. Augustus E.. Lexington. 

Scudder. Samuel H.. Cambridge. 

Searles, E. F.. Methuen. 

Seaver. Edwin P.. Waban. 

Sedgwick. Mrs. Ellen*. Xew York. 
N. Y. 

Sharkey. John F.. Cambridge. 

Sharpies. Stephen P.. Cambridge. 

Shaw. Hon. Edward P.. Xewbury- 
port. 

Stevens. Mrs. Man- L.. Brookline. 

Stuart. James. Brookline. 

Swan. Charles W.. M. D.. Brook- 
line. 

Symmes. Samuel S.. Winchester. 

Tailby. Joseph. Wellesley. 
Teele. William H.. West Acton. 
Thorpe. Joseph. Taunton. 



Tingley, Mrs. Etta Fish. Green- 
wood. 
Tyndale. Theodore H.. Weymouth. 

Yaughan. J. C, Chicago. 111. 

Ware, Horace E.. Milton. 

Warren. Samuel H.. Weston. 

Waugh, Prof. F. A.. Amher>t. 

Welch. Patrick. Dorchester. 

West wood, Thomas H.. Jamaica 
Plain. 

Wheeler. Ezra H.. Dorchester. 

Wheeler. Henry A.. Xewtonville. 

Wheelwright, George William. Ja- 
maica Plain. 

White. Miss Margaret. Cambridge. 

Wilder, Miss Grace >.. Dorchester. 

Wilder. Miss Jemima R.. Dorches- 
ter. 

Wilkie, Edward A.. Xewtonville. 

Winter. William (.'.. Mansfield. 

Wood. Elijah A.. West Xewton. 

Wood. E. W West Xewton. 

Young. E. Bent ley. Boston.